# Scientific Measurement

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Scientific Measurement
Chemistry chapter 2

Scientific Measurement
Distinguish between quantitative and qualitative measurements. List SI units of measurement and common SI prefixes. Distinguish between the mass and weight of an object. Convert measurement to scientific notation. Distinguish among the accuracy, precision, and error of measurement. Identify the number of significant figures in a measurement and in the result of calculation. Identify and calculate derived units. Calculate the density of an object from experiment data. TEKS: 2A, 2B, 2C, 2D, 2E, 3C, 3D, 3E, 4B, 4C

Branches of chemistry organic chemistry—the study of carbon-containing compounds   inorganic chemistry—the study of non-organic substances   physical chemistry—the study of properties of matter, changes that occur in matter, and the relationships between matter and energy   analytical chemistry—the identification of the composition of materials   biochemistry—the study of the chemistry of living things   theoretical chemistry—the use of mathematics and computers to design and predict the properties of new compounds

Quantitative vs. Qualitative Observations
Qualitative – observations made with adjectives “The water is clear and cool.” Quantitative – observations that include a measurement or other numeric data “There are 40mL of water.”

Scientific Method

Two parts of measurements
Quantity – indicates size or magnitude (how much?) Unit – tells us what is to be measured and compares it to a previously defined size (of what?) Measurements must have both a quantity and a unit to be valid.

International System of Units
Length – meter Mass – kilogram Temperature – Kelvin Energy – joule Amount of a substance – mole Electric current - ampere Volume – m3 Density – g/cm3 Weight - Newton SI units are defined by a system of objects or natural phenomena that are of constant value and are easy to reproduce used as a standard of measurement.

Commonly Used Prefixes in the Metric System
Meaning Exponent mega (M) 106 kilo (k) 1000 103 hecto (h) 100 102 deka (da) 10 101 deci (d) 1/10 10-1 centi (c) 1/100 10-2 milli (m) 1/1000 10-3 micro (µ) 1/ 10-6 nano (n) 1/ 10-9 pico (p) 1/ 10-12

Conversion Factors Conversion factors are equalities written in ratio form: 1 km = 1000m km = m 1000 m km Choose the format that allows you to cancel the original units and leave the new units. Ex km = ________ m You would choose 1000 m km

Foldable Can use this to simply move your decimal in order to convert between units Ex. 1 mg = ? g

Conversion Factors Make sure that you have a valid equality before writing your conversion factor. Which of these equalities are correct? 1 m = 1 x 10-6 µm 1 m = 1 x 106 µm 1 x 10-6 m = 1µm

Important Equalities 1 dm3 = 1000cm3 1mL = 1cm3 = 1cc
1dm3 = mL = 1L 1 dm 10 cm 100 dm3 = ‗‗‗‗nm3

Conversion Practice Problem List in order – largest to smallest
a. 1 dm3 b. 1 µL c. 1 mL d. 1 L e. 1 cL f. 1 dL

Largest to smallest A. dm3 D. 1 L F. dL E. cL C. mL B. μL

Derived Units Derived units are formed from a combination of other units. Examples include: m/s & km/hr (speed), cm3 & dm3(volume), J/g·°C (specific heat), g/mol (molar mass), g/cm3 & kg/m3 (density)

Density Density is the ratio between the mass and volume of an object.
Density = Mass or D = m Volume V Density is an intensive physical property.

Density (Math Triangle)
D = M / V M = D X V V = M / D

Density Problems A student finds a shiny piece of metal that she thinks is aluminum. She determined that the metal has a volume of 245 cm3 and a mass of 612 g. Calculate the density. Is the metal aluminum? The density of silver at 20ºC is 10.5 g/cm3. What is the volume of a 68 g bar of silver?

Density Problems Continued
A weather balloon is inflated to a volume of 2.2 x 103 L with 37.4 g of helium. What is the density of helium, in grams per liter. A plastic ball with a volume of 19.7 cm3 has a mass of 15.8 g. What is its density? Would the ball sink or float in a container of water?

Specific Gravity Density water (g/cm3)
Specific Gravity = Density substance (g/cm3) Density water (g/cm3)

Making Measurements

Review Scientific Notation rule: move decimal to a number between 1-10
600,000 = = 2.3 X = 5.5 X =

Precision and Accuracy
Accuracy refers to the agreement of a particular value with the true value. (how close) Precision refers to the degree of agreement among several elements of the same quantity. (how repeatable)

Target (a) shows neither accuracy or precision.
Target (b) shows precision, but not accuracy. Target (c) shows both accuracy and precision.

Uncertainty in Measurement
A digit that must be estimated is called uncertain. The last digit in a measurement always shows uncertainty.

Significant Digits Significant Digits show the degree of certainty in a measurement. Not all digits in a number show certainty, therefore, all digits are not significant.

Counting Significant Digits
Rule 1: Nonzero integers always count as significant digits. 3456 has 4 “sig digs”

Counting Significant Digits
Rule 2: Leading zeros do not count as significant figures. has 3 “sig figs”

Counting Significant Digits
Rule 3: Captive zeros always count as significant figures. 16.07 has 4 “sig digs”

Counting Significant Digits
Rule 4: Trailing zeros are significant only if the number contains a decimal point. 9.300 has 4 “sig figs”

Counting Significant Digits
Exact numbers have an infinite number of significant figures. Exact numbers include counting numbers and conversion factors. Examples: 12 students 1m = 100 cm

Practice Problems Determine the number of significant figures.
a. 12 kilometers b m2 c thumbtacks d m e m f m3. g x 103 cm h x 1023 atoms

Rules for Significant Figures in Mathematical Operations
Multiplication and Division: # sig figs in the result equals the number in the least precise measurement used in the calculation. 6.38 cm  2.0 cm = cm2 13 (2 sig figs)

Multiplication and Division
Your answer can only have the least number of significant figures in your data. a. 2.0 mL x 3.00 mL b. 8432 m = 12.5 m

Rules for Significant Figures in Mathematical Operations
Addition and Subtraction: # sig figs in the result equals the number of decimal places in the least precise measurement. 6.8 cm cm cm = cm 22.5 cm (1 digit after decimal - 3 sig figs)

Count the decimal places. You can only have in your answer the least number of decimal places that is seen in your data.

Rounding Rules If the digit following the last digit to be retained is: Then the last digit should: Example (rounded to 3 sig dig’s) greater than 5 be increased by 1 38.68 g to g less than 5 stay the same 12.51 m to m 5, followed by nonzero digit(s) cm to cm 5, not followed by nonzero digit(s), and preceded by an odd digit 2.975 kg to kg (because 7 is odd) 5, not followed by nonzero digit(s), and the preceding significant digit is even Stay the same 2.985 kg to kg (because 8 is even)

Measurement Tips

Measurement Tools Distance = Meter Sticks & Metric Tapes Volume
= Graduated Cylinder Time = Stopwatch Mass = Balance Weight = Spring Scale

Mass vs. Weight Mass is the amount of matter in an object; weight is the effect of gravity on a mass. Mass is measured on a balance; weight is measured with a scale. Mass remains constant at all locations; weight varies with change in gravitational pull.

Volume Never measure in a beaker. They are for estimation only!
2. Place the graduated cylinder on a level surface and read the bottom of the meniscus. 3. Check the scale of the graduated cylinder Different scales for different sizes! Use displacement to find the volume of irregular solids.

Mass Make sure the balance is on a level surface.
Use the same balance in the same place for all parts of a procedure. 3. DO NOT MOVE A BALANCE ONCE IT IS ZEROED!

Length Rulers & meter sticks wear on the ends – start at a point other than zero. Choose the unit most reasonable for the item you are measuring – make sure you convert your number accordingly.

Symbols Δ “Delta” means “change in” Σ “Sigma” means “sum of”

Graphing Relationships
Direct Relationship-Variables do the same Straight Line Inverse (Indirect) Relationship-Variables do the opposite Parabola

Models Why do scientists use models in their research???