# P1.5.1 General Properties of waves

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P1.5.1 General Properties of waves
P1 Physics Mr D Powell

Connection Connect your learning to the content of the lesson Share the process by which the learning will actually take place Explore the outcomes of the learning, emphasising why this will be beneficial for the learner Demonstration Use formative feedback – Assessment for Learning Vary the groupings within the classroom for the purpose of learning – individual; pair; group/team; friendship; teacher selected; single sex; mixed sex Offer different ways for the students to demonstrate their understanding Allow the students to “show off” their learning Consolidation Structure active reflection on the lesson content and the process of learning Seek transfer between “subjects” Review the learning from this lesson and preview the learning for the next Promote ways in which the students will remember A “news broadcast” approach to learning Activation Construct problem-solving challenges for the students Use a multi-sensory approach – VAK Promote a language of learning to enable the students to talk about their progress or obstacles to it Learning as an active process, so the students aren’t passive receptors

P1.5.1 General Properties of waves (Part A)
a) Waves transfer energy. b) Waves may be either transverse or longitudinal. (transverse wave the oscillations are perpendicular to the direction of energy transfer. In a longitudinal wave the oscillations are parallel to the direction of energy transfer.) c) Electromagnetic waves are transverse, sound waves are longitudinal and mechanical waves may be either transverse or longitudinal. d) All types of electromagnetic waves travel at the same speed through a vacuum (space). e) Electromagnetic waves form a continuous spectrum. (should know the order of electromagnetic waves within the spectrum, in terms of energy, frequency and wavelength and appreciate that the wavelengths vary from about 10 –15 metres to more than 104 metres.) f) Longitudinal waves show areas of compression and rarefaction.

P1.5.1 The Nature of Waves... P78-79 a) Waves transfer energy. (Basic)
b) Waves may be either transverse or longitudinal. (transverse wave the oscillations are perpendicular to the direction of energy transfer. In a longitudinal wave the oscillations are parallel to the direction of energy transfer.) (Basic) c) Electromagnetic waves are transverse, sound waves are longitudinal and mechanical waves may be either transverse or longitudinal. (Basic) d) All types of electromagnetic waves travel at the same speed through a vacuum (space). (Basic) f) Longitudinal waves show areas of compression and rarefaction. (Harder) P1.5.1

Energy Delivery... A key idea for an wave is that the shorter the wavelength or higher the frequency the more energy is delivered per second to an object. It makes sense that for a wave which travels at the same speed 300,000,000m/s (in a vacuum) is it is shorter then more will arrive per second each delivering energy. P1.5.1

Energy Delivery... A good analogy is a water wave arriving on a beach.
Energy arrives as the peak of each wave arrives More peaks per second means more energy per second More J/s is more Power or Watts. Example you sit in the sun and get hotter the longer you sit there. The more waves arrive the thermal energy is deposited on your skin P1.5.1

Longitudinal Waves Using a slinky you can try this out.
In fact we are modelling how the air molecules compress and expand when we talk. Rarefaction is an expansion! VIBRATION Common examples:- Sound, slinky springs seismic p waves Longitudinal waves cannot be polarised Try it with a slinky! P1.5.1

Common examples:- Sound, slinky springs seismic p waves
Longitudinal Direction of travel VIBRATION The direction of vibration of the particles is parallel to the direction in which the wave travels. Common examples:- Sound, slinky springs seismic p waves Longitudinal waves cannot be polarised P1.5.1

Common examples:- Water, electromagnetic, ropes, seismic s waves
Transverse Direction of travel vibration The direction of vibration of the particles is perpendicular to the direction in which the wave travels. Common examples:- Water, electromagnetic, ropes, seismic s waves You can prove that you have a transverse wave if you can polarise the wave (especially important with light (electromagnetic) as you cannot “see” the wave!!) P1.5.1 Try it with a slinky!

Exam Question…. (Basic Level)
State the characteristic features of (i) longitudinal waves, (ii) transverse waves. (3) Answer a) (i) particle vibration (or disturbance or oscillation) (1) same as (or parallel to) direction of propagation (or energy transfer) (1) (ii) (particle vibration) perpendicular to direction of propagation (or energy transfer) (1) P1.5.1

d) All types of electromagnetic waves travel at the same speed through a vacuum (space). (Basic)
The speed of electromagnetic radiation in a vacuum is 299,792,458 m/s. Which is often quoted as 300,000km/s or 3 x 108km/s This is approximately three hundred million metres per second - nearly nine hundred thousand times faster than sound, which is why you see a flash of lightning before you hear the thunder. All EM waves travel through space (which is empty of matter) at the speed of light. Light is an example of an EM wave. If the EM wave enters a medium such as air it will slow down, then a prism even more. P1.5.1

P1.5.1 The Nature of Waves... P78-79 “Quick Test”....
Student Assessed! Basic Demand Name the two main types of mechanical waves (2 marks) Give an example of each type of wave (2 marks) Explain a feature of each type of wave (2 marks) What is the value of the speed of light (1 mark) Draw a diagram to show the main features of (3 marks) Med Demand ? / 10 High Demand

P1.6.1 The Electromagnetic Spectrum p94 (only first section)
e) Electromagnetic waves form a continuous spectrum. (BASIC) Know the order of electromagnetic waves within the spectrum in terms of: Energy Frequency Wavelength (Medium) Appreciate that the wavelengths vary from about 10–15 metres to more than 104 metres. (Harder) P1.6.1 p94-96

S This is the EM Spectrum...
Can you remember any parts of it. Write out 1-8 in your books and test yourself? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 P1.6.1 p94-96

T The EM Spectrum This is the Electromagnetic Spectrum. It is a range of waveforms which deliver energy from one place to another with different frequencies and wavelengths. Higher Frequency Longer wavelength P1.6.1 p94-96

Spectrum Summary Wave Wavelength Use Long Wave Radio 1500 m
Broadcasting Medium Wave Radio 300 m Short Wave Radio 25 m FM Radio 3 m Broadcasting and communication UHF Radio 30 cm TV transmissions Microwaves 3 cm Communication Radar Heating up food Infra red 3 mm Communication in optical fibres Remote Controllers Heating Light nm Seeing Communicating Ultra violet 100 nm Sterilising Sun tanning X-ray 5 nm Shadow pictures of bones Gamma rays <0.01 nm Scientific research P1.6.1 p94

Hazards of EM Radiation...
Wave Wavelength Hazard Prevention Long Wave Radio 1500 m No hazard Medium Wave Radio 300 m Short Wave Radio 25 m FM Radio 3 m UHF Radio 30 cm Microwaves 3 cm Heating of water in the body Metal grid Infra red 3 mm Heating effect Reflective surface Light nm Ultra violet 100 nm Can cause cancer Sun cream (or cover up) X-ray 5 nm Causes cell damage Lead screens Gamma rays <0.01 nm Thick lead screens or concrete P1.6.1 p94-96 P1.6.1 p94

Which word links all of these images...
P1.6.1 p94-96

Copy text & diagram Visible Light Wavelength in nanometres (nm) 1x10-9 or x m Violet Indigo Blue Green Yellow Orange Red White light is dispersed by a prism to form a spectrum (not to scale) Visible light is detected by the human eye. White light consists of ROY-G-BIV (as shown above). Each colour is a range of wavelengths and is absorbed differently by the cells in the eye. Visible light is the middle part of the EM Spectrum sandwiched between Ultraviolet (more than violet) & Infra Red (less than red)

O Y V Visible Light Copy & Complete Wavelength in nanometres (nm)
1x10-9 or x m Shorter Wavelength O Y V Infra Red Ultraviolet >750 <400 Higher Frequency P1.6.1 p94-96

IR R O Y G B I V UV Visible Light Answers
Wavelength in nanometres (nm) 1x10-9 or x m Shorter Wavelength IR R O Y G B I V UV Infra Red Red Orange Yellow green Blue Indigo Violet Ultraviolet >750 <400 Higher Frequency P1.6.1 p94-96

P1.6.1 p94-96

Y V Y V Y V Infra Red Infra Red Infra Red >750 750 -609 500-465
Y V Infra Red >750 Y V Infra Red >750

P1.5.1 General Prop of waves (Part A)
a) Waves transfer energy. b) Waves may be either transverse or longitudinal. (transverse wave the oscillations are perpendicular to the direction of energy transfer. In a longitudinal wave the oscillations are parallel to the direction of energy transfer.) c) Electromagnetic waves are transverse, sound waves are longitudinal and mechanical waves may be either transverse or longitudinal. d) All types of electromagnetic waves travel at the same speed through a vacuum (space). e) Electromagnetic waves form a continuous spectrum. (should know the order of electromagnetic waves within the spectrum, in terms of energy, frequency and wavelength and appreciate that the wavelengths vary from about 10 –15 metres to more than 104 metres.) f) Longitudinal waves show areas of compression and rarefaction. P1.5.1 General Prop of waves (Part A) a) Waves transfer energy. b) Waves may be either transverse or longitudinal. (transverse wave the oscillations are perpendicular to the direction of energy transfer. In a longitudinal wave the oscillations are parallel to the direction of energy transfer.) c) Electromagnetic waves are transverse, sound waves are longitudinal and mechanical waves may be either transverse or longitudinal. d) All types of electromagnetic waves travel at the same speed through a vacuum (space). e) Electromagnetic waves form a continuous spectrum. (should know the order of electromagnetic waves within the spectrum, in terms of energy, frequency and wavelength and appreciate that the wavelengths vary from about 10 –15 metres to more than 104 metres.) f) Longitudinal waves show areas of compression and rarefaction. P1.5.1 General Prop of waves (Part A) a) Waves transfer energy. b) Waves may be either transverse or longitudinal. (transverse wave the oscillations are perpendicular to the direction of energy transfer. In a longitudinal wave the oscillations are parallel to the direction of energy transfer.) c) Electromagnetic waves are transverse, sound waves are longitudinal and mechanical waves may be either transverse or longitudinal. d) All types of electromagnetic waves travel at the same speed through a vacuum (space). e) Electromagnetic waves form a continuous spectrum. (should know the order of electromagnetic waves within the spectrum, in terms of energy, frequency and wavelength and appreciate that the wavelengths vary from about 10 –15 metres to more than 104 metres.) f) Longitudinal waves show areas of compression and rarefaction.

P1.5.1 General Properties of waves (Part B)
g) Waves can be reflected, refracted and diffracted. (significant diffraction only occurs when the wavelength of the wave is of the same order of magnitude as the size of the gap or obstacle.) h) Waves undergo a change of direction when they are refracted at an interface. i) The terms frequency, wavelength and amplitude. j) All waves obey the wave equation: v = f  v is speed in metres per second, m/s f is frequency in hertz, Hz  is wavelength in metres, m k) Radio waves, microwaves, infrared and visible light can be used for communication. Should be familiar with situations in which such waves are typically used and any associated hazards, eg: radio waves – television, and radio (including diffraction effects) microwaves – mobile phones and satellite television infrared – remote controls visible light – photography.

P1.6.1 The Electromagnetic Spectrum (next part! P94)
e) Electromagnetic waves form a continuous spectrum. (BASIC) Know the order of electromagnetic waves within the spectrum in terms of: Energy, Frequency, Wavelength (Medium) Appreciate that the wavelengths vary from about 10–15 metres to more than 104 metres. (Harder) j) All waves obey the wave equation: v = f  ( or c = f) v is speed in metres per second, m/s f is frequency in hertz, Hz  is wavelength in metres, m P1.5.2 p80 / P1.6.1 p94

Practical Investigation...
Take your ruler and investigate the sound wave it creates by “twanging” it with your fingers. (Take care not to break it) Think about the relationship between pitch (frequency) and length. Then make a verbal prediction for what might happen with a string or tube?

wave speed = frequency x wavelength
What is a wave? Waves can be produced in ropes, springs and on the surface of water. When waves travel along ropes or springs or across the surface of water they set up regular patterns of disturbance. They are a way of transferring energy from one point to another without transferring matter. The maximum disturbance caused by a wave is called its amplitude The distance between a particular point on one disturbance and the same point on the next is called the wavelength The number of waves each second produced by a source (or passing a particular point) is called the frequency, and is measured in hertz (Hz). We can find the speed of a wave from the formula; wave speed = frequency x wavelength P1.5.2 p80 / P1.6.1 p94

Using the Formula 3m This waveform has a wavelength of 3m. By inspection it takes 2 seconds for a complete cycle (1 up & 1 down) To work out the frequency then wave speed we must find out how many cycles there are in one second; P1.5.2 p80 / P1.6.1 p94

Question.... The photograph shows waves travelling across the surface of a pond. 1m Is this an example of a transverse or longitudinal wave? Estimate the wavelength of the wave: If the frequency of the wave is 0.2 Hz, calculate the speed of the wave: transverse 0.15m 0.03m/s P1.5.2 p80 / P1.6.1 p94

6 3 10 5 1 0.5 Wave Waves Time (s) Frequency (Hz) 2 Wave Equation
If three waveforms are monitored over a time of 2 seconds can you fill in the table? Wave Waves Time (s) Frequency (Hz) 2 6 3 10 5 1 0.5 P1.5.2 p80 / P1.6.1 p94

Plenary Questions.. 222Hz 3.75m 146kHz 0.0004m 1Hz
Work out the frequency of a wave which travels at a speed of 666ms-1 and has a wavelength of 3m? What is the speed of a wave which has a frequency of 125Hz, and wavelength of 0.03m? What is the speed of a wave which has a frequency of 2000Hz, and wavelength of 73m? What is the wavelength of a wave travelling at 10,000 ms-1 if its frequency is 25MHz? What is the speed of a wave with wavelength of m and frequency 1 MHz? 222Hz 3.75m 146kHz 0.0004m 1Hz P1.5.2 p80 / P1.6.1 p94

P1.6.1 The Electromagnetic Spectrum p94 (only first section)“Quick Test”....
Student Assessed! Basic Demand Give the main order of the EM spectrum (3 marks) Make it clear which part of the spectrum has low-high freq or wavelength (1 mark) Which part of the spectrum is more dangerous and why (2 marks) If a wave travels as 3 x 108ms-1 and has a wavelength of 900 million Hz what would it’s wavelength be? (2 marks) Med Demand ? / 8 High Demand

Wave Properties: P1. 5. 3 Reflection/ 1. 5. 4 Refraction/ 1. 5
Wave Properties: P1.5.3 Reflection/ Refraction/ 1.5.5Diffraction p82-87 g) Waves can be reflected, refracted and diffracted. h) Waves undergo a change of direction when they are refracted at an interface. – video! (significant diffraction only occurs when the wavelength of the wave is of the same order of magnitude as the size of the gap or obstacle) Explain law of reflection & a diagram of basic reflection (Basic) Explain/ draw a “virtual” image diagram (Harder) Explain the idea of refraction using a glass prism (Basic) Explain dispersion using a triangular prism (Medium) Explain refraction using a water tank and depth change (Harder) Explain how diffraction changes depending on gap size (Basic) Explain how diffraction used in ultra sound (Medium) Explain how microwaves can show diffraction (Harder) P1.5.3/1.5.4/1.5.5 p-82-87

Reflection.... p82

Refraction.... p84

Refraction.... “Spectrums” “Dispersion”

Diffraction... p86

Diffraction... P86 - Radio? This explains why it is possible to hear sounds and receive radio signals even if there is something between you and the source of the waves. If the wavelength of the waves is shorter the spreading, diffraction, effect is much smaller as well. This explains why television waves (shorter) are much more difficult to receive in hilly areas than radio waves which have a longer wavelength and why the diffraction of light (very short) is so difficult to observe.

Key Points TASK: Watch the videos and look at P1.5.4 p84/ P1.5.5 p86 to help you understand the idea of refraction and diffraction. Make a set of summary notes for each topic of the key points. Now move onto some practical investigations to assist in your understanding. Refraction…. Waves pass a boundary i.e. air to glass prism or deep to shallow water they “refract” or change direction and change speed. Light bends in towards the normal for air to glass and reverse as it comes out. Water waves moving into the shallows slow down and have smaller . c= f  so if c  so   Diffraction…. Wave fronts incident on a gap. The narrower the gap the more the waves curve or the longer/larger the wavelength the more they spread out. P1.5.3/1.5.4/1.5.5 p-82-87

HW: Virtual Ripple Tanks…
Use the virtual ripple tank here to explore wave properties. Make summary notes on what you find for a variety of situations. You may decide to screenshot out the image to help you. (NB: pick a nice colour scheme) P1.5.3/1.5.4/1.5.5 p-82-87

Wave Properties: P1. 5. 3 Reflection/ 1. 5. 4 Refraction/ 1. 5
Wave Properties: P1.5.3 Reflection/ Refraction/ Diffraction Basic Demand Light is incident on a mirrored surface at 30 what is the angle of reflection (1 mark) Light is incident on a glass prism at an angle of 30 what happens to the ray inside the prism? (2 marks) Water waves are incident on a small gap approx the size of the wavelength () what happens? (2 marks) Sometimes at certain angles you can see an object behind a mirror what is this called? (1 mark) When white light is incident of a triangular prism it produces a spectrum of light (dispersion). Why is this? (1 mark) When water waves reach a shallower part what happens to the speed and wavelength? (2 marks) If you make the gap in question 3 larger what happens to the pattern? (1 mark) Student Assessed! Med Demand ? / 10 High Demand

S EM Spectrum Revision....

P1 6.2 Light, IR, Microwaves & Radio & P1.6.3 Communications.
k) Radio waves, microwaves, infrared and visible light can be used for communication. Give examples of how light, IR, Microwaves & Radio can be used to transfer data. Draw an example with a diagram (Basic) Label the diagram to explain it (Medium) Explain key properties of the waves used i.e. Frequencies or wavelengths and how the mediums they travel through change the waves (Harder) Give examples of Radio and TV and how they move through the atmosphere (Medium) Use context of the British Army to explain how they use EM Waves (from slides) (Harder) P1.6.2 p96 / P1.6.2 p98

Royal Signals Case Study....
M Royal Signals Case Study.... As the IT and Communications providers for the British Army the Royal Signals Corps deploy everywhere the Army goes. Its role is to provide the Command, Control and Information systems that are required to enable the rest of the Army to communicate - in essence, the equivalent of BT or a mobile telephone provider, but within in an operational environment where there may not be any other form of communications available. From small tactical radio communications equipment to large satellite dishes linking continents and passing vast amounts of information - the Royal Signals delivers communication solutions using some of the most advanced technology in the world today. The ingenuity, creativity and expertise of the Royal Signals are renowned often having to adapt equipment for extreme climatic and geographical conditions. Providing digital, VHF and satellite communications anywhere in the world, the RSC provides fully secure communications in all environments and conditions. D-E TASK Look at the summary of the role of of the Royal Signals. Can you present and summarise the key points of text into bullet point form in your book. P1.6.2 p96 / P1.6.2 p98

Systems Ptarmigan is the current mainstay of the Army's Tactical Trunk Communications System and provides fully secure digital communications throughout the battlefield. Clansman is the in-service family of tactical radios with which the British Army is currently equipped to provide communications from formation headquarters to the fighting units. Bowman is the new tactical communications system. It will exploit the latest developments in radio and computer technology to meet the needs for all three services well into the 21st century. This will for the first time give commanders at all levels secure voice and data communications as well as an integrated Global Positioning System (GPS). The Army uses tactical satellite ground terminals (SGT) which can provide high quality, high bandwidth communications links at very short notice anywhere in the world. B/C TASK Read about the current systems available to the UK Army in Helmand Province Afghanistan. Can you Prioritise and Summarise what you think are the main features of an Army coms system that is essential and fit for purpose? (this develops on from the previous idea.) P1.6.2 p96 / P1.6.2 p98

Microwaves Case Study... Microwave oven:
They are absorbed by water and food contains water and this effect causes food to heat by vibrating its molecules. The fact that metal reflects microwaves allows us to contain them within the oven. Satellites: They can pass freely through the atmosphere and ionosphere, allowing them to go into space and to come back to earth. The electromagnetic radiation within a microwave is able to carry a signal which can then be converted into information on its arrival at a receiver. P1.6.2 p96 / P1.6.2 p98

M Radio waves You might wonder how we manage to listen to the radio and watch television and receive long distance signals. This diagram shows that we can in fact bounce longer wavelength signals off the ionosphere (a layer in the atmosphere). This layer changes with the seasons. (stronger – summer) TASKS Sketch out the diagram and label how we get our signals and why? radio TV D-E P1.6.2 p96 / P1.6.2 p98

Examples of Communications Waveforms.
Medium Frequency used in older military radios Very High Frequency (VHF) or Ultra High Frequency (UHF) used by commercial radio or TV bands Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) used by submarines P1.6.2 p96 / P1.6.2 p98

Complex View I - extension
The ionosphere is the uppermost part of the atmosphere, distinguished because it is ionised by solar radiation. It plays an important part in atmospheric electricity and forms the inner edge of the magnetosphere. It has practical importance because, among other functions, it influences radio propagation to distant places on the Earth. P1.6.2 p96 / P1.6.2 p98

Complex View II - extension
The ionosphere is broken down into the D, E and F regions. The breakdown is based on what wavelength of solar radiation is absorbed in that region most frequently. The D region is the lowest in altitude, though it absorbs the most energetic radiation, hard x-rays. The D region doesn't have a definite starting and stopping point, but includes the ionization that occurs below about 90km. The E region peaks at about 105km. It absorbs soft x-rays. The F region starts around 105km and has a maximum around 600km. It is the highest of all of the regions. Extreme ultra-violet radiation (EUV) is absorbed there. On a more practical note, the D and E regions reflect AM radio waves back to Earth. Radio waves with shorter lengths are reflected by the F region. Visible light, television and FM wavelengths are all too short to be reflected by the ionosphere. So your t.v. stations are made possible by satellite transmissions or direct air to air on Earth transmission P1.6.2 p96 / P1.6.2 p98

IR Light Infra red waves are absorbed by air, but are readily transmitted by glass.  Visible light is rapidly absorbed by glass.  Therefore infra-red is used for telecommunication by optical fibres.  Optical fibres are very flexible and allow the infra red signals to travel around corners. P1.6.2 p96 / P1.6.2 p98

Microwaves Properties
They can pass through the atmosphere and the ionosphere They can pass through glass and plastic They are reflected by metal They are absorbed by water molecules They can cause materials to heat by vibrating their molecules They travel at the speed of light or 300,000,000 m/s They are transverse waves. P1.6.2 p96 / P1.6.2 p98

Penetration of Microwaves
P1.6.2 p96 / P1.6.2 p98

Microwaves Extension... G&T
A*-B Water molecules are dipolar molecules. This means that they organise their electrons in such a way as to make one side of the molecules positively charged and the other side negatively charged.  Microwaves are actually radio waves in a specific wavelength and frequency band. In microwave ovens this is usually around 12.2 cm and 2.45 GHz. Microwaves (and all other electromagnetic waves) form oscillating electric fields which go from positive to negative and back again in this case 2.45 billion times a second.  Because opposite charges attract and like charges repel and the electric field keeps changing from positive to negative and back again, this forces the water molecules to continuously realign themselves to try and keep up. This rotational motion causes the molecules to bump into each other increasing their random (movement or) kinetic energy. The random kinetic energy of molecules is another way of describing heat! So the more kinetic energy the molecules have the hotter the material becomes. TASK Read about the information about how microwaves heat water. Now try to explain the situation using your own labelled diagram created from the text. Draw spiders out with detailed explanations…

P1 6.2 Light, IR, Microwaves & Radio & P1.6.3 Communications.
Student Assessed! Basic Demand Name the visible spectrum of light (3 marks) Where does IR radiation lie compared to visible (1 mark) Where does UV radiation lie compared to visible (1 mark) Give a two example(s) of the use of IR radiation (1 mark) Give a two example(s) of the use of microwave radiation other than cooking (1 mark) Explain how radio can be used for PC peripheral communications? (2 marks) Why are microwaves dangerous at higher powers (1 mark) Med Demand ? / 10 High Demand

Extra Questions.... receiver a.c ariel Transmitter frequency
Alternating currents, ariel, transmitter, frequency interference obstructions frequency Interference, frequency, obstructions heard seen receiver pictures sound heard, seen, receiver, sound, pictures P1.6.2 p96 / P1.6.2 p98

v = f  v = f  v = f  P1.5.1 General Prop of waves (Part B)
g) Waves can be reflected, refracted and diffracted. (significant diffraction only occurs when the wavelength of the wave is of the same order of magnitude as the size of the gap or obstacle.) h) Waves undergo a change of direction when they are refracted at an interface. i) The terms frequency, wavelength and amplitude. j) All waves obey the wave equation: v = f  v is speed in metres per second, m/s f is frequency in hertz, Hz  is wavelength in metres, m k) Radio waves, microwaves, infrared and visible light can be used for communication. P1.5.1 General Prop of waves (Part B) g) Waves can be reflected, refracted and diffracted. (significant diffraction only occurs when the wavelength of the wave is of the same order of magnitude as the size of the gap or obstacle.) h) Waves undergo a change of direction when they are refracted at an interface. i) The terms frequency, wavelength and amplitude. j) All waves obey the wave equation: v = f  v is speed in metres per second, m/s f is frequency in hertz, Hz  is wavelength in metres, m k) Radio waves, microwaves, infrared and visible light can be used for communication. P1.5.1 General Prop of waves (Part B) g) Waves can be reflected, refracted and diffracted. (significant diffraction only occurs when the wavelength of the wave is of the same order of magnitude as the size of the gap or obstacle.) h) Waves undergo a change of direction when they are refracted at an interface. i) The terms frequency, wavelength and amplitude. j) All waves obey the wave equation: v = f  v is speed in metres per second, m/s f is frequency in hertz, Hz  is wavelength in metres, m k) Radio waves, microwaves, infrared and visible light can be used for communication.

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