3 Characteristics of Life An organism must have all seven of these in order to be considered as living.1. Order2. Reproduction3. Growth and development]4. Energy Processing5. Respond to the Environment6. Regulation7. Evolutionary adaptation
4 ORDER Living things are made of cells These units help to organize their materials.
5 Examples of Cells Nerve cell Egg and sperm Red blood cell Fat cell Cheek cell
6 2. REPRODUCTION Why is this so important? How do plants reproduce? How do animals reproduce?Egg and spermpollenEuglena separate
7 Types of Reproduction Sexual Reproduction Two parents unite to form a new organismAsexual ReproductionA single parent divides itself two produce offspring
8 3. GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT Living things are based on a universal genetic code (DNA). All living things have the same bases (A, T, C, G) in their DNA-they are just in different order
9 Each organism has a pattern of growth and development characteristic of its species. Crecropia Moth Life Cycle Video
10 4. ENERGY PROCESSINGOrganisms take in energy and transform it to perform all of life’s activities.-metabolism-photosynthesis
11 5. RESPOND TO THE ENVIRONMENT All organisms respond to environmental stimuli.YouTube - Venus flytrap eating a spider
12 Stimulus-ResponseA stimulus is a signal to which an organism responds.
13 6. REGULATION Living Things Maintain a Stable Internal Environment The environment may change, but regulatory mechanisms maintain an organisms’ internal environments within limits that sustain life.Sunbathing lemur on a cool morning
14 7. EVOLUTIONARY ADAPTATION Taken as a group, living things change over time. Adaptations evolve to allow greater reproductive success
15 1.2 HIERARCHY OF ORGANIZATION BiosphereAll environments on earth that support lifeEcosystemAll living organisms and nonliving in a particular areaCommunityAll living organisms in an ecosystemPopulationAll individuals of one species living in one area
16 1.2 HIERARCHY OF ORGANIZATION (cont.) OrganismAn individual living thingOrgan systemSeveral organs that cooperate for a specific functionOrganMade of several tissues to perform a specific functionTissueMade of several cells that perform a particular function
17 1.2 HIERARCHY OF ORGANIZATION (cont.) CellFundamental unit of lifeOrganelleMembrane-enclosed structure that performs a specific function in a cellMoleculeCluster of atoms held by chemical bondsAtomBasic unit of matter
18 PUT IN ORDER LARGEST TO SMALLEST BiosphereEcosystemCommunityPopulationOrganismOrgan SystemsOrgansTissuesCellsMoleculesOrganelle
20 “Emergent Properties” What does it mean that “the whole is greater than the sum of its parts?”How does that relate to this hierarchy of life?How is a person different than just its blood or its muscles?
21 EXAMPLES BEE HIVE Bicycle Parts One bee does limited jobs, but together they get the hive and honey made.Whole BicycleYou can get alot farther with it put togetherDroneQueenWorker
22 1.3 Cells are the structural and functional units of life A cell is the lowest level that can have all the properties of life.UNICELLULAR – an organism that consists of only one cell EX: bacteriaMULTICELLULAR – an organisms that consists of more than one cell
23 SYSTEMS BIOLOGY Studying the interactions of the parts Nerve cell Red Blood Cells Cardiac Muscle Cells
24 Prokaryotic Cells – have no nucleus bound in a membrane EX: bacteria Eukaryotic Cells – have a nucleus bound in a membrane EX: nerve cell EX: nerve cell,plant cell, paramecium
25 Prokaryotes-sole inhabitants on earth 1.5 billion years Eukaryotes-arose about 2.1 billion years agoSo, how long ago did life begin?3.6 byaHow did the evolutionof complex life begin?(4:17mins)Fossils of 3.5bya
26 OrganellesMembrane bound functional compartments within a cell
27 1.4 Organisms interact with their environment, exchanging matter and energy What interactions do you imagine go on here?
28 Energy Nutrients What are the producers? Where do the plants get their food and energy?What are the consumers?What happens to the dead organisms and wastes? (HINT: decomposers)
29 1.5 Evolution, the core theme of Biology The unity of life is based on DNA and a common genetic codeALL CELLS HAVE DNAALL CELLS HAVE FOUR BASES THAT MAKE UP DNA (A,T, C, G)DNA is the molecule that makes up genes (units of inheritance) that group to make chromosomes
30 DNA is the blueprint for making proteins (pigments, enzymes, membranes, hormones…)