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2010 ECOLOGY (B&C) KAREN LANCOUR National Bio Rules Committee Chairman

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Presentation on theme: "2010 ECOLOGY (B&C) KAREN LANCOUR National Bio Rules Committee Chairman"— Presentation transcript:

1 2010 ECOLOGY (B&C) KAREN LANCOUR National Bio Rules Committee Chairman karenlancour@charter.net

2 EVENT COMPONENTS Ecology Content – 2009 Ecology Content – 2009 Principles of Ecology (about 50 %) Grasslands and Taiga of North America (about 50%) Process skills Process skills in data, graph and diagram analysis Event parameters – check the event parameters in the rules for resources allowed. Event parameters – check the event parameters in the rules for resources allowed.

3 TRAINING MATERIALS Training Handout – content Training Handout – content Event Supervisor Guide – sample stations, process skills, methods Event Supervisor Guide – sample stations, process skills, methods Internet Resource – links to on-line courses, lab manuals, notes, sites Internet Resource – links to on-line courses, lab manuals, notes, sites Sample Tournaments – sample stations with key Sample Tournaments – sample stations with key

4 Section I: General Principles of Ecology ECOLOGY ECOLOGY – how organisms interact with one another and with their environment ENVIRONMENT ENVIRONMENT – living and non-living components ABIOTIC – non-living component or physical factors as soil, rainfall, sunlight, temperatures ABIOTIC – non-living component or physical factors as soil, rainfall, sunlight, temperatures BIOTIC – living component are other organisms BIOTIC – living component are other organisms.

5 ECOLOGICAL ORGANIZATION INDIVIDUAL INDIVIDUAL – individual organisms POPULATION POPULATION – organisms of same species in same area (biotic factors) COMMUNITY COMMUNITY – several populations in same area (biotic factors) ECOSYSTEM ECOSYSTEM – community plus abiotic factors BIOSPHERE BIOSPHERE – all ecosystems on earth

6 ECOLOGY OF INDIVIDUALS Homeostasis – delicate balance Homeostasis – delicate balance Components Components Physiological Ecology Physiological Ecology Temperature and Water Balance Temperature and Water Balance Light and Biological Cycles Light and Biological Cycles Physiological Ecology and Conservation Physiological Ecology and Conservation

7 ECOLOGY OF POPULATIONS Properties of populations Properties of populations Patterns of distribution and density Patterns of distribution and density Intraspecific competition Intraspecific competition Population dynamics Population dynamics Growth and regulation Growth and regulation Altering population growth Altering population growth Human impact Human impact

8 Growth Curves

9 Human Population

10 Survival Curves Survivorship is the percentage of remaining survivors of a population over time; usually shown graphically. Type I survivorship curve: most individuals live out their life span and die of old age (e.g., humans). Type II survivorship curve: individuals die at a constant rate (e.g., birds, rodents, and perennial plants). Type III survivorship curve: most individuals die early in life (e.g., fishes, invertebrates, and plants). Survivorship is the percentage of remaining survivors of a population over time; usually shown graphically. Type I survivorship curve: most individuals live out their life span and die of old age (e.g., humans). Type II survivorship curve: individuals die at a constant rate (e.g., birds, rodents, and perennial plants). Type III survivorship curve: most individuals die early in life (e.g., fishes, invertebrates, and plants).

11 ECOLOGY OF COMMUNITIES Closed vs. Open communities Closed vs. Open communities Closed – sharp boundaries Closed – sharp boundaries Open – Lack boundaries Open – Lack boundaries Species abundance and diversity Species abundance and diversity Trophic Structure of Communities Trophic Structure of Communities Food chains Food chains Food web Food web Trophic pyramid Trophic pyramid

12 INTERACTIONS AMONG SPECIES Interactions Interactions Interspecific competition Interspecific competition Predation Predation Exploitation Exploitation Symbiosis Symbiosis

13 Types of Species Interactions Neutral – two species do not interact Neutral – two species do not interact Mutualism – both benefit Mutualism – both benefit Commensalism – one benefits, other neutral Commensalism – one benefits, other neutral Parasitism – one benefits, one harmed Parasitism – one benefits, one harmed but not killed Predation – one benefits, other killed Predation – one benefits, other killed

14 Predator - Prey Relationship

15 Food Chain rose plant aphids beetle chameleon hawk rose plant aphids beetle chameleon hawk Producer 1 st order Consumer or Herbivore 2 nd order Consumer or 1 st order Carnivore 3 rd order Consumer or 2 nd order Carnivore 4 th order Consumer or 3 rd order Carnivore Decomposers – consume dead and decaying matter

16 Food Web

17 ECOLOGY OF ECOSYSTEMS Energy Flow Energy Flow Energy Flow Pyramids Energy Flow Pyramids Bio-mass Pyramids Bio-mass Pyramids Community Succession and Stability Community Succession and Stability Nutrient Recycling – nutrient cycles Nutrient Recycling – nutrient cycles

18 Energy vs Nutrient Nutrients – cyclic (Biogeochemical Cycles) Energy flow – one way

19 Ecologic Pyramids Ecological pyramid - a graph representing trophic level numbers within an ecosystem. The primary producer level is at the base of the pyramid with the consumer levels above. Numbers pyramid - compares the number of individuals in each trophic level. Numbers pyramid - compares the number of individuals in each trophic level. Biomass pyramid - compares the total dry weight of the organisms in each trophic level. Biomass pyramid - compares the total dry weight of the organisms in each trophic level. Energy pyramid - compares the total amount of energy available in each trophic level. This energy is usually measured in kilocalories. Energy pyramid - compares the total amount of energy available in each trophic level. This energy is usually measured in kilocalories.

20 Numbers Pyramid

21 Biomass & Energy Flow Pyramids

22 Biogeochemical Cycles Hydrologic Cycle Hydrologic Cycle Phosphorus Cycle Phosphorus Cycle Nitrogen Cycle Nitrogen Cycle Carbon Cycle Carbon Cycle

23 Hydrologic (Water) Cycle

24 Phosphorus Cycle

25 Nitrogen Cycle

26 Carbon Cycle

27 Biosphere Types of Ecological Spheres Types of Ecological Spheres Biosphere Biosphere Lithosphere Lithosphere Hydrosphere Hydrosphere Atmosphere Atmosphere Biogeochemical Cycles Biogeochemical Cycles Disruption of Biosphere Disruption of Biosphere Specie Extinction & Biosphere Destruction Specie Extinction & Biosphere Destruction

28 Section II: ECOLOGY OF BIOMES Weather and Climate Weather and Climate Types of Biomes Types of Biomes Aquatic biomes Aquatic biomes Terrestrial biomes Terrestrial biomes 2010 – Biomes of North America 2010 – Biomes of North America Grasslands Grasslands Taiga (Boreal Forest or Coniferous Forest) Taiga (Boreal Forest or Coniferous Forest)

29 Terrestrial Biomes – Latitude vs. Altitude

30 Biomes: Temperature and Climate for Terrestrial Biomes

31 Adaptations of Plants & Animals Not intended to be a taxonomic event Not intended to be a taxonomic event Emphasis on adaptations of common plants and animals to each biome Emphasis on adaptations of common plants and animals to each biome Common members of food chains and food webs of each biome Common members of food chains and food webs of each biome Limiting factors for each biome Limiting factors for each biome

32 Grasslands of North America

33 Grasslands – Abiotic factors Moderate temperature with notable extremes: -20° F to 110° F common, and even colder temperatures in the north Moderate temperature with notable extremes: -20° F to 110° F common, and even colder temperatures in the north Precipitation is too low to support trees but too great for deserts to form Precipitation is too low to support trees but too great for deserts to form Variable precipitation: 6-40 in (15-100 cm) Variable precipitation: 6-40 in (15-100 cm) Scattered rain and lightening common in summer months ("convection storms") with more general rains and snows in winter months Scattered rain and lightening common in summer months ("convection storms") with more general rains and snows in winter months Fire a major factor in maintaining biome Fire a major factor in maintaining biome Droughts may be severe Droughts may be severe

34 Grasslands – Plants Grasses are major producer with several genera and species common but usually with one or two dominate Grasses are major producer with several genera and species common but usually with one or two dominate Herbs and legumes (nitrogen fixing) among the grasses Herbs and legumes (nitrogen fixing) among the grasses Many plants possess rhizomes (underground stems) and are wind pollinated Many plants possess rhizomes (underground stems) and are wind pollinated Soils generally fertile, deep and rich in nutrients (Bread baskets of the world) Soils generally fertile, deep and rich in nutrients (Bread baskets of the world) Growing season of 120-200 days Growing season of 120-200 days Generally flat to rolling topography Generally flat to rolling topography

35 North American Grassland (Prairie) types

36 Grasslands (Prairies) of North America Tall-grass Prairie: eastern unit – nearest to Eastern Deciduous Forests Tall grasses (3-4 ft or 1-1.5 m tall) with roots up to 6 feet deep Tall grasses (3-4 ft or 1-1.5 m tall) with roots up to 6 feet deep 24-40 in (65-100 cm) precipitation annually 24-40 in (65-100 cm) precipitation annually Mid-grass Prairie: between Tall Grass and Short Grass – gradual change Grasses to 4 ft (1.5 m) tall, mixture of sod and "bunch" grasses. Grasses to 4 ft (1.5 m) tall, mixture of sod and "bunch" grasses. 14-25 in (35-65 cm) precipitation annually 14-25 in (35-65 cm) precipitation annually Short-grass Prairie: western element, largest. Nearest to deserts of west US Short grasses (less than 20 in or 50 cm tall) Short grasses (less than 20 in or 50 cm tall) About 10 in precipitation annually. About 10 in precipitation annually. Conservation Concerns: Majority of tall- and mid-grass prairie are now farmland. Short-grass prairie is grazed, some areas are now overgrazed

37 Grasslands (Prairie) in North America

38 Grassland (Prairie) Plant Adaptations Native plants are perennials while crop grains are annuals Native plants are perennials while crop grains are annuals Grasses have three strata – roots, growth at ground level, and taller foliage Grasses have three strata – roots, growth at ground level, and taller foliage Half of growth may be below ground Half of growth may be below ground Grazed taller foliage will grow back Grazed taller foliage will grow back Taller foliage above ground adapted to withstand strong winds, fires, extreme temperature changes Taller foliage above ground adapted to withstand strong winds, fires, extreme temperature changes

39 Grasslands – Animal Dominated by grazing animals (deer, antelope, buffalo - once common but now rarely native to the range) Dominated by grazing animals (deer, antelope, buffalo - once common but now rarely native to the range) Herds (safety in numbers) Herds (safety in numbers) Burrowing small animals (colonies as prairie dogs) Burrowing small animals (colonies as prairie dogs) Rodents and Jack Rabbits Rodents and Jack Rabbits Flight song birds – strong fliers Flight song birds – strong fliers Insects esp. grasshoppers Insects esp. grasshoppers

40 Grassland (Prairie) Animal adaptations Long distance vision for predator & prey Long distance vision for predator & prey Eyes of grazing animals well above snout Eyes of grazing animals well above snout Many are built for speed – live in herds or colonies Many are built for speed – live in herds or colonies Small creatures can stand on haunches Small creatures can stand on haunches Some hop up and down or hop long distances Some hop up and down or hop long distances Camouflage coloration Camouflage coloration Underground burrows Underground burrows Birds – strong fliers (strong winds), flight song birds to attract mates in air, nest in tall grass Birds – strong fliers (strong winds), flight song birds to attract mates in air, nest in tall grass

41 Grassland (Prairie) Environmental Concerns Most disturbed biome – farming & domestic grazing with fences Most disturbed biome – farming & domestic grazing with fences Annuals replace perennials with annual soil disturbance by the plow Annuals replace perennials with annual soil disturbance by the plow Overgrazing problems – dust bowl Overgrazing problems – dust bowl Biodiversity disturbed – extinct & endangered species Biodiversity disturbed – extinct & endangered species Fire allowed vs fire control Fire allowed vs fire control Native grasslands being reintroduced Native grasslands being reintroduced

42 TAIGA OF NORTH AMERICA 2nd largest forest in the world 2nd largest forest in the world Ring Artic between Artic and Deciduous Forest – 50 to 60 degrees North Latitude Ring Artic between Artic and Deciduous Forest – 50 to 60 degrees North Latitude Upper elevations of Mountains Upper elevations of Mountains

43 Tiaga or Boreal (Evergreen) forests of North America

44 Taiga – Abiotic Factors Angle of incidence for incoming solar radiation is low and twilight lasts many hours Angle of incidence for incoming solar radiation is low and twilight lasts many hours Seasons- short, moist and moderately warm summers & long, cold, dry winters. Seasons- short, moist and moderately warm summers & long, cold, dry winters. Temperature: -65 to 70 degrees Fahrenheit Temperature: -65 to 70 degrees Fahrenheit Variable precipitation: 6-40 in (15-100 cm). Variable precipitation: 6-40 in (15-100 cm). Soils – thin because they were scraped by glaciers and very acid because of decomposition of pine needles Soils – thin because they were scraped by glaciers and very acid because of decomposition of pine needles Absence of earth-churning invertebrates as earthworms so soil is hard and compact Absence of earth-churning invertebrates as earthworms so soil is hard and compact Fire a major factor in maintaining biome Fire a major factor in maintaining biome

45 Environmental Importance of the Taiga Filters millions of liters of water Filters millions of liters of water Stores large amounts of carbon Stores large amounts of carbon Produces oxygen Produces oxygen Rebuilds soils and restores nutrients Rebuilds soils and restores nutrients Bogs and marshes provides habitats for large numbers of species from fish to birds Bogs and marshes provides habitats for large numbers of species from fish to birds

46 Taiga - Food web

47 Taiga: Types of Plants Conifers are major producer Conifers are major producer Most common types – spruce, balsam fir and pine Most common types – spruce, balsam fir and pine Others – hemlock, cedar, redwood, junipers Others – hemlock, cedar, redwood, junipers Latitude and altitude influences species Latitude and altitude influences species Berry-producing shrubs important to birds, mammals and people Berry-producing shrubs important to birds, mammals and people Some types of fungi, lichens, and mosses Some types of fungi, lichens, and mosses

48 Taiga: Plant Adaptations Trees have upside down cone shape so snow slides off the branches Trees have upside down cone shape so snow slides off the branches Branches are flexible to hold great amounts of snow and not break Branches are flexible to hold great amounts of snow and not break Trees grow thin and close together to protect them from cold and wind Trees grow thin and close together to protect them from cold and wind Needles waxy for protection from freezing temperatures and prevent them from drying out Needles waxy for protection from freezing temperatures and prevent them from drying out Needles are present year round and deep green to absorb the maximum warmth from the sun Needles are present year round and deep green to absorb the maximum warmth from the sun Thick bark which does not easily burn and protects inner layers from heat and cones protect the seeds Thick bark which does not easily burn and protects inner layers from heat and cones protect the seeds

49 Taiga: Types of Animals Insects – millions of insects in the summer Insects – millions of insects in the summer birds – up to 3 billion insect-eating birds breed each year in Taiga – over 200 species birds – up to 3 billion insect-eating birds breed each year in Taiga – over 200 species Seed eaters like finches and sparrows as well as omnivorous birds as crows stay all year Seed eaters like finches and sparrows as well as omnivorous birds as crows stay all year Crossbill has specialized bill for prying open cones and nuthatch can break the cones open Crossbill has specialized bill for prying open cones and nuthatch can break the cones open Herbivores as small mammals, snowshoe rabbits, red squirrels, voles and lemming Herbivores as small mammals, snowshoe rabbits, red squirrels, voles and lemming Predators feeding on small mammals as owls, wolves, lynx, bobcats, minks, wolverines, weasels, mink, otters, martens, fishers Predators feeding on small mammals as owls, wolves, lynx, bobcats, minks, wolverines, weasels, mink, otters, martens, fishers Deer, elk and moose Deer, elk and moose Largest predators as grizzlies, lynx, and mountain lions will also feed on weakened or young deer, elk or moose Largest predators as grizzlies, lynx, and mountain lions will also feed on weakened or young deer, elk or moose

50 Taiga: Animal Adaptations for long cold winters and hot summers migrate south in winter (birds) migrate south in winter (birds) go into hibernation during winter go into hibernation during winter store extra fat layers on their bodies for winter store extra fat layers on their bodies for winter change diets from season to season change diets from season to season grow extra fur on the bottom of their feet to tread on snow easier (lynx and snowshoe rabbit) grow extra fur on the bottom of their feet to tread on snow easier (lynx and snowshoe rabbit) change fur color and coat thickness from season to season change fur color and coat thickness from season to season live under snow in winter in snow tunnels (lemmings, mice, shrews, voles) live under snow in winter in snow tunnels (lemmings, mice, shrews, voles)

51 Taiga: Environmental Concerns Pollution Clear cutting Pollution Clear cutting Illegal logging Illegal logging Poaching Poaching Forest fires – unnatural fires Forest fires – unnatural fires Mining Mining Drilling for oil and natural gas disrupt the forest Drilling for oil and natural gas disrupt the forest Global warming Global warming

52 Taiga: Role in Earths Climate It stores large quantities of carbon stored as plant material on forest floor (up to 10 feet in some areas) It stores large quantities of carbon stored as plant material on forest floor (up to 10 feet in some areas) 1 cm of plant material can hold 2.5 tons of carbon per acre 1 cm of plant material can hold 2.5 tons of carbon per acre Taiga acts like a large refrigerator preventing fallen trees, needles and other debris from decomposing Taiga acts like a large refrigerator preventing fallen trees, needles and other debris from decomposing Heating up the taiga is causing the following problems: Heating up the taiga is causing the following problems: Litter decomposes putting carbon into the atmosphere Increases in forest fires Increases in forest fires Infestation by bark beetles which is killing the trees Infestation by bark beetles which is killing the trees Dead trees - tinder to fuel the forest fires and adding more carbon dioxide into the atmosphere Dead trees - tinder to fuel the forest fires and adding more carbon dioxide into the atmosphere


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