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Operation and Maintenance of Rural Water Supply Facilities in Sub-Saharan Africa For Public Relations.

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Presentation on theme: "Operation and Maintenance of Rural Water Supply Facilities in Sub-Saharan Africa For Public Relations."— Presentation transcript:

1 Operation and Maintenance of Rural Water Supply Facilities in Sub-Saharan Africa
For Public Relations

2 Operation and Maintenance of Rural Water Supply Facilities in Sub-Saharan Africa
For Public Relations

3 Adoption of Appropriate Technologies Rural Water Supply Project in Sub-Saharan Africa
Problems in current technologies Costly mechanical borehole drilling (especially for shallow groundwater)    Many hand pump types are repairable on community level but setting up of a spare parts supply chain is difficult due to the unproductiveness of the work in many countries and the need to import spare parts and consumables. Operation and maintenance of a treatment plant with rapid filtration is costly because of needs for chemicals and skilled operators for appropriate adjustment. Murama TA, Rwanda For rural water supply in developing countries, adoption of “appropriate technologies” with the following advantages compared to the current technologies is expected. ・ Suitable to the local conditions ・ Use of the locally available resources ・ Limited initial investment, and possible fast diffusion with a small budget ・ Low cost on O & M, and high sustainability Mtuwara District, Tanzania 3

4 Adoption of Appropriate Technologies
– Promotion of Rope Pump with Improved Traditional Well Ethiopia: Water Sector Capacity Improvement Project in SNNP State Characteristics Prevention of water contamination Low production, setting up and repair costs Easy manufacture, construction and maintenance Materials from users’ own backyards Practicable coupling with traditional well Technical Issues Inefficient for deep wells Limited discharge; suitable for around 100 users or less Difficult quality control against counterfeit The national programme supports the effective combination of rope pumps and improved hand-dug wells. There are several reasons for the autonomous spread of this combination in rural areas:  the system can be created using widely available materials (second-hand bicycle components, PVC pipes and others) and local skills (well digging, welding and others),  the cost-benefit performance is high because of the low construction and production costs and  the maintenance cost is low and repairs can be conducted using locally available skills. Suitable areas are those where a steady supply of safe groundwater can be secured at a shallow depth, providing a sustainable water resource for a small community. The JICA is assisting the diffusion of this system by means of  training of local well diggers and metalworkers,  training of extension workers at water offices and  demonstrating the system to raise the level of system recognition and the local demand for the system. 4

5 “Slow Sand Filtration System”
Adoption of Appropriate Technologies - Treatment with Slow Sand Filtration - Slow sand filtration : treatment system of low cost and easy operation  Sierra Leone: Project for Improvement of Water Supply System in Kambia District Rapid Sand Filtration System Skilled operators and constant dosing of chemicals are required Destroyed during the Civil War “Slow Sand Filtration System” Easy O&M Low cost treatment Sustainable under New Local Government Acceptable Water Quality In this project in the Kambia District in Sierra Leone, rapid sand filtration systems which were destroyed during the civil war are being replaced by slow sand filtration systems based on a careful study on water resources. Using the new economical systems which are also easy to operate and maintain, a new O & M system run by the district authority has been established under the decentralisation policy. Through this project, approximately 11,000 people are benefited with safe water supply. The development of Slow Sand Filtration System to the other towns is being planned. This way of switching purification system is considered to be a national standard for rehabilitation of town water supply system. Slow Sand Filtration Pond and Pump House, Rokpur Treatment Plant 5

6 Rural Water Supply Project in Sub-Saharan Africa
    Need for Water Rate System to Spread Rural Water Supply Project in Sub-Saharan Africa Cost Recovery as a Rule – Users’ Responsibility to Bear the O & M Cost For Hand pumps: costs for replacement of parts, repair of breakdown, renewal of hand pump, etc. For Piped Water System: operation cost (power/fuel, repair), personnel cost Delay of fee collection causes stoppage of water supply, and this situation → Makes users return to previous, unsafe and far water sources; → Leads to health problems, such as an outbreak of cholera; and → Deprive the opportunities of productive activities and schooling due to the needs to fetch water from a distant source. Why water rate is not firmly established? No awareness of the necessity to pay on the part of the people  Mistrust on fee collection and financial management Projects towards: Motivation to pay for water Enhancement of management capacity 6

7 Motivation to Pay Water Fee with Hygiene Education
Spreading Water Rate System Motivation to Pay Water Fee with Hygiene Education Senegal: Project for Safe Drinking Water and Community Activities (PEPTAC) Improve Sustainability of O & M Encourage Willingness to Pay for O & M Improve Users’ Hygiene Consciousness Conduct Hygiene Education for Users Intelligible hygiene education with picture-story in local language (Senegal) Development of educational tools and sharing them with other donors – picture story in local languages - The JICA adopts the basic policy concept that as an increased awareness of hygiene has the effect of promoting the use of newly constructed water supply facilities and payment of the water fee to cover the O & M cost, it is an important factor to achieve the sustainable O & M of water supply facilities. Based on this concept, the JICA incorporates hygiene education in awareness raising activities targeting water users. In the PEPTAC in Senegal, educational tools, such as a picture-story using local languages, have been developed and offered to other donors. As part of the awareness raising, the trial calculation of economic loss, such as the cost of medical treatment resulting from drinking unsafe water, was jointly conducted with the community to make the community aware of the importance of paying for the use of the facility, motivating local people to pay the water fee. Making the community aware of the importance of paying for the use of facility through a trial calculation of economic losses, such as the cost of medical treatment as a result of drinking unsafe water. 7

8 Spreading Water Rate System
Capacity Development for Financial Management Rwanda: Project for Improvement of Water and Sanitation in Eastern Province (PURA-SANI) Setting Rate Fee Collection Financial Management / Investment Capacity Development of Tap Manager for Reliable fee collection Periodic money transfer with reporting Users’ Independent O & M Capacity Development of treasures in Water Users’ Associations Controlling Water Supply Cost Smooth and Transparent Fee Collection Training for Treasurers Tap managers collect water fee by the container at the public taps  Reliable Financial Management - Keeping records and evidences of payment following the manual for bookkeeping - Reporting monthly Collected money is regularly transferred on the fixed day of a week 8

9 Maintenance of Hand Pumps
Rural Water Supply Project in Sub-Saharan Africa Proactive Approaches in JICA’s Projects Operation & Maintenance of Borehole with hand pump Why it has not been sustainable? No repair technician nearby No outlet of spare parts available near the users No support from the government for isolated villages Limited government capacity to support communities Capacity Building of Local Mechanics Training, keeping and improvement of technical skills Monitoring of the tool kit leasing system to prevent worn-out or losing tools Setting up Spare Parts Supply Chain Training and establishment of outlets Improved sustainability through the provision of seed stock to create the revolving fund Strengthening Cooperation among Local Government, Communities and Local Mechanics Qualification and validation of technical skills and performance 9

10 Spare Parts Supply Chain
Maintenance of Hand Pumps Project for the Sustainable Operation and Maintenance for Rural Water Supply (SOMAP) The Project has wholly supported the O & M component of the National Rural Water Supply Programme , developed Guidelines and a Manual, and demonstrated their effectiveness in Zambia. Spare Parts Supply Chain   Establishment of Spare Parts Supply Chain Set up spare parts outlets at Commercial Utilities for the rural town water supply Provision of seed stock parts to create the revolving    fund ④Pay ⑤Parts   Revolving Fund    Parts    :Payment Spare Parts Wholesaler In Zambia, the SOMAP has wholly supported the O & M component of the National Rural Water Supply Programme, developed the Guidelines and a Manual and demonstrated their effectiveness using a model O & M system. For the establishment of a spare parts supply chain, commercial utilities (water providers) in rural towns were used as spare parts outlets and seed stock parts were provided to create a revolving fund. Community Spare Parts Outlets (Commercial Utilities for Town Water Supply or District Offices) PROJECT (SOMAP) Seed Stock Sensitisation Spare Parts Outlet established under SOMAP Project (Mumbwa, Zambia) 10

11 Introducing New Management System and Training under the Project
Maintenance of Hand Pumps Training of Mechanics and Monitoring Their Performances through Tools Lending System Project for the Sustainable Operation and Maintenance for Rural Water Supply (SOMAP) Introducing New Management System and Training under the Project  Lending tool kits to area pump menders from the storage at the Area Health Center. Monitoring their performance through submitted records.   Development of the SOMAP Model, which combines the repair work with a spare parts supply chain. Issues on Area Pump Menders  Keeping the necessary technical level  Wear and tear or loss of repair tools makes the repair work impossible Report on Repair Lending Tool Kit Area Pump Mender (APM) Repair To solve the problem of inability to conduct repair work due to the wear and tear or loss of repair tools, a system of lending repair tool kits by Area Health Centers to area pump menders has been introduced. The repair skills of these menders is being monitored by checking the repair records submitted by menders.  It is hoped that the SOMAP model unifying the spare parts supply chain and management of area pump menders and their work will spread nationwide through a national programme to enhance the sustainability of hand pumps. Community Area Development Committee (A D C) District Council PROJECT (SOMAP) Sensitisation Training /Orientation Training 11

12 ID Card for Licensed Mechanic
Licensing to Trained Pump Mechanics Project for Promotion of Sustainability in Rural Water Supply, Hygiene and Sanitation in Zambezia Province, Mozambique Re-training / Cancellation District / Region Report No Training of Mechanics ID Card for Licensed Mechanic Proper Performance? Mechanic Three Way Agreement Community Repair Yes Validity: 1 year Allocation of mechanics based on the community list Extension of Validity: 2 years <System>  Issuance of licenses carrying a validity period to mechanics  Extension of license or re-training based on the evaluated performance  Coordination among LGAs (District/ Region), communities and mechanics (Three-way Agreement) <Performance>  Improvement of skills of mechanics  Enhancement of the O & M system and improvement of the monitoring capacity of LGAs (District / Region) In this project in Zambezia Province in Mozambique, an ID card or qualification certificate carrying a validity period is issued to each mechanic who has completed the pump mechanics training course. Based on an agreement involving LGAs, communities and mechanics, a system has been developed where qualified mechanics are allocated to specified areas and their skills are maintained based on evaluation of past repair work at the time of license renewal. This system is designed to improve the capacity of not only mechanics but also LGAs in terms of their own O & M and monitoring systems for hand pumps. 12

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