HONORS BIOLOGY CHAPTER ONE: Biology: Exploring Life
Biology The Scientific Study of Life
Characteristics of Life An organism must have all seven of these in order to be considered as living. 1. Order 2. Reproduction 3. Growth and development] 4. Energy Processing 5. Respond to the Environment 6. Regulation 7. Evolutionary adaptation
1.ORDER Living things are made of cells These units help to organize their materials.
Examples of Cells Nerve cell Red blood cell Fat cell Egg and sperm Cheek cell
2. REPRODUCTION Why is this so important? How do plants reproduce? How do animals reproduce? pollen Egg and sperm Euglena separate
Types of Reproduction Sexual Reproduction Two parents unite to form a new organism Asexual Reproduction A single parent divides itself two produce offspring
3. GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT Living things are based on a universal genetic code (DNA). All living things have the same bases (A, T, C, G) in their DNA-they are just in different order
Each organism has a pattern of growth and development characteristic of its species. Crecropia Moth Life Cycle VideoCrecropia Moth Life Cycle Video
4. ENERGY PROCESSING Organisms take in energy and transform it to perform all of lifes activities. -metabolism -photosynthesis
5. RESPOND TO THE ENVIRONMENT All organisms respond to environmental stimuli. YouTube - Venus flytrap eating a spiderYouTube - Venus flytrap eating a spider
Stimulus-Response A stimulus is a signal to which an organism responds.
6. REGULATION Living Things Maintain a Stable Internal Environment The environment may change, but regulatory mechanisms maintain an organisms internal environments within limits that sustain life. Sunbathing lemur on a cool morning
7. EVOLUTIONARY ADAPTATION Taken as a group, living things change over time. Adaptations evolve to allow greater reproductive success
1.2 HIERARCHY OF ORGANIZATION BiosphereAll environments on earth that support life EcosystemAll living organisms and nonliving in a particular area CommunityAll living organisms in an ecosystem PopulationAll individuals of one species living in one area
1.2 HIERARCHY OF ORGANIZATION (cont.) OrganismAn individual living thing Organ system Several organs that cooperate for a specific function OrganMade of several tissues to perform a specific function TissueMade of several cells that perform a particular function
1.2 HIERARCHY OF ORGANIZATION (cont.) CellFundamental unit of life OrganelleMembrane-enclosed structure that performs a specific function in a cell MoleculeCluster of atoms held by chemical bonds AtomBasic unit of matter
PUT IN ORDER LARGEST TO SMALLEST Biosphere Ecosystem Community Population Organism Organ Systems Organs Tissues Cells Molecules Organelle
Name the Level of Organization
Emergent Properties What does it mean that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts? How does that relate to this hierarchy of life? How is a person different than just its blood or its muscles?
EXAMPLES BEE HIVE One bee does limited jobs, but together they get the hive and honey made. Bicycle Parts Whole Bicycle Drone Queen Worker You can get a lot farther with it put together
1.3 Cells are the structural and functional units of life A cell is the lowest level that can have all the properties of life. UNICELLULAR – an organism that consists of only one cell EX: bacteria MULTICELLULAR – an organisms that consists of more than one cell
SYSTEMS BIOLOGY Studying the interactions of the parts Nerve cell Red Blood Cells Cardiac Muscle Cells
Prokaryotic Cells – have no nucleus bound in a membrane EX: bacteria Eukaryotic Cells – have a nucleus bound in a membrane EX: nerve cell EX: nerve cell, plant cell, paramecium
Prokaryotes-sole inhabitants on earth 1.5 billion years Eukaryotes-arose about 2.1 billion years ago So, how long ago did life begin? 3.6 bya How did the evolution of complex life begin? (4:17mins) Fossils of 3.5bya
Organelles Membrane bound functional compartments within a cell
1.4 Organisms interact with their environment, exchanging matter and energy What interactions do you imagine go on here?
Energy What are the producers? Where do the plants get their food and energy? What are the consumers? What happens to the dead organisms and wastes? (HINT: decomposers) Nutrients
1.5 Evolution, the core theme of Biology The unity of life is based on DNA and a common genetic code ALL CELLS HAVE DNA ALL CELLS HAVE FOUR BASES THAT MAKE UP DNA (A,T, C, G) DNA is the molecule that makes up genes (units of inheritance) that group to make chromosomes
DNA is the blueprint for making proteins (pigments, enzymes, membranes, hormones…)