3DefinitionSupportability (Military) is the degree to which system design characteristics and planned logistics resources including manpower meet system (operational and wartime utilization) requirements.Supportability (general) develops in the design and maintains in the field equipment Reliability, Maintainability, and Availability characteristics by providing personnel, supply and support equipment at the right place at the right time.
4DefinitionSupportability (Commercial/Industrial) is commercial equivalents to “Resources, Operational”, etc.Key Words…Design CharacteristicsPlanned Logistics ResourcesOperational / Utilization RequirementsKey Goal…Meet all requirements in a safe,cost effective, and timely manner.
5DefinitionSupportability Assessment is an evaluation of how well the composite of support considerations necessary to achieve the economical and effective support of a system for its life cycle meets stated quantitative and qualitative requirements. This includes integrated logistics support and logistic support related O & S cost considerations.
6DefinitionSupportability Analysis (SA) is an iterative analytical process by which the logistic support necessary for a new (or modified) system is identified and evaluated. The SA constitutes the application of selected quantitative methods to:1. Aid in the initial determination of supportability design.2. Aid in various design alternatives.3. Aid in the various elements of maintenance.4. Aid in the final assessment of the system support.
7DefinitionSupportability Related Design Factors are factors which include only the effects of an item’s design. Examples include inherent reliability and maintainability values, testability values, transportability characteristics etc.Supportability Factors are qualitative and quantitative indicators of supportability.
8DefinitionIntegrated Logistic Support is a composite of all support considerations necessary to assure the effective and economical support of a system for its life cycle. It is an integral part of all other aspects of system acquisition and operation. Integrated logistics support is characterized by harmony and coherence among all logistics elements.
9Definition Design (Dictionary) To draw, lay out, or prepare a design To make a drawing, pattern or sketch ofTo create, fashion, execute or construct according to planDesign (Supportability): The practical application of the laws of nature to define an item that will perform an identified functionItem must be producibleItem must be supportable
10Definition The highest degree of supportability is achieved by 1. Including supportability as a consideration of the design process2. “Designing” and optimum set of support resources3. Timely delivery of the set of support resources
11Definition“I often say that when you can measure what you are speaking about and express it in numbers, you know something about it. But when you cannot express it in numbers, your knowledge is of a meager and unsatisfactory kind; it may be the beginning of knowledge, but you have scarcely, in your thoughts advanced to the state of science, whatever the matter may be.”Lord Kelvin
12Comments Traditional design is based on well defined laws Supportability is adequately definedThere are no “well defined laws” for supportabilityThe elements of supportability are adequately defined and quantifiedSupportability needs a Lord Kelvin to develop supportability dimensionsThese dimensions must be accepted by the entire community, producers and usersThese dimensions will most likely be functions of cost and readiness
13Supportability Requirements Military EquipmentMinimum DowntimeMinimum LCCIndustrial EquipmentConsumer Equipment
14Supportability Elements Supportability has three elements1. Support to design activityRequirements DevelopmentDesign InputEvaluation and Trade AnalysisResource IdentificationTest and Evaluation
15Supportability Elements Supportability has three elements2. Development of Support Resources (Products)Trained PersonnelSupport EquipmentSupply Support3. Fielding and Product Support
16Benefits of Design For Supportability System CharacteristicsInherent ReliabilityEasily Operable and MaintainableSupport System CharacteristicsAdequate Supply of Trained PersonnelMinimal / Low Cost Support EquipmentCapitalize Existing FacilitiesTransportable DesignAchieves Goals in:AvailabilityCost Effectiveness (LC and O & S)
18How to Consider in System Design Methods of IncorporationContract Scope of WorkManagement CommitmentDesigner CommitmentTester Commitment
19Supportability During Design ConceptualInitialFinalObjective:Minimum DowntimeMinimum LCC
20Supportability During Conceptual Design A system’s design establishes the basic requirement for support resourcesSupport is a design parameterSupport features must be included in the conceptual design
23Supportability During Conceptual Design Specialties and their qualificationsAll supportability specialtiesReliabilityMaintainabilityTestabilityILS ManagementLCC/Downtime/AvailabilityLSA/LSARAll support disciplines (Tech writing supply support etc.)
24Supportability During Conceptual Design All specialties must be experienced in operations and support and also experienced in designBaseline information and data requirementsOperation ScenarioNumber of operational sitesNumber of operational systemsLocation of operational sitesOperating hours per system per monthPlanned Operational Life
25Supportability During Conceptual Design Baseline information and data requirements (continue)Maintenance and Support ScenarioPlanned levels of maintenancePipeline timesContractor or customer organic maintenanceSkills availableWarranty RequirementsO & S data from previous similar systems
26Supportability During Conceptual Design ProcessIdentify design for support requirementsConfigurationReliabilityMaintainability and TestabilityDesign/Support TradesLife Cycle CostAvailability/DowntimeBaseline for estimates extrapolated from existing similar systems
27Supportability During Conceptual Design OutputsSupportable design that fulfills mission requirementsDocumented and justified VIA LCC and DowntimeIntegrated Support PlanAll preliminary supportability planningKeyed to design and fabrication schedulesKeyed to support resources need datesEstimate of cost to conduct supportability program
28Supportability During Initial Design Monitor decision to proceed/contract award for:Design changes that impact supportabilityOmissions/deletions of supportability elements/fundingUpdate ISP accordinglyPhase in specialties1. Reliability, Maintainability, LSA and LCC firstTo defend conceptual design supportability featuresTo pick up additional supportability featuresTo monitor design
29Supportability During Initial Design Phase in specialties (continue)2. LSARDevelop documented maintenance and support analysis of each repairable itemIdentification of all support resource requirements3. Support SpecialtiesDevelopment and delivery of support resources
31Supportability During Initial Design Integrated Logistics Support management team meetingsContinually review schedule and interfaceIdentify and resolve open issues and identified problemsUpdate ISPLSAR ReviewManufacture internal: all specialties review and accept each complete LSARUser: accept each LSAR and or LSA reports
32Supportability During Initial Design ScheduleCompleted LSAR requires released drawing and LSAR approvalProvisioning requires approved LSARTechnical manual preparation requires approved LSAR and completed provisioningTraining requires the technical manual
33Supportability During Initial Design Support resources are not always available to support testingContractor pre operational support is required, this includes:Contractor spare parts supportContractor personnel to support maintenance and supportContractor Depot
34Supportability During Initial Design Supportability TestMonitor all testing to observe performance of support resourcesUpdate LSAR/Support resource as requiredDevelop workarounds for support resources not available
35Supportability During Final Design Develop supportability design improvementsMonitor all design updatesEmphasize supportability for design updatesContinue ILSMTSUpdate:ISPLSARAll support resources
38Program Planning and Control MIL STD 1388101 Early Logistics Support StrategyConcept Phase ActivityRequired for Dem/Val Phase102 Logistics Support Analysis PlanGermain to LSA EffortLiving/Dynamic DocumentProgram CredibilityRisk Management Tool103 Program and Design ReviewsSynchronized with Design Review-Integral
39Determination of Support Resources Req. 401 Task Analysis: Allows for detailed analysis of proposed designs, including:Operational and Maintenance TasksLogistics Support ResourcesTraining Requirements & RecommendationsSupportability goal verification/justification for design changeRisk Management (Logistic Resources)Transportability AnalysisProvisioningValidation of Data and LSAR
40Determination of Support Resources Req. 402 Early Fielding AnalysisDetermines effects on other systems, manpower, readiness, survivability403 Post Production Support AnalysisPost production support planning
41Barriers to Supportability by Design Knowledge of ProgramFunding AvailableLack of Design Definition (“Catch 22”)Personality AttributesManagement CommitmentEngineering CommitmentFunding
42Barriers to Supportability by Design Speed of ProgramType and Scope of Technical Data (TM/TNG)Data Management (Volume of Data)Time for Resource Acquisition “Flash to Bang”
43Post Delivery Supportability The real test of supportabilitySupport resourcesThe validity of the maintenance/support conceptUpdates are usually requiredContinue ILSMTSMonitor support resources performanceOut of production supportPhase OutDevelop lessons learned
44Operational Software Supportability Digital Electronics has invaded all equipmentAutomobilesTelevision ReceiversMilitary and commercial equipmentDigital electronics requires instructions (prog.)Programs reside as software on the host equipment onDISCTapePromsEProms
45Operational Software Supportability Software updates are required to:Correct errorsAccommodate for mission changesAccommodate for design changesWithout software update capability, equipment could dieSoftware supportability, like hardware supportability must be planned from the outset otherwise updates can require complete redevelopment
46Operational Software Supportability Fleet users require organic capability to update their softwareThere are three key elements to software supportabilityDocumentationConfiguration controlCommon software toolsHigher order languageCompilerHost Computer
47Operational Software Supportability DOD instruction 2167 requiresAll of the key elementsA “computer resources integrates support document”
48Computer-aided Acquisition & Logistics Support Application of digital capabilities to design and data development for DoD equipmentCALS includesEngineering DrawingsAll reports and contract dataEquipment specificationsAll logistics data
49Computer-aided Acquisition & Logistics Support Data is interchanged and stored digitally assuring:Easy transmittalSimplified storageRapid updateImmediate accessPossibly the greatest advance since the printing press
50Conclusions and Recommendations This section has provided an overview of the activities related to supportabilitySupportability suffers from a dearth of the rigorous logic that has made the technical specialties so effectiveSupportability requires basic research to develop credible techniques based on its fundamental equation: R=e-lt
51Conclusions and Recommendations Supportability is a design parameter, each engineering student needs a basic course in logistics as a part of the undergraduate engineering curriculumEach logistician needs some basic understanding of the design process
52The System View Operational Concept Product Maintenance Support AvailabilitySortie Generation RatesBasingProductReliabilityMaintainabilitySupportabilityTestabilityMaintenanceConceptSupportConceptOrganizationRequirementsSchedule MaintenanceUnscheduled MaintenanceSparesTechnical PublicationsTrainingSupport Equipment
53Concept of a SystemA system is defined as an aggregation or assemblage of objects joined in some regular interaction or interdependence, principally dynamic with changes over time. Systems are generally characterized by Entities, Attributes, and Activities.ExamplesSystem Entities Attributes ActivitiesTraf. Flow Cars Speed, Dist. Driving, DelaysBank Op. Customers Balance, Depositing Credit Status WithdrawingComm. Message Length, TransmittingPriority Receiving
54Types of Availability Measures Inherent Availability,Achieved Availaiblity,Operational Availability,
55Types of Availability Measures Where:MTBF is the Mean Time Between FailuresMTTRc is the Mean Time To Repair: correctiveMTTRcp is the Mean Time To Repair: corrective/preventativeMLDT is the Mean Logistics Down Time
56System Time Relationships Insert graph: MIL-STD-721C
57System Supportability Analysis Supply Support Analysis
58Properties of the Poisson Distribution 1. The number of outcomes occurring in one timeinterval or specified region is independent of thenumber that occurs in any other disjoint timeinterval or region of space. In this way we say thatthe Poisson process has no memory.2. The probability that a single outcome will occurduring a very short time interval or in a small regionis proportional to the length of the time interval orthe size of the region and does not depend on thenumber of outcomes occurring outside this timeinterval or region.
59Properties of the Poisson Distribution 3. The probability that more than one outcome willoccur in such a short time interval or fall in such asmall region is negligible.
60Poisson DistributionDefinition - If X is the number of outcomes occurringduring a Poisson experiment, then X has a Poissondistribution with probability mass functionwhere is the average number of outcomes perunit time, t is the time interval and e =
61Poisson DistributionMean or Expected ValueVariance and Standard Deviation of X
62Poisson Distribution - Example When a company tests new tires by driving themover difficult terrain, they find that flat tiresexternally caused occur on the average of onceevery 2000 miles. It is found also that the Poissonprocess yields a useful model. What is the probabilitythat in a given 500 mile test no more than one flatwill occur?
63Poisson Distribution - Example Solution Here the variable t is distance, and the randomvariable of interest isX = number of flats in 500 milesSince E(X) is proportional to the time interval involvedin the definition of X, and since the average is givenas one flat is 2000 miles, we have
64Poisson Distribution - Example Solution The values assigned to and t depend on the unitof distance adopted. If we take one mile as the unit,then t = 500, = , and t = 1/4. If we take1000 miles as the unit, then t = 1/2, = 1/2, andagain t = 1/4, and so on. The important thing isthat t = 1/4, no matter what unit is chosen.
66Number of Failures Model: DefinitionIf T ~ E() and if X is the number of failures occurringin an interval of time, t, then X ~ P(t/ ), the PoissonDistribution with Probability Mass Function given by:for x = 0, 1, ... , nWhere = 1/ is the Failure RateThe expected number of failures in time t is = t = t/
71The Poisson Model - Example Application: Problem -An item has a failure rate of = failures perhour if the item is being put into service for a periodof 1000 hours. What is the probability that 4 sparesin stock will be sufficient?Solution -Expected number of failures (spares required) = t = 2P(enough spares) = P(x 4)= p(0) + p(1) + p(2) + p(3) + p(4) = 0.945or about a 5% chance of not having enough spares!