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Chapter 18 Vocabulary Civil Liberties

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1 Chapter 18 Vocabulary Civil Liberties
Created By: Britany Stergos!

2 Clear-and-present-danger test
A legal interpretation that reconciled two views of the First Amendment right of free speech, the first that Congress could not pass any law to restrict speech and the second that it could punish harms caused by speech. Proposed by Supreme Court justice Oliver Wendell Holmes in1919, it held that Congress could punish only speech that created a “clear and present danger” of bringing about the actions that Congress is authorized to prevent.

3 Communist Control Act 1954 Legislation that outlawed the Communist Party of the United States and prohibited communists from being an official of any labor organization.

4 Due Process Clause of 14th Amendment
the principle that the government must respect all of a person's legal rights instead of just some or most of those legal rights when the government deprives a person of life, liberty, or property. Due process has also been frequently interpreted as placing limitations laws and legal proceedings, in order for judges instead of legislators to guarantee fundamental fairness, justice, and liberty.

5 Espionage and Sedition Acts
Espionage Act: 1917, made it a crime for a person to convey information with intent to interfere with the operation or success of the armed forces of the United States or to promote the success of its enemies.

6 Continued: Sedition Act:
The passing of this act forbade Americans to use "disloyal, profane, scurrilous, or abusive language" about the United States government, flag, or armed forces during war. The act also allowed the Postmaster General to deny mail delivery to dissenters of government policy during wartime.

7 Establishment Clause From first amendment, generally been interpreted to prohibit 1) the establishment of a national religion by Congress, or 2) the preference of one religion over another or the support of a religious idea with no identifiable secular purpose.

8 Exclusionary rule of freedom of expression
A rule that hold evidence gathered in violation of the Constitution cannot be used in trial.

9 Freedom of Religion is the freedom of an individual or community, in public or private, to manifest religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship, and observance. It is generally recognized to also include the freedom to change religion or to not follow any religion.

10 Free Exercise Clause is the accompanying clause with the Establishment Clause of the first amendment. It reads: “Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof.

11 Good Faith Exception Giving the police greater freedom to their investigating because they are authority figures.

12 Hate Crime a crime that violates the victim's civil rights and that is motivated by hostility to the victim's race, religion, creed, national origin, sexual orientation, or gender

13 Internal Security Act 1950 is a law that required the registration of Communist organizations with the Attorney General in the United States and established the Subversive Activities Control Board to investigate persons thought to be engaged in "un-American" activities, including homosexuals. Members of these groups could not become citizens, and in some cases, were prevented from entering or leaving the country. Citizen-members could be denaturalized in five years.

14 Libel defamation by written or printed words, pictures, or in any form other than by spoken words or gestures.

15 McCarthyism the practice of making accusations of disloyalty, esp. of pro-Communist activity, in many instances unsupported by proof or based on slight, doubtful, or irrelevant evidence.

16 Obscenity the character or quality of being obscene; indecency; lewdness. an obscene word or expression, esp. when used as an invective.

17 a court order banning publication of unpublished material.
Prior Restraint a court order banning publication of unpublished material.

18 Probable Cause Also see “Search warrant”
When police have a persuadable reason [to a judge] to search without a real warrant to find evidence.

19 Public Figure   A famous person whose life and behavior are the focus of intense public interest and scrutiny.

20 Search Warrant An order from a judge authorizing the search of a place; the order must describe what is to be searched and seized, and the judge can issue it only if he or she is persuaded by the police that good reason (probable cause) exists that a crime has been committed and that the evidence bearing on the crime will be found at a certain location.

21 Sedition Act Sedition Act of 1918" was an amendment to the Espionage Act of 1917 passed at the urging of President Wilson, who was concerned that dissent, in time of war, was a significant threat to morale. The passing of this act forbade Americans to use "disloyal, profane, scurrilous, or abusive language" about the US Government, flag, or armed forces during war. The act also allowed the Postmaster General to deny mail delivery to dissenters of government policy during wartime.

22 Smith Act is a federal statute that makes it a criminal offense for anyone to knowingly or willfully advocate, abet, advise or teach the duty, necessity, desirability or propriety of overthrowing the Government of the United States or of any State by force or violence, or for anyone to organize any association which teaches, advises or encourages such an overthrow, or for anyone to become a member of or to affiliate with any such association.

23 Symbolic Speech An act that conveys a political message, such as burning a draft card to protest the draft.

24 Wall of separation principle
A Supreme Court interpretation of the establishment clause in the First Amendment that prevents government involvement with religion, even on a non-preferential basis.

25 Affirmative action The requirement, imposed by law or administrative regulation, that an organization (business firm, government agency, labor union, school, or college) take positive steps to increase the number or proportion of women, African Americans, or other minorities in its membership.

26 Alien a resident born in or belonging to another country who has not acquired citizenship by; a foreigner.

27 Brown v Board of Education
Handed down on May 17,1954, the Warren Court's unanimous (9-0) decision stated that "separate educational facilities are inherently unequal." As a result, dejure racial segregation was ruled a violation of the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment.

28 Civil Rights Act of 1964 was a landmark legislation that outlawed segregation in the US schools and public places.

29 Compensatory action An action designed to help members of disadvantage groups, especially minorities and women, catch up, usually by giving them extra education training, or services.

30 De facto segregation segregation (especially in schools) that happens in fact although not required by law

31 segregation that is imposed by law
De jure segregation segregation that is imposed by law

32 Equality of opportunity
situation in which every person has an equal chance, especially in areas such as education, employment and political participation.

33 Equality of results to reduce or eliminate differences in material condition between individuals or households in a society. This usually means equalizing income and/or total wealth to a certain degree.

34 Fourteenth Amendment first intended to secure rights for former slaves. It includes the due process and equal protection clauses among others.

35 Hyde Amendment is a provision barring the use of federal funds to pay for abortions for low-income women, first passed by Congress in It was so named because its chief sponsor was Republican Congressman Henry Hyde of Illinois. The measure was introduced in response to the Supreme Court’s 1973 Roe v Wade decision legalizing abortion, and represented the first major legislative success by abortion opponents in the US.

36 Jim Crow a practice or policy of segregating or discriminating against blacks, as in public places, public vehicles, or employment.

37 National Association for the Advancement of Colored People.
NAACP National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. is one of the oldest and most influential civil rights organizations in the US.

38 Non-violent civil disobedience
is the active refusal to obey certain laws, demands and commands of a government, or of an occupying power, without resorting to physical violence.

39 Plessy v Ferguson was a landmark Supreme Court decision in the jurisprudence [study of the law] of the US, upholding the constitutionality of racial segregation even in public accommodations (particularly railroads), under the doctrine of “separate but equal".

40 Preferential treatment
To give preference to one class of workers or applicants over another class of workers or applicants because of their disability, sex or race. Most often used as it relates to affirmative action efforts to bring about parity.

41 Reverse discrimination
Discrimination against a privileged group in order to correct previous discrimination against a disadvantaged group. The accusation of ‘reverse discrimination’ is often directed against those favoring equity programs or affirmative action programs.

42 Roe v Wade Supreme Court case that resulted in a landmark decision regarding abortion. According to the Roe decision, most laws against abortion in the US violated a constitutional right to privacy under the Due Process Clause of the 14th Amendment. The decision overturned all state and federal laws outlawing or restricting abortion that were inconsistent with its holdings.

43 Rostker v Goldberg was a decision of the Supreme Court holding that the Congress could require the Selective Service system to adopt a policy of requiring only men to register for the draft.

44 Separate but Equal Doctrine
is a set phrase denoting the system of segregation that justifies giving different groups of people separate facilities or services with the declaration that the quality of each group's public facilities remain equal.

45 Strict Scrutiny the highest level of judicial scrutiny that is applied esp. to a law that allegedly violates equal protection in order to determine if it is narrowly tailored to serve a compelling state interest

46 Suspect Classifications
a classification of groups which meet a series of criteria suggesting they are likely the subject of discrimination.

47 Swann v Charlotte-Mecklenburg
was an important Supreme Court case dealing with the busing of students to promote integration in public schools.

48 White Flight the movement of whites, esp. middle-class whites, from neighborhoods undergoing racial integration.

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