2ProjectsA unique process, consisting of a set of coordinated and controlled activities with start and finish dates, undertaken to achieve an objective conforming to specific requirements including constraints of time, cost and resources.uniquespecific objectives (the project product)constraints (especially: limited time frame)
3Notes Projects may form parts of a larger project Project objectives and scope are updated and defined progressively as the project proceeds.Project product: it is defined in the project scope. One or more units, tangible or intangible.The project’s organisation is normally temporary.Complexity and interactions among project activities.
4Projects are connected to change management Usual business of the firmProjectsRoutines & regular tasksChanges(uncertainty)
5Common project elements Product specificationProject planTime frameBudgetCost planStatemet of quality requiredIdentification of areas of uncertaintyRisk management: evaluation & responses
6Collecting information Real timeFacilities needed to analyse the collected data
8Project managementProject management is the discipline of planning, organizing, and managing resources to bring about the successful completion of specific project goals and objectives.It is possible (and sometimes very efficient) to manage non-project processes as projects.
10Conception phase Idea of a new project InternalExternalDesirability (Does it fit the strategy and the mission?)Feasibility (costs, resources, schedule)Documentation: project (work) statementEnd of phase: formal authorization
11Conception phase: Feasibility evalutaion Capability to deliver the project product in timeFinal price of the productProject budgetSpecification of the productAbility to support the capital outlayAvailability of the items and services neededAcceptability of geographical and ecologicalAcceptability of any further contract conditions
12Development phaseAppointment of the project manager and the project management team. From now on the project manager is in control.A first phase Project Management Plan (PMP). It contains all plans for the project, but it is continuously changing.
13Realisation phase Turning the plans into reality. The project development and an appropriate reporting (monitoring) system are running simultaneously with the implementation process. A project log is needed.
14The project termination Closing the project and its activitiesKnowledge management tasks:Success of methods usedProject team performenceReliability of suppliersDisposing the residual capital and equipment.
15Project management maturity Project management development is an evolutionary process: every firm goes through nearly the same, step-by-step development process in their use of PM techniques.Different organizations are on different levels of sophistication in their best practices for managing projects.
19Simplified case studyThere is a family owned manufacturing company that produces spare parts for motorcycles in great volumes and built customised motorcycles, too, for order only, in a small number per year.Some of the produced spare parts are manufactured in nearly the same form for years and no significant change is estimated in the future.However, there are some goods, that are demanded only for shorter periods. In these cases the firm configures the manufacturing equipment, creates the wanted volume and disassembel the machinery after the market demand (and so the profitability) drops below a given level.The custombike building is organized in a form of job shops, because these are built one by one.The company has now the organizational design of a typical small enterprise with only one managerial unit for every function and problem. Because of the increasing production volumes (and revenues) they need to change the structure sooner or later. The plan is to separate the sparepart-making activities from the custombike building via creating two divisions with autonomous divisional heads. It is a great reorganization with many possible difficulties, that is why the owners hesitate when to start it.Are there a (reasonal) place for projects and project management in this company?