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The World State The Revolution Continues By Pedro Muniz Leaflet.

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1 The World State The Revolution Continues By Pedro Muniz Leaflet

2 A New Organizational Era Adapted from a newspaper article from Diário de Pernambuco, 22nd May 2007, page A9), by León Costa.

3 The endemic, century long, world crisis is now the biggest and most serious of all times. And it can get even worse. More than 7,0 billion people, 4 billion of those, destitute – soon, may be 6 or 8 billion. War, crime, environmental degradation, energy crisis. It is a huge genocide which kills 120 million children in a decade – more than 1 billion in 50 years. On the other hand, the G7. The 7 richest countries in the world alone dominate 62% of the world economy, leaving 38% for the other 184 countries to die amongst themselves. Their 500 largest companies dominate none less than 48% of this market. The most perverse structure since the European empires. A brave denouncement, neo-imperialism of the rich countries. In the very Global Village! In 2005 the World produced US$58 trillion. Maybe 100 or 150 trillion in 10 to 20 years. Who will manage this amazing economy? The bankrupt national and international structures of today? Those who cause the problems that populate the governments of the whole planet, from Bush to Ahmadinejad, from Blair to Akihito, from Chávez to Putin? The bad national and international organization already causes the most incredible waste. Excessive military expenditure consume US$800 billion a year. Corruption wastes another US$1,6 trillion. In 50 years, they will together devour US$280 trillion – or 20 times the IGP of the USA, the biggest world power.

4 The amount of the waste of only one year would be sufficient to solve ALL of the world problems and develop ALL countries! It is no use to just change government every 4 or 5 years. It is impossible to govern today with old political structures. The crisis is in the organization of the peoples: - obsolete. The only solution: the organizational evolution of the State, of the international order and the economic systems. A new world political and economic order. It is impossible to keep the oppressive political and economic architectures of the past. The national State can already evolve from Three Powers to five, seven or more deconcentrated powers. From a disintegrated Federation to an integrated one. From an Indirect Democracy, in which the people is only worth at the time they are voting, to a Systemic Democracy, which involves all the parts of the State of their daily affairs. From individualistic or charismatic (or idiotic?) heads of State to collegial, congressional or chamber governments. From corruption and administrative chaos, to a modern and efficient regimens of public management. New State designs will soon appear. The International Order has become fragile and timid, but it moves towards a new order. A World State which is being formed since the 19th century has grown in the 20th century with the UN and hundred of international organizations and it becomes irresistible in the 21th century.

5 Cease all that the ancient muse sings, for other higher merit has arisen. Cease all that the ancient muse sings, for other higher merit has arisen.(Camões, in Os Lusíadas). New organizational profiles can and should be created thanks to the evolutions of management and the 20th century technologies. State theoreticians, political scientists, sociologists, economists, philosophers and heads of state, even students, can and should create new kinds of State and a new World Order. You too can create one. Take part! We can believe in it!

6 The Theoretical Basis

7 Plato and Aristotle (Antiquity) Bacon, Descartes, Rousseau and Jefferson (16 th, 17 th and 18 th centuries) Darwin, Marx and Lincoln (19 th century) Weber, Bertalanffy and McLuhan (20 th century)

8 Geniuses, Theories and Revolutions It was more than 30 years of research. Since 1970, when the author became enthusiastic by the theory of Marshall McLuhan – the masterly study of technological media and their effects on society. In it, he discovers the great implications for the evolution of world politics. In the late 1960's, while studying Medicine, he deepens his contact with the theories of Darwin and his works The Evolution of Species and The Evolution of Man. A first evolutionist passion amidst several worries: dictatorship in Brazil, the Vietnam war, the nuclear race of the superpowers, worsening of world poverty. Muniz constantly repeated to his study colleagues, The evolutionist theory of Darwin must be applied to global politics. It cannot continue so behind. While in the course of Sociology, in the early 1970's, he absolves the analyses of Marx on the evolution of societies and those of Weber in his structuralist approach. Two valuable scientific tools for political analysis. It was necessary to apply Darwin, Marx and McLuhan to politics, the rich evolutionist concept to politics, in a single manner, innovative. It would be necessary a new conceptual revolution. New concepts of political and organizational evolution for the people. Next, in Law School, the author searches for legal tools for an analysis of the State: the concepts of the General Theory of the State, Constitutional Law, Political Science and International Law.

9 The theoretical basis for the political aspects were sought in Antiquity, in the works of Plato and Aristotle, and in the Modern Age, mainly in the work of Rousseau on Democracy. And strongly in Jefferson, in his valuable vision on the need of continuous evolution of the forms of government. Muniz rescues this vision, unfortunately unknown or overseen, and applies it in his studies. He adopts the unmatchable concept by Lincoln on Democracy, so forgotten, but so up-to- date. In all, the decisive influence of Descartes, through his methodological skepticism, the systematic doubt for the advancement of sciences, which Muniz uses in extremis with many questions: -If the Economy has become global, should we not also need a global government? -Are political organizations from previous centuries fit to manage the mega societies and mega economy of today? -Is parliamentarianism, of feudal roots, adequate for the 21 st century? -Are the three powers, of the 18 th century, adequate for the nuclear age and the space conquest? -Is indirect democracy, from time of the horse cart, adequate for the Global Village of instant communication – TV, radio, telephone, computers, the Internet and satellites around the planet? The logics of Aristotle and Bacon (the father of modern science) provides the logical answers: THE COMTEMPORARY WORLD NEEDS CONTEMPORARY POLITICAL ORGANIZATIONS.

10 IT NEEDS NEW FORMS OF STATE AND GOVERNMENT. IT NEEDS A NEW WORLD ORDER.. The theoretical basis also incorporates concepts from cybernetics, from Organizational Contingency and Development. The General Systems Theory of Bertalanffy, gives support the approach that Muniz adopts of the State as a global profile, that is, a system, but of an organizational nature. The theoretical convergence comes about in the critical works on the State and Institutional Order: The Post- Modern State and The World State.

11 The Research

12 The School of Medicine at UPE and Rua Senador Dantas [Senador Dantas Street], the place of the old headquarters of the ONU-OENG, Rio de Janeiro. The Law School of Recife (UFPE), from two views. The old and the new headquarters of Diário de Pernambuco [Pernambuco Daily], the oldest newspaper in circulation in Latin America.

13 The Old Organization versus the New Reality The research took over 30 years. Besides over a thousand books in the specific field of study, more than 20 thousand cut-outs from Brazilian and foreign newspaper and magazines were collected, including reports, news, analyses and scientific articles. A unique collection which, in 2006, makes the newspaper Diário de Pernambuco write an article about it. Without this support, mainly from Diário de Pernambuco, who opened his archives and made available information from a period of almost two centuries, Muniz admits this research would be impossible. The collection was considerably enlarged from the 1990's with the Internet. It is now possible to access the main newspapers in the world. The access to global information becomes infinite from resources such as the search engine Google and the virtual encyclopedia Wikipedia. Invaluable tools, any information is available on the monitor screen in a fraction of a second. It is also possible to have access to the archives of organizations such as the UN, its specialized agencies, the IMF and the World Bank; national governments, central banks and universities; transnational enterprises; important foundations, institutes and NGOs, such as SIPRI and Greenpeace, among others. The methodology used was precisely this: to contrast and compare the theories and doctrines which are in the books about the State and its organizations, with the practical reality of the people.

14 The logics of Aristotle and Bacon and the methodological doubt of Descartes are the basis of the process. When it is said that the Federation, the three powers and the Presidentialism are efficient for the management of people, the Doubt imposes: is it TRUE? When it says that the Representative Regime realizes Democracy, does it do that? Or does it generate oppression? From the studies of Darwin, Marx and McLuhan, in different fields, Muniz considers that the evolutionist concept must be applied to the political order of the people. The present models of political organization – the Three Powers, Presidentialism, Federation, Monarchy, etc. - come from centuries ago. Are they suitable for the present world, the new realities, the new societies? Based in the existing theory and the global reality, the conclusion states that the present political organization of the people, in the international context and within the countries, is dated, in disagreement with the new global society which has been formed. It is not suitable for today and it is bankrupt. It is the cause of this huge global crisis. It must be substituted by new types of organization. But the great contribution must not come only from the politicians, scientists, businessmen, journalists, teachers and students. All citizens must participate, create, suggest new models of organization for the States and for a new World Order. This will be the solution for this huge crisis which involves the people and for the construction of a new civilization.

15 The Environment

16 Map of the North-east of Brazil, the poorest region in the country. Small town of Queimadas, Paraíba, Brazil, where the author was born. Two views of the semi-arid landscape of the North-east. Two photos of favelas (shanty towns) in Recife, Brazil.

17 The Option for the Destitute The North-eastern region of Brazil includes nine states in an area of 1.6 million square kilometres – bigger than the territory of England, France, Germany and Italy together. It houses 56 million people – more than the population of England. It is the poorest region in the country. The per capita income was R$6 thousand in 2005, a mere 8 dollars a day. Its huge semi-arid area suffers from long and habitual periods of drought. The largest cities present large areas of favelas (shanty towns), with a severe social condition. In 1947, the year the researcher was born, right after Second World War, the situation was even worse, poverty dominating the fields and the towns. In a backward political context, the local and regional oligarchies, under the rule of the so called rural and urban colonels, dominated the economy and the formation of state and municipal governments. A stratification which produced the greatest political, economic and social backwardness. The performance of SUDENE, a federal institution, directing resources to an incipient industrialization, would alleviate the regional poverty but would also promote urban sprawl and the proliferation of huge favelas. It was in this environment that the researcher Pedro Muniz was born and lived. The son of a small farmer, a kind of hero who raise some cattle in arid land, who grow beans, corn and cotton using primitive tools, such as hoe and plough.

18 His father, also called Pedro, was someone who handled the hoe and the plough himself. He would later became a businessman and cotton processor. His mother, Lourdes, was a housewife, like most women in the region. The advent of industrialization hadn't yet taken the women to the condition of factory workers, and least of all, businesswoman. Since an early age, the researcher lived near poverty, destitution, the suffering of the people, the great social differences, the economical and political disorder. Still a child, he experienced droughts. He saw, close up, infant mortality, children he knew dying because of lack of food and medicine. He saw families dying because of starvation and scourged population invading and plundering towns. Honest people in search of food. These facts would sparkle questions. Why so much suffering? Why so much injustice? Why so much poverty? In Recife, Pernambuco, his question would run deeper with the contact with the favelas and prisons, in which he would do community work and promote the creation and maintenance of NGOs in activities of gender, citizenship and education. Later, as a lawyer and member of the OAB (Brazilian Lawyers Organization), he would act in defense of human rights in prisons, due to the perverse jail conditions of their population. The researcher himself suffered the difficulties of the region and he had to fight to overcome challenges.

19 At the age of 11, a disease in the joints left him paralytic for almost two years. He is cured and survives thanks to the intervention of a young black doctor, Dr. Geraldo Gomes. The treatment would now be easy but at the time, medical assistance was very difficult. After 7 years, he enters the Medical School (Faculdade de Ciências Médicas de Recife). Later, while studying Sociology, with the country in crisis and the North- east being the most affected region, Muniz is forced to leave both courses due to lack of financial means. Overcoming the new challenge, Muniz enters the 150-year-old Recife Law School (Faculdade de Direito do Recife), a federal institution, in which he would graduate. Later, he would do the Master's course in Business Management in a partnership between the University of Pernambuco and the Universidad Autónoma de Madrid (Spain). In his university life, as a student leader and president of the Students' Union at Law School, the joined the movement against dictatorship, for a National Constitutional Assembly and Immediate Direct Elections, in the authentic wing of the Democratic Brazilian Movement. Directed demonstrations which literally stopped the centre of Recife. He was arrested by the dictatorship and prevented from doing a Master's Degree in Law.

20 After beginning work in projects of the Non-Governmental Entities Organization at the UN office in Rio de Janeiro, he starts to work for corporations such as Embratel, General Electric and C.C. Brahma. Next, he becomes a consultant of large enterprises and entities such as Coca-Cola, Votorantim, Brahma, Skol, Bompreço (now Wall-Mart), Women's World Bank, Fiepe, Senac, Sebrae, amongst others. Nevertheless, he gives up a professional career in the great corporations as well as a political career proposed by senator Marcos Freire. He opts to leave corporate life in order to have the condition to research and write. He leaves behind a life of continuous travelling and begins to teach in Business Schools in the North-east. His income drops substantially. During this period of time, he goes through many difficulties with his family and, in order to finance a research which consumed over 200 thousand dollars of his own resources, he moves from a sea- side apartment to a house in the suburbs. He sells his two cars and he lacks money for food, clothing, gas and even the children's school. He gives up family comforts but he does not abandon the researches. However, it is the context of contrasts, living together with such diverse conditions as the favelas, prisons, drought, large enterprises, international corporations and the democratic political engagement that takes Muniz to a diverse vision of society, of its many faces.

21 The contact with extreme situations enables him to direct his researches with more objectivity, with a critical look on the reality of the people, without illusions that could distort the approaches. It was in this environment that Muniz developed his researches and two books. Even without the means to go to great universities abroad, even without the support of governments and universities, Muniz develops creative and critical work, mainly in the cause of those in need. Muniz did not choose a selfish career of professional success. His personal option was consciously taken. The option for the poor and destitute.

22 Testimonials Testimonials

23 It is the most important work on political organization of the human kind. Innovative, it changes radically the approach on the State. It will help to change the future of the populations of the world. José Quiroga – MA and PhD in Business Administration The World State shows that the present States are kept under organizational structures which have been worn out by time, separated from a new order which has come from globalization and which needs to evolve. Osvaldo Cabral de Mello Neto – MA and Director of the Business Administration College at UPE The World State proposes the strengthening of the Legislative and of popular participation. A new and appropriate model of Democracy. Antonio Moraes – Deputy and president of the PSDB-PE At last, there will come the era of Peace and Justice for the oppressed populations. Globalized freedom. Bruno Medeiros – Student A profound work on the organizational crisis of the State and International Order. It points out the great and serious effects of the endemic world crisis and it presents a logical array of options for the evolution of the political organization of the people. Ester Matos – Sociologist from the Fundação Joaquim Nabuco de Pesquisas Sociais The book shows the organizational crisis of the State and the International Order and its terrible effects today and for the future. It is a great warning to politicians and businesspeople. Eduardo Catão – Engineer, businessman, ex-president of the Recife Chamber of Commerce

24 The World State makes us think of a world social, political and economic organization which eliminates perverse economic regimes. and which are based on an organizational model which prioritizes the social security of its citizens. Ywanoska Gama – Psychologist, MA in Education and PhD in Psychology The World State make an extensive analysis of the beginning of a new World Order. It will not suffice to feed the hungry but also to ensure the complete citizenship of the whole human kind. An indispensable book to those who long for a new civilization. Walter Jackel – Teacher, MA in Organizational Planning and Management The World State is hard, brave, bombastic. It reveals the neo-imperialism of the rich countries in the G7, which dominate the World, and it depicts the absolute failure of neoliberalism after the fall of the soviet regime. How shall we be? The age of a global and systemic Democracy is rising. León Costa – Teacher, researcher The World State is rich in analysis and innovations for the construction of a more human and just society. It would be convenient for the heads of state to implement a good plan from the restructuring of the State. Manoel Bezerra – Businessman

25 The World State The Revolution Continues By Pedro Muniz Leaflet printed by Editora LivroRápido Adress: Rua Dr. João Tavares de Moura, 57 / 99 – Peixinhos CEP: – Olinda – PE – Brazil. A tribute to Professor Pedro Muniz This Leaflet was produced by León Costa, under the supervision of Alberto Gui and Jota Mendes. Graphic project by Andrei Quirino. Titles and text in Calibri (corpo) and Tempus Sans ITC. Images researched and scanned by Ded Gui and CopyShop. Printed in workshops of Editora LivroRápido in December, English version: Gustavo Gouveia – English teacher. - Telephone: (***)

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