8Triglycerides Thermo-Cracking: Vegetable OilPyrolysis temperaturerange (oC)Distillation temperature fraction (oC) yield (wt %)< 80140 – 200> 200Soybean350 to 400101560Palm (Elaeis sp.)330 to 3807975Castor20Soares, V. C. D.; Lima, D. G. De; Ribeiro, E. B; Carvalho, D. A.; Cardoso, É. C. V.; Rassi, F. C.; Mundim, K. C.; Rubim, J. C.; Suarez, P. A. Z. Journal Of Analytical And Applied Pyrolysis, v. 71, n. 2, p , 2004.
9Triglycerides Thermo-Cracking: Physical-chemical propertyRaw-materialBrazilian DieselMethodSoy-beanSoap-stockPalm-treeCastorTallow-beefFuel SpecificationASTMDensity at 20 oC, Kg/m3844.0844818.4882.3822820 a 880D1298D4052Viscosity at 40 oC, cSt(mm2/s)3.53.022.73.74.832.5 a 5.5D445Cetane number50.150.452.730.945.345D613Acid number (mg KOH/g)116.24.54133.0207.587.07-D465-9Cooper corrosion, 3h a 50 ºC1aD130Distillation(oC)initial90.6230.063.597.5210.0Take noteD8650 %265.9275.0245.2254.3273.0245.0 a 310.085 %307.5305.0273.2310.0370.0(max)final344.9nd274.2297.0SUAREZ, P. A. Z. et al.; J. Anal. Appl. Pyrolysis, v. 71, n. 2, p , 2004.SUAREZ, P. A. Z. et al.; submitted for publication, 2006.
10Triglycerides Thermo-Cracking: The heat of combustion of biofuel/diesel blends obtained by transesterification (■) and by pyrolysis (○) of soybean oil.E. DeOliveira, R.L. Quirino, P.A.Z. Suarez, A.G.S. Prado,Thermochimica Acta (2006), accepted for publication.
11Triglycerides Catalytic-Cracking: Decarbonylation/decarboxylation of carboxilic acids:The use of Zeolites affords gasoline-range hydrocarbons and high content in aromatic compounds.- Dandik, L.; Aksoy, H. A.; Erdem-Senatalar, A.; Energy & Fuels 1998, 12,Santos, F. R.; Ferreira, J. C. N.; da Costa, S. R. R.; Química Nova 1998, 21, 560.The use of basic solids (magnesium or calcium hydroxides) inhibits the decomposition of oxygenated compounds.-R. O. Idem, S. P. R. Katikaneni, N. N. Bakhshi, Fuel Proc. Tech. 1997, 51, 101.
13Triglycerides Catalytic-Cracking: Preparation of Catalysts (Al2O3)X(SnO)Y(ZnO)ZThe mixture was left under stirring at room temperature for 30 min and then kept in a refrigerator overnight;The resulting coprecipitate was isolated by filtration and washed several times with distilled water;The washed coprecipitate was dried then activated thermally;SUAREZ, P. A. Z. et al.; J. Braz. Chem. Soc., accepted for publication, 2006.
14Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP- EOS): BET surface area:CatalystBET Area (m2/g)(Al2O3)80(SnO)20(ZnO)012.54(Al2O3)80(SnO)10(ZnO)1042.62(Al2O3)80(SnO)0(ZnO)2082.42Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP- EOS):CatalystAlSnZn(Al2O3)80(SnO)20(ZnO)081.318.70.0(Al2O3)80(SnO)10(ZnO)1082.010.08.0(Al2O3)80(SnO)0(ZnO)2080.02.0SUAREZ, P. A. Z. et al.; J. Braz. Chem. Soc., accepted for publication, 2006.
15Catalytic Experiments: oCoC100 g vegetable oil / 1 g catalystmL- Separation of aqueous and organic phases by decantation- Distillation of the organic phaseSUAREZ, P. A. Z. et al.; submitted for publication, 2006.
16SUAREZ, P. A. Z. et al.; submitted for publication, 2006. Results: Soybean oilCatalystRecovered organic phase (g)Distillation temperature fraction (oC) yield (wt %)< 80ºC80-140ºCºC> 200ºCSn10/Zn10/Al8062,0101961Zn20/Al8066,52271259Sn20/Al8065,01762057SUAREZ, P. A. Z. et al.; submitted for publication, 2006.
17Integration of C=O (1710 cm-1) Results: Soybean oilCatalystAI(mg KOH/g)Integration of C=O (1710 cm-1)-11673.6Sn20/Al8010043.2Sn10/Zn10/Al808242.3Zn20/Al808747.3SUAREZ, P. A. Z. et al.; submitted for publication, 2006.
18Results: Castor oilSUAREZ, P. A. Z. et al.; under preparation, 2006.
19Results: Castor oilSUAREZ, P. A. Z. et al.; under preparation, 2006.
20Remarks:No significant differences were observed in the recovered distillation temperature fractions;All the catalytic systems formed by doped alumina are active for the decarbonylation/decarboxylation of carboxylic acids during soybean and castor oils pyrolysis and also for dehydroxylation of castor oil products, reducing the AI up to 50 %.
21Process UnB/Embrapa:UnB/Embrapa Patent: PI BR , 2002.
22Process UnB/Embrapa: 2005/2006 Mass and energy Balance: Raw-material: - “Nabo Forrageiro” – 814 Kg of grainsEnergy used:- Electric – oil extraction and filtration- Petroleum Gas – crackingTemperature:- 390 C
23Process UnB/Embrapa: Mass Balance: Vegetable oil processed: kg 100 %Liquid Hydrocarbons produced: 166 kg 78 %Gas produced (including hydrocarbons): 34 kg 16 %Water produced: kg 5 %Energy Balance:Total energy consumption (A): 37,49 kW (35,31 kW gas)Heat of combustion of the products (B): 100,57 kWHeat of combustion of the diesel-like (C): 71,23 kWB/A = 2,68; C/A = 1,9
24Process UnB/Embrapa:1 – The diesel-like fuels obtained from wild turnip and soy-bean match the ANP specifications for diesel fuel (ANP 310 – 2001);2- The acidity value is between 50 and 60 mg KOH/g (less than when carried out in lab-scale reactors – residential time)3 – The energy balance is positive (ca.3:1).4 – The light fractions have energy equivalent to the energy consumption.
25Triglycerides Hydro-Cracking: Completely conversion into hydrocarbons using Ni,Mo / -Al2O3 in the presence of H2.-Gusmão, J.; Brodzki, D., Djéga-Mariadassou, G.; Frety, R.; Catalysis Today 1989, 5, 533.
26PETROBRAS process (H-BIO): Mixtures using up to 18 % of soybean oil;CENPES Patent: PI , 2005.
27Final Remarks:It is possible to produce a “diesel-like” fuel from triglycerides;The physical-chemical properties match the petrol-diesel specification;Further studies are needed to understand the impact of oxygenated compounds in the engines.
28Research Group: Professors: Dr. Joel Camargo Rubim Dr. Paulo Anselmo Ziani SuarezEmbrapa researchers: Pos-doc:Dr. José Roberto Peres Dr. Ana Claudia SousaDr. Elias de Freitas JúniorMaster/Graduate students:Eric B. Ribeiro Rafael Quirino Jefferson S. OliveiraJuliana P. Rodrigues Rodrigo Lavich Flavia C. C. OliveiraUndergraduate students:André L.S. Santos Leila Daher Fernando C. GaracChristian R. dos Reis Rafael Abdala Vinícius M. MelloGustavo H. Mastrangelo Oswaldo K. Iha Hugo F. RamalhoPoliana Macoski