Presentation on theme: "Structure and Development"— Presentation transcript:
1Structure and Development The Essay:Structure and DevelopmentNEC FACET Center
2When writing an essay, you will always follow a structure. Why?Doing so, helps you and your reader stay on track.
3Basic 3-Part Structure Introduction Begins your essay Body Paragraphs Relay your main pointsConclusionEnds your essay
4To convey the full picture, writers must fit these essay parts together like the pieces of a puzzle.
5Introductions have several purposes: They create interest.
6Introductions have several purposes: They introduce your subject.
7Introductions have several purposes: They state a main point or thesis.
8Introductions have several purposes: They set the direction or tone.
9Structure of the Introduction Writers most commonly use a “funnel” or “inverted pyramid” structure.The introduction starts out broad, gradually narrowing to the main point at the end.A single sentence thesis statement expresses the essay’s main point.
10Structural Diagram of Introduction 1-2 general sentences about broad subject area to be discussed1-2 specific sentences aboutthe subject area1-3 general sentencesleading into topic1-3 specificsentencesabouttopicthesis statement
11Sample IntroductionBroadOpeningInflation has raised the price of groceries to an all-time high. Many are forced to cut corners to stay within the family’s food budget. One way to cut expenses is with a backyard garden. The three most important steps in making a garden are planning, planting, and tending.GradualNarrowingof subjectThesis withstated mainpoints
12Expanded Sample Introduction Inflation has raised the price of groceries to an all time high. A few years ago, a head of lettuce cost 99 cents, but today even a small head is usually at least $ Such increases force the homemaker to cut corners to stay within the family’s food budget. One way to reduceBroadopeningExampleGradualnarrowingof topicbegins
13grocery expenses--and to get pleasure and exercise at the same time--is with the backyard garden. Even the beginner or the true city slicker can grow tomatoes, onions, or salad herbs. Although some research into soil types and fertilizer helps, no extensive knowledge is necessary. If one plans carefully, the hard work of planting and tending will be worth the effort.Addedexamples,detailsPolishedthesis withmain points
14The ThesisBefore writing introductory paragraphs, writers should know what they want to prove in their essays.They should write down this idea in a single sentence.
15The thesis is frequently described as a “subject plus an attitude.” Subject: The new factory in townSubject + attitude = thesis: The new factory in town violates current pollution control regulations.
16Also, The thesis frequently outlines the writer’s main points: Subject + attitude + main points = thesis:The new factory in town violates current pollution control regulations by emitting hazardous gases, dumping waste into Swallow Creek, and failing to provide protective clothing to employees.
17Purpose of the ThesisThe thesis serves as a blueprint for the essay, setting up a plan of what will follow.In a sense, the thesis also serves as a contract with the reader, making a promise that the writer must then fulfill.
18In the introduction, do not make an announcement: “In the following paragraphs, I will show ”
19ThesisThe thesis must cover the full subject of an essay--just as an umbrella must cover its subjectLooked at the other way around, all topic sentences and supporting details in the essay’s body paragraphs must directly relate to the thesis.
21Body ParagraphsThe typical student essay contains an introduction
22Body Paragraphs The typical student essay contains an introduction
23Body ParagraphsIntroductionBodyparagraph 1The typical student essay contains an introduction, 3-4 body paragraphsBodyparagraph 2Bodyparagraph 3
24Body ParagraphsIntroductionBodyparagraph 1The typical student essay contains an introduction, 3-4 body paragraphs, and a conclusion.Bodyparagraph 2Bodyparagraph 3Conclusion
25Purpose of the Body Body paragraphs may do the following: Explain reasonsProvide examples & anecdotesPresent facts & statisticsThe body of the essay supports the thesis.It attempts to prove that the author’s thesis is correct.
26Paragraph Parts Body paragraphs consist of the following parts: a topic sentencea series of supporting sentencesa concluding sentence.
27Topic Sentences Topic sentences resemble thesis statements. The thesis expresses the overall point of the entire essay.Similarly, the topic sentence expresses the overall point of an individual paragraph.
28Scope of Topic Sentences Just as the thesis must cover the subject of all the body paragraphs, the topic sentence must cover the points of every supporting sentence within that one paragraph.
29Providing CoherenceYou can create smooth flow between sentences and paragraphs by following a logical method of organization.
30Logical ArrangementsChronological order: arranging events in the order in which they occurred, such as the details of baking a cake.MixBakeCoolIce andDecorate
31Spatial OrderDescribing from left to right, top to bottom, or near to far, such as describing a scene in the Rocky Mountains.
32Climactic OrderArranging information from least to most important, such as telling about the newest animals at the local zoo.
33In addition to using logical order, you can also achieve coherence by using appropriate transitions.
34Examples of Transitions addition: furthermore, moreover, also, in addition, first, second, thirdcomparison: in the same way, likewise, similarlycontrast: however, nevertheless, on the other hand, on the contrary
35More Transitionsemphasis: above all, especially, in fact, indeed, most importantresult: consequently, therefore, for this reason, thus, hence, because of thisplace: above, below, beyond, inside, outside, nearby, next to, to the south, on the far side, outsidetime: afterward, before, currently, during, first, next, finally, gradually, later, meanwhile
36Select the best transition. ConsequentlyMeanwhileHoweverAbove allI like the old house and think I might buy it. _______, I like the new house too.However,
37Select the best transition. NextIndeedCurrentlyThereforeNeverthelessNextFirst, I’ll visit England. _____, I’ll travel to the Netherlands and France.
38Select the best transition. On theotherhandEspeciallyThusBeyondthatLaterIn the foreground, the buildings’ reflections shimmer in the harbor. _______, the skyscrapers stand silhouetted against the sunset.Beyond that
39The ConclusionThe concluding paragraph gives readers a sense of completion so that the essay doesn’t seem to end abruptly.
40Techniques for a Conclusion Restate the thesis in different words.Summarize briefly.Emphasize the importance of the subject.Discuss implications for the reader.Suggest action if appropriate for subject.
41A Techniques to Avoid in a Conclusion Do not announce what you have just done.Example: “As the past few paragraphs have demonstrated, . . .”
42Other Techniques to Avoid Do not apologize for your lack of expertise.Do not simply repeat what you have said previously.
43Essay writing can be enjoyable if you follow these structure and development tips.