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Operation and Maintenance of Rural Water Supply Facilities in Sub-Saharan Africa For Public Relations 1.

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Presentation on theme: "Operation and Maintenance of Rural Water Supply Facilities in Sub-Saharan Africa For Public Relations 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 Operation and Maintenance of Rural Water Supply Facilities in Sub-Saharan Africa For Public Relations 1

2 Operation and Maintenance of Rural Water Supply Facilities in Sub-Saharan Africa For Public Relations 2

3 Mtuwara District, Tanzania Murama TA, Rwanda Adoption of Appropriate Technologies Rural Water Supply Project in Sub-Saharan Africa For rural water supply in developing countries, adoption of appropriate technologies with the following advantages compared to the current technologies is expected. Suitable to the local conditions Use of the locally available resources Limited initial investment, and possible fast diffusion with a small budget Low cost on O & M, and high sustainability Problems in current technologies Costly mechanical borehole drilling (especially for shallow groundwater) Many hand pump types are repairable on community level but setting up of a spare parts supply chain is difficult due to the unproductiveness of the work in many countries and the need to import spare parts and consumables. Operation and maintenance of a treatment plant with rapid filtration is costly because of needs for chemicals and skilled operators for appropriate adjustment. 3

4 Adoption of Appropriate Technologies – Promotion of Rope Pump with Improved Traditional Well 4 Ethiopia: Water Sector Capacity Improvement Project in SNNP State Characteristics Prevention of water contamination Low production, setting up and repair costs Easy manufacture, construction and maintenance Materials from users own backyards Practicable coupling with traditional well Technical Issues Inefficient for deep wells Limited discharge; suitable for around 100 users or less Difficult quality control against counterfeit

5 Slow sand filtration : treatment system of low cost and easy operation Through this project, approximately 11,000 people are benefited with safe water supply. The development of Slow Sand Filtration System to the other towns is being planned. This way of switching purification system is considered to be a national standard for rehabilitation of town water supply system. 5 Sierra Leone: Project for Improvement of Water Supply System in Kambia District Skilled operators and constant dosing of chemicals are required Rapid Sand Filtration System Acceptable Water Quality Adoption of Appropriate Technologies - Treatment with Slow Sand Filtration - Destroyed during the Civil War Slow Sand Filtration System Easy O&M Low cost treatment Sustainable under New Local Government Slow Sand Filtration Pond and Pump House, Rokpur Treatment Plant

6 Need for Water Rate System to Spread Rural Water Supply Project in Sub-Saharan Africa Need for Water Rate System to Spread Rural Water Supply Project in Sub-Saharan Africa Cost Recovery as a Rule – Users Responsibility to Bear the O & M Cost - For Hand pumps: costs for replacement of parts, repair of breakdown, renewal of hand pump, etc. - For Piped Water System: operation cost (power/fuel, repair), personnel cost Delay of fee collection causes stoppage of water supply, and this situation Makes users return to previous, unsafe and far water sources; Leads to health problems, such as an outbreak of cholera; and Deprive the opportunities of productive activities and schooling due to the needs to fetch water from a distant source. Why water rate is not firmly established? No awareness of the necessity to pay on the part of the people Mistrust on fee collection and financial management 6 Projects towards: Motivation to pay for water Enhancement of management capacity

7 7 Motivation to Pay Water Fee with Hygiene Education Intelligible hygiene education with picture-story in local language (Senegal) 7 Improve Users Hygiene Consciousness Encourage Willingness to Pay for O & M Improve Sustainability of O & M Conduct Hygiene Education for Users Development of educational tools and sharing them with other donors – picture story in local languages - Making the community aware of the importance of paying for the use of facility through a trial calculation of economic losses, such as the cost of medical treatment as a result of drinking unsafe water. Spreading Water Rate System Senegal: Project for Safe Drinking Water and Community Activities (PEPTAC)

8 Capacity Development for Financial Management Tap managers collect water fee by the container at the public taps Training for Treasurers Setting RateFee Collection Financial Management / Investment Users Independent O & M Capacity Development of Tap Manager for Reliable fee collection Periodic money transfer with reporting Capacity Development of treasures in Water Users Associations Controlling Water Supply Cost Smooth and Transparent Fee Collection Reliable Financial Management - Keeping records and evidences of payment following the manual for bookkeeping - Reporting monthly Collected money is regularly transferred on the fixed day of a week 8 Spreading Water Rate System Rwanda: Project for Improvement of Water and Sanitation in Eastern Province (PURA-SANI)

9 Operation & Maintenance of Borehole with hand pump Why it has not been sustainable? No repair technician nearby No outlet of spare parts available near the users No support from the government for isolated villages Limited government capacity to support communities Capacity Building of Local Mechanics Training, keeping and improvement of technical skills Monitoring of the tool kit leasing system to prevent worn-out or losing tools Setting up Spare Parts Supply Chain Training and establishment of outlets Improved sustainability through the provision of seed stock to create the revolving fund Strengthening Cooperation among Local Government, Communities and Local Mechanics Qualification and validation of technical skills and performance Proactive Approaches in JICAs Projects 9 Maintenance of Hand Pumps Rural Water Supply Project in Sub-Saharan Africa Maintenance of Hand Pumps Rural Water Supply Project in Sub-Saharan Africa

10 Spare Parts Supply Chain Spare Parts Wholesaler PROJECT (SOMAP) Seed Stock Sensitisation Spare Parts Outlets (Commercial Utilities for Town Water Supply or District Offices) Community Parts Spare Parts Outlet established under SOMAP Project (Mumbwa, Zambia) Establishment of Spare Parts Supply Chain Set up spare parts outlets at Commercial Utilities for the rural town water supply Provision of seed stock parts to create the revolving fund 10 Project for the Sustainable Operation and Maintenance for Rural Water Supply (SOMAP) The Project has wholly supported the O & M component of the National Rural Water Supply Programme, developed Guidelines and a Manual, and demonstrated their effectiveness in Zambia. Maintenance of Hand Pumps Revolving Fund Parts Payment

11 PROJECT (SOMAP) Sensitisation Training /Orientation Training Community Area Development Committee (A D C) District Council Area Pump Mender (APM) Repair Lending Tool Kit Report on Repair Training of Mechanics and Monitoring Their Performances through Tools Lending System 11 Issues on Area Pump Menders Keeping the necessary technical level Wear and tear or loss of repair tools makes the repair work impossible Introducing New Management System and Training under the Project Lending tool kits to area pump menders from the storage at the Area Health Center. Monitoring their performance through submitted records. Development of the SOMAP Model, which combines the repair work with a spare parts supply chain. Project for the Sustainable Operation and Maintenance for Rural Water Supply (SOMAP) Maintenance of Hand Pumps

12 Licensing to Trained Pump Mechanics Training of Mechanics ID Card for Licensed Mechanic Mechanic District / Region Community Three Way Agreement Report Repair Proper Perform ance? Allocation of mechanics based on the community list Validity: 1 year Extension of Validity: 2 years Re-training / Cancellation Yes No 12 Project for Promotion of Sustainability in Rural Water Supply, Hygiene and Sanitation in Zambezia Province, Mozambique Issuance of licenses carrying a validity period to mechanics Extension of license or re-training based on the evaluated performance Coordination among LGAs (District/ Region), communities and mechanics (Three-way Agreement) Improvement of skills of mechanics Enhancement of the O & M system and improvement of the monitoring capacity of LGAs (District / Region)


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