Presentation on theme: "Classroom Teacher Training on Special Education"— Presentation transcript:
1Classroom Teacher Training on Special Education Janet Rogers- Special Education Liaison
2What Do You Know Questions 1. Do you know what we mean by IDEA ?2. Do you know how to obtain a copy of anIEP?3. Do you know what to look for on an IEP?4. Do you understand the role of theparaeducator for students’ withdisabilities?
3Targeted Overview of the Laws & Regulations INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES EDUCATION ACTThis is our nation’s Special Education Law.
4INDIVIDUALIZED EDUCATION PROGRAM Every public school child with disabilities receiving IDEA funded Special Education must have one.
5Five Basics about an IEP IndividualizedWritten plan for a child’s educationWritten by parents & school staff togetherLists the Special Education the child will receive, & moreIs both a document & a process
6LRE LEAST RESTRICTIVE ENVIRONMENT Children with disabilities are to be educated with children who do not have disabilities, to the maximum extent possible.
7SUPPLEMENTARY AIDS & SERVICES Aids, services & other supports that are provided in regular education classes, other education related settings, and in extracurricular and nonacademic settings, that enable children with disabilities to be educated with nondisabled children to the maximum extent appropriate.
8How Does a General Education Teacher Actively Participate in the IEP Development & Implementation Process?The Law says:NC Development of IEPRequirement with respect to regular education teacher. A regular education teacher of a child with a disability, as a member of the IEP team, must, to the extent appropriate, participate in the development of the IEP of the child, including the determination of –Appropriate positive behavioral interventions and supports and other strategies for the child; andSupplemental aids and services, program modifications, and support for school personnel consistent with NC (a)(4)
9How Does a General Education Teacher Actively Participate in the IEP Development & Implementation Process?The Law says:NC Development of IEPRequirement with respect to regular education teacher. A regular education teacher of a child with a disability, as a member of the IEP team, must, to the extent appropriate, participate in the development of the IEP of the child, including the determination of –Appropriate positive behavioral interventions and supports and other strategies for the child; andSupplemental aids and services, program modifications, and support for school personnel consistent with NC (a)(4)
10What Should Be The Focus of the Discussion? Reviewing student strengths & needs (Present Levels)Reviewing the IEP goals & objectivesReviewing the classroom modifications (Supplementary Aids & Services)Discussing progress & progress reporting to parentsReviewing Services & the amount of removal to receive servicesUnderstanding everyone’s role
11Individualized Education Program What Else Does It Mean?Individualized Education ProgramName: Tyler NealI. Tyler’s Strengths & Needs are…II. Tyler’s Goals & Objectives are…III. Tyler’s Progress…IV. Tyler’s Supplementary Aids & Services (Classroom Modifications & Accommodations)V. Tyler’s Services & Removal to Receive ServicesYou should be given access to or a copy of the IEP for students who are in your classroom.
12What If These Things Don’t Happen? What Should I Do? It is expected thatgeneral education teachers have access to or a copy of IEPs of students in their classroom.there is regular communication regarding the students between the special education and regular education teachersIf any of the above do not happenAsk who manages the IEPAsk to meet with the Special Education teacher who manages the student’s IEPAsk for a copy of the IEPCheck to see if the IEP and the services match
13What Is the Process for Assuring Communication? Communication begins with:Special Education Teacher (s)Related Service StaffSchool Level Support Staff(i.e. Behavior Support, school psychologist, etc)System Level Support Staff(i.e. Special Education liaison, school wide PBS, NHCS mentor, etc.)
15How Does Section 504 Fit Into Our System? 504/ Students with Impairments that Substantially Limit & Require Reasonable AccommodationsIDEA/ Students with Impairments & Require Specially Designed InstructionAll Students in the Local Education Agency (LEA) or districtStudents with Impairments
16History of The Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (Section 504) Passed in 1973 to encourage participation & equal access to federally funded programs by the disabledGeared toward providing job opportunities and training to disabled adults & the failure of public schools to educate disabled studentsFocused on non-discriminationProhibited the denial of public education participation, or enjoyment of the benefits offered by public school programs because of a child’s disabilityProvided conditioned receipt of federal funds on a district’s compliance with the law.-29 U.S.C. §794(a)(1073)
171. Does the student have a physical or mental impairment which substantially limits one or more major life function?YESNOIf the parent requested an evaluation then the team should convene and follow the evaluation process but the student would not meet the eligibility requirement.Then the team should evaluate the need for an Individual Accommodation Plan (IAP)
18What is a Physical or Mental Impairment? Section 504 regulation at 34 C.F.R (j)(2)(ii) defines a physical or mental impairment as:Any physiological disorder or condition, cosmetic disfigurement, or anatomical loss affecting one or more of the following body systems:NeurologicalMusculoskeletalSpecial sense organsRespiratory, including speech organsCardiovascularReproductiveDigestiveGenito-urinaryHemic and lymphaticSkinEndocrineAny mental or physiological disorder such as mental retardation, organic brain syndrome, emotional or mental illness, and specific learning disabilities.NOTE: The regulation does not set forth an exhaustive list of specific diseases and conditions that may constitute physical or mental impairments because of the difficulty of ensuring the comprehensiveness of such a list.
19What Does “Substantially Limits a Major Life Function” Mean? What are Major Life Functions?What Does Substantially Limits Mean?LearningSpeakingSeeingWalkingHearingBreathingWorkingPerforming Manual TasksCaring for One’ SelfAn impairment that prevents a person from performing a life activity that the average student of approximately the same age can perform OR significantly restricts as to the condition, manner or duration under which a particular life activity is performed as compared to the average student of approximately the same age.
20In the Following Cases Does the Impairment Substantially Limit? Janice is working after school and nights because she is the sole provider in her home. Her grades are poor due to her work hours.Sally is a 3rd grade student with behavior problems. She was a low achiever in grades 1 & 2, had difficulty focusing, worked below grade level, has been diagnosed with ADHD and has had an evaluation done by SST.Larry is a high school senior who loses his temper with other students and is rude to teachers & staff. His grades are very poor due to his attitude.
21What Are Some Questions to Ask to Determine Eligibility? Does the student have a mental or physical impairment?Does the impairment effect a major life activity?Does the impairment (currently) have a significant impact on the major life activity?
22In the Following Cases Does the Impairment Substantially Limit? Nick was a good student in grades 1 & 2. He currently is losing a lot of his class work and homework assignments but is doing well in class. His parents took him to a private physician for an evaluation and diagnosis.Leslie is a 5th grade student who is allergic to tree pollen. She cannot go outside during certain seasons of the year. She is making C’s in all of her classes.
23What is the Student with a Physical or Mental Impairment which substantially limits a major life function entitled ?Entitled to reasonable accommodations as defined by the team and indicated on an Individual Accommodation Plan
24Treat as any student in the system. 2. Does the student have a record (history) of having a physical or mental impairment which substantially limited one or more major life functions?YESNOThe student is entitled to non-discrimination because of the history of an impairment.Treat as any student in the system.
25What are some examples of students who have a history of a physical or mental impairment that substantially limited one or more major life function?Student who had a mental or emotional illness in the pastStudent whose cancer is in remissionStudent who is diagnosed with ADD/ADHD and whose medical treatment is effective
26What is a common misperception? An example of a common misperception is:Example: Learning Disabled student is evaluated and determined to no longer be eligible for Special Education is now automatically eligible for an IAP because of a history of a disability.The TRUTH is: They are entitled to non discrimination but not necessarily an IAP. In order to determine the need for an IAP, the team would have to evaluate to determine if the disability is still present & substantially limits one or more major life function.
27Treat as any student in the system. 3. Is the student regarded as having a physical or mental impairment (by the system) that substantially limits one or more major life function?NOYESTreat as any student in the system.The student is entitled to non-discrimination because of being regarded as having an impairment.
28Student who has asthma but it is mild and rarely triggered What are some examples of students who might be regarded as having a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more major life function?Student who has asthma but it is mild and rarely triggeredStudent who has severe scaring and physical disfigurement from burns but is fully recovered with no classroom issues
29What are Mitigating Measures? A personal device or practice that a student uses on their own to reduce the impact of a disability.
30Can Mitigating Measures Have a Positive and a Negative Impact? YES:A student is taking medication for schizophrenia that is effective in enabling the student to focus on school, BUT makes him sleepy in classes.
31What Are Some Examples of Mitigating Measures? Jessica is a student who is on a special diet. His mother sends his lunch in daily to meet his special dietary needs. But Mother stops sending lunch.Larry started wearing glasses in August, but has since lost her glasses and the parents have not replaced them.
32How Do Mitigating Measures Relate to Accommodations, Related Aids & Services Provided by the LEA? Mitigating Measures are NOT the same thing as accommodations, related aids & services, academic adjustments, auxiliary aids & services that are provided by or under the control of the educational institution or LEA
33What Are Some Additional Questions? Question: What kinds of services can students access under 504 (IAP)?Answer: Students can receive reasonable accommodations, such as transportation when the district assigns out of district due to disability, out of district assignment due to disability, or OT/PT observation/ evaluation/ suggested accommodations, etc.
34What Are Some Additional Questions? Question: Is a medical diagnosis required to determine a student eligible for a 504 (IAP)Answer: A diagnosis from an appropriately qualified medical provider is necessary.
35What Are Some Additional Questions? Question: Can a student with a 504 (IAP) receive special education specially designed instruction?Answer: Students who qualify and are in need of special education specially designed instruction would be served under IDEA with an IEP and not 504 (IAP).
36What Are Some Additional Questions? Question: What if a student qualifies under IDEA and 504, do you develop both an IEP & a 504 (IAP)?Answer: No
37What Are Some Additional Questions? Question: What if a student is not using their personal device that would assist them at school? Examples: Not wearing their glasses, not wearing hearing aids, or not taking medication that is very effective.Answer: The team should make their decisions based on the student “as he is now”. If they are not using the personal devices then the team should reevaluate the need for a 504(IAP). And vice versa, if the student begins using the personal device then the team should reevaluate.
38What About a Short Term or Temporary Disability? The Office of Civil Rights says that they do not recognize a temporary disability in Section 504 regulations. Therefore, a temporary disability is NOT subject to the discrimination intent in Section 504.The state acknowledges that a temporary disability may impact a student’s ability to perform at their knowledge level on assessments. Therefore, a temporary disability may warrant a 504 (IAP) to allow for appropriate testing accommodations during the time of the temporary disability. A team must evaluate the need for a 504 (IAP) or “Common Sense” accommodations.
39What Do You Mean By “Common Sense” Accommodations? Accommodations that schools should allow for students without a plan. Teams should note that it is not necessary to document accommodations for temporary disabilities except for testing.Examples: Giving a student a key to the elevator, allowing extra time to get to class, allowing student to drink water in class, etc.
40Mark has a broken right arm and cannot write 3 days prior to EOGs. What Are Some Examples of Temporary Disabilities That May or May Not Require a 504 (IAP)?Leslie has a broken leg and is walking with crutches and a cast on her left leg. Her second block class is on the 3rd floor.Chloe has a very severe case of laryngitis and cannot make her oral presentation for Honors English.Mark has a broken right arm and cannot write 3 days prior to EOGs.
41Web Resource =============================== <~~~~ e-CONNECTIONS ~~~~>~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~October 2, 2006Provided by LRP Publications1) Q&A: Education officials explain how they expect team teaching, recruiting, transition to work -- OSERS' John Hager and OSEP's Alexa Posny address teachers, parents, attorneys and special ed directors in Tampa, Fla., last week during a community meeting designed to explain the 2006 final IDEA Part B regs.2) Poverty 'secondary disability' we must confront, researcher says -- Mary Wagner, one of the authors of a report that documents improving outcomes for special ed students, urges a closer look at the ties between poverty, health and special ed eligibilty.3) District's win on some FAPE issues won't block parent's fees request -- The 9th Circuit reverses a decision that the parent was not entitled to recover attorney's fees she incurred in a dispute, and says she prevailed under IDEA with her success on several issues.4) Parents can't push harassment charges without exhausting remedies -- A District Court finds that since all the parents' allegations were related to the school's IDEA obligations, they needed to first exhaust their remedies before suing for damages.5) IEP without ABA is inadequate; child's parents receive $47K in fees -- The District Court noted that both district and parent experts agreed that the child required ABA. The parents were successful in overturning the district's IEP and awarded attorney's fees.
42Additional Resources http://www.hhs.gov/ocr/504.html United States Department of Health and Human Resources: Office of Civil Rights/ Your Rights Under Section 504 of the Rehabilitation ActUnited States Department of Education / Office of Civil Rights website resourcesCouncil of Educators for Students with Disabilities, Inc. : Section 504, IDEA and NCLB Conferences and Resources for Educators34 C.F.R. Part 104 United States Department of EducationKid Source Online: Overview of ADA, IDEA, and Section 504Council for Exceptional Children: An Overview of ADA, IDEA, and Section 504, Update 2001New Hanover County Schools, Special Education Department Website with 504 links to tools, etc.
45Definitions of disabilities update 2007 AUTISM – child must demonstrate at least 3 or the 4 characteristics: impairment in communication; impairments in social interaction; unusual response to sensory experiences; restricted, repetitive, or stereotypic patterns of behavior, interests and/or activities. Disability must have an adverse effect on education performance, and require specially designed instruction.DEAF-BLINDNESS – a visual impairment, in combination with a hearing impairment, resulting in severe communication, developmental, and educational needs and that cannot be accommodated in a program for a child with solely a visual impairment or hearing impairment. Disability must have an adverse effect on education performance, and require specially designed instruction.
46DEAFNESS - a child must have deficiency in hearing as demonstrated by the elevated threshold of auditory sensitivity to pure tones or speech. Disability must have an adverse effect on education performance, and require specially designed instruction.DEVELOPMENTAL DELAY- a child must be between the ages of three through seven, whose development and/or behavior is so significantly delayed or atypical that special education and related services are required. The delayed or atypical patterns of development in one or more of the following five areas: physical development, cognitive development, communication development, social/emotional development or adaptive development. Atypical development/Atypical behavior.
47EMOTIONAL DISABILITY (ED) – a child must have one of the following characteristics must be exhibited: an inability to make educational progress that cannot be explained by intellectual, sensory, or health factors; an inability to build or maintain satisfactory interpersonal relationships with peers and teachers; inappropriate types of behavior or feelings under normal circumstance; a general pervasive mood of unhappiness or depression; or a tendency to develop physical symptoms or fears associated with personal or school problems. Additionally, the condition must be exhibited over a long period of time and to a marked degree. Disability must have an adverse effect on education performance, and require specially designed instruction.HEARING IMPAIRMENT (HI) – a child must have a documented hearing loss of a type and extent to have an adverse effect on educational performance, and require specially designed instruction.
48INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY (ID) – a child must demonstrate both (A) intellectual functioning well below the mean on an individually administered standardized intelligence test, and the standard of error of measurement of that test shall be taken into account in the interpretation of the results Measures below the mean are as follows 1) Mild two standard deviations below the mean plus or minus one standard error of measure; 2) Moderate: three standards deviations below the mean plus or minus one standard deviation ; 3) Severe : four or more standard deviations below the mean plus or minus one standard error of measure. (B) Adaptive behaviors deficits at or below: two standard deviations below the mean in one domain, or one and a half-standard deviations below the mean in two or more domain. Disability must have an adverse effect on education performance, and require specially designed instruction.
49MULTIPLE DISABILITIES – (MU) means two or more disabilities occurring together, the combination of which causes such severe educational needs that they cannot be accommodated in special education programs solely for one of the impairments. Multiple disabilities does not include deaf-blindness.ORTHOPEDIC IMPAIRMENT - (OI) means a severe physical impairment that adversely affects a child’s educational performance. The impairments caused by a congenital anomaly, impairments caused by disease (muscular dystrophy) and impairments from other causes i.e. cerebral palsy.OTHER HEALTH IMPAIRED - (OHI) means having limited strength, vitality or alertness, including a heightened alertness to environmental stimuli, that results in limited alertness with respect to the educational environment that …1) Is due to chronic or acute health problems such as asthma, attention deficit disorder or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, diabetes, epilepsy, a heart condition, hemophilia, lead poisoning, etc. 2) adversely affects a child’s educational performance.
50SPECIFIC LEARNING DISABILITY – (LD) – is a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or written, that may manifest itself in the impaired ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or to do mathematical calculations, including conditions such as perceptual disabilities, brain injury, minimal brain dysfunction, dyslexia, and developmental aphasia. LD does not included problems as the primarily the result of visual, hearing, or motor disabilities, mental retardation, serious emotional disturbance, or of environmental, cultural, or economic disadvantage.
51SPECIFIC LEARNING DISABILITY – (LD) – is a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or written, that may manifest itself in the impaired ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or to do mathematical calculations, including conditions such as perceptual disabilities, brain injury, minimal brain dysfunction, dyslexia, and developmental aphasia. LD does not included problems as the primarily the result of visual, hearing, or motor disabilities, mental retardation, serious emotional disturbance, or of environmental, cultural, or economic disadvantage.
52TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY – (TBI) – means an acquired injury to the brain caused by an external physical force, resulting in total or partial functional disability or psychosocial impairment or both, that adversely affects a child’s educational performance. TBI applies to open or closed head injuries resulting in impairments in one or more areas, such as cognition; language; memory; attention; reasoning; abstract thinking; judgement; problem solving; sensory; motor.... TBI does not apply to brain injuries that are congenital or degenerative, or to brain injuries induced by birth trauma.VISUAL IMPAIRMENT – (VI) this includes blindness. An impairment in vision that, even with correction adversely affects a child’s educational performance. The term includes both partial sight and blindness. A visual impairment is the result of a diagnosed ocular or cortical pathology.
54Give examples of some strategies you have used or taught. What is a strategy?A set of operations or actions that a person consciously undertakes in order to accomplish a desired goal.Give examples of some strategies you have used or taught.Click once for the title = What is a strategy? Do following activity without clicking anymore.Give groups a piece of chart paper. Have groups brainstorm different strategies they use to teach students. Share out.Do next clickGraham and Harris define a strategy as “a set of operations or actions that a person consciously undertakes in order to accomplish a desired goal”. It makes the thinking visible. P. 8 in Writing BetterStrategies are purposeful, procedural, willful and effortful. They include a procedure or plan for accomplishing a desired objective. They must also be deliberately activated and require commitment and effort to be effective. P. 9 Writing BetterDo last click and discuss.54
55A strategy is: Purposeful Relevant Step by step “How to” Systematic Simplifies a challenging taskEmpowering55
57Instructional Modifications CUEING QUESTIONSNext to the questions write down on what page the information may be found. This would work really well on information that has been color-coded.Number the paragraphs of a chapter and cue answer with number of paragraph.Same as above but underline or color code answer in the paragraph.As questions occur; either within the context of the chapter or at the end of the chapter; Record the page number where the question/answer may be found. Example: p. 15 Do you know?
58STUDY SHEETS/GUIDES AND TEST MODIFICATIONS Provide students with review outlines to guide their studying.List steps in a mathematical process or a lab activity so that the student knows exactly what he/she is to do.Ask the student to create his/her own study sheet by listing important people, events or facts. Then ask him to list relationships between the items.Have students write their own study questions after lectures, discussions and reading assignments.Teach students to recognize signal words in lectures and written material to guide studying. Example: “most of all,” “a key feature,” ” a major event,” “above all,” “especially valuable,” “remember that,” “the principal item”.Teach students to recognize conclusion words to guide their study time. Example: ‘therefore,” “as a result,” consequently,” “in addition,” “for instance”.
59TEST MODIFCATIONS: LOWER THE READABILITY Original: Compare and contrast the deciduous forest and the tundra.Revised: How are the deciduous forest and tundra alike? How are they different?Original: Plants respond to things in their environment. List 3 stimuli to which most plants respond.Revised: Name 3 things to which plants respond.Original: Discuss reasons why animals hibernate.Revised: Why do certain animal hibernate during the winter?Original: Volcanoes are produced by what conditions?Revised: What causes volcanoes?
60SHORTENED ASSIGNMENTS Identify terminology, concepts and skills that are most important and require that these items be completed first.Star the essential items, allowing bonus points for other items completed.Reduce the number of questions of problems to be done at one time. Shorter assignments made more frequently provide the same amount of practice.Allow the student to tape responses or give answers to a classmate who can write them for the student.Give slower readers modified or related stories that teach the same concepts.Cut worksheets into smaller segments and give the student one segment at a time. When one strip is completed, hand out the next. Follow this procedure until all segments are completed. When tasks are long or complex, many students have difficulty completing them.Provide a card file for the student that contains definitions of frequently used worked.Provide dittos with fill – in the blank tasks can shorten assignments as well as promote learning of new words.
61NOTE TAKINGProvide a skeleton outline (advance organizer) that includes main ideas. Ask students to complete the supporting details.Ask a reliable note taker to take notes and make a copy of those notes to be given to the special needs student as a supplement to his/her notes.Allow time at the end of the class for students to compare notes with classmates.Use a handout or an overhead transparency to show a model set of notes before note taking is completed.Have students skilled in note taking sit near the identified student and encourage note sharing.Allow time at the end of the class for note reviewing.Reinforce the student and student assistant by rewarding both for cooperatively completing note taking tasks.
62PREPARING ASSIGNMENTS SHEETS Teach/model students to follow the “Rules for Writing Assignments.” Display rules in classroom.“Rules for Writing Assignments”Write the assignment exactly as your teacher gives it.Write the word “book,” “workbook,” or “worksheet”Write the page numberWrite all important information such as Part A, number 1-10Write the date the assignment is due.Have parent/teacher initial assignment sheet/folder/etc daily.
63PRETEACH CONTENT VOCABULARY List key conceptsPick out the most crucial termsFind out which words they already knowTeach words that will lead to the learning of additional words.Teach meaning-tie to conceptsAvoid word listAvoid unrelated exercisesTeach strategies for learning new words (LINCS)Use new words repeatedly in conversationTeach use of dictionaryTeach ways to figure out new words: context clues, phonic analysis, structural analysis, combination
64VOCABULARY SHEETSExtract all boldfaced, italicized or new concepts words from the chapter.The words should be listed in the order they occur within the chapter.The corresponding page number can be recorded to the left of the word. Example: pg. 2 CommunityUse 3X5 index cards along with a file box for organization.Record on tape the vocabulary words for each chapter.LINCS – is a SIM strategy design to support the learning of new vocabulary.
65BEHAVIOR/CRISIS INTERVENTION Provide a “cool down” area in your classroom to help defuse frustration.Keep tone calm and no threatening.Avoid lecturing to the studentDevelop a signal with the student to get them to move to the “cool down” area.Reinforce student for independently moving to the “cool down” areaIf behavior is escalating – evacuate other students and send for assistance.Avoid physical contactKeep a safe distanceKeep your tone of voice calmDo not threatenAfter the student has completed deescalated then problem solve together a better way to respond to frustration, etc.
66Training ResourcesThe Access Center – Improving Outcomes for All Students Marzano, R. Handbook for Classrooms That Work Classroom Instruction that Works: Research-Based Strategies for Increasing Student Achievement. Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. (2001).Wong, J. (author) & Flavin, T. (illustrator) You have to Write. New York: Simon & Shuster.Wong, Bl, & Berninger, V. (2004). Cognitive processes of teachers in implementing composition research in elementary, middle, and high school classrooms. In E.R. Silliman, K. Apel, B.J. Ehren, & C.A. Stone (Eds), Handbook of Language and Literacy Development and Disorders. New York: Guilford.K-8.
67Training ResourcesGraham,S. & Perin,D. (2007). Writing next: Effective strategies to improve writing of adolescents in middle and high schools – A report to Carnegie Corporation of New York. Washington, DC: Alliance for Excellent Education.Graham,S. & Harris, K. (2005). Writing Better: Effective Strategies for Teaching Students with Learning Difficulties. Baltimore: Brookes Publishing.Harris, K.,Graham,S.,Mason,L.,Friedlander,B. (2008). Powerful Writing Strategies for all Students. Baltimore: Brookes Publishing.MacArthur,C.,Graham,S.,Fitzgerald,J. (2006). Handbook of Writing Research. New York: Guilford Press67
68Armbruster, B. , Lehr, F. & Osborn, J Armbruster, B., Lehr, F. & Osborn, J. (2003) Put Reading First: The Research Building Blocks for Teaching Children to Read. Center for the Improvement of Early Reading Achievement funded by National Institute for Literacy.Beck, I.L., McKeown, M.G., & Kucan, L. (2002). Bringing words to life: Robust vocabulary instructions, New York, NY: The Guilford Press.Birsh, J.R. ,ed. (2005). Multisensory teaching of basic language skills, 2nd ed. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brooks Publishing Co.Birsh, J.R. & Carreker, S. (2005) Multisensory Teaching of Basic Language Skills Activity Book. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brooks Publishing Co.Bursuck, W. & Damer, M. (2007). Reading Instruction for Students Who are At Risk or Have Disabilities. Boston: Pearson.
69Buehl, Doug (2004). Classroom Strategies for Interactive Learning Buehl, Doug (2004). Classroom Strategies for Interactive Learning. International Reading Association.Burns, Darci. Leading Literacy Change(2008) NC IDA Conference. Hanson Initiative for Language & Literacy (HILL)