Presentation on theme: "History of Kalisz. Kalisz city lies in the centre of Poland. Through this city flows the Prosna River. Over 2 000 years ago there was an old trade route."— Presentation transcript:
Kalisz city lies in the centre of Poland. Through this city flows the Prosna River. Over 2 000 years ago there was an old trade route leading from the Adriatic to the Baltic sea, which is called the Amber Trail. This name comes from merchandiser who had been using amber to trade with people in the southern Europe. In the past amber was also known as The gold of the north. Kalisz is said to be the oldest city in Poland, because its previous name Calisia was found on a map created by Ptolemy from Alexandria in the 2 nd century.
The first dynasty ruling Poland was Piast. It was 1 000 years ago. In that time, the city was made of wood. In Kalisz there lived also Piast prince Mieszko III the Old. He built there stone St. Pauls Roman church, where he was buried. In the place of the royal castle, there is an archaeological sanctuary now. The castle in Zawodzie The collegiate St.Pauls church
Between the XII and XIII century feudal fragmentation of Poland formed a separate duchy ruled by local branch of the Piast dynasty. Many kings tried to unite Poland.It was Henryk Brodaty who managed to do it. He also conquered the main castle in Zawodzie, during the battles it was seriously destroyed but he built a new one. After Poland was reunited, the town became a notable centre of weaving and wood production, as well as one of the cultural centres of Greater Poland.feudal fragmentation of PolandPiast dynasty Invasion of Henryk Brodaty- Kalisz 1233
The Kalisz city was founded in the area of the castle, built by Henryk Brodaty. The city was built on the sandy island surrounded by the Prosna river. In the center of the city there was a square market. After the town was located the woodenbank, which was to defend the city, was built. It had been graduallly replaced by a brick one. Generally, the city ws made of wood. The only buildings made of bricks were the following: St.Nicolaus s church and St. Stanislaws church. Both funded by Bolesław Pobożny and his wife Jolanta. Everybody knows the common name for the Teutonic Order. In years 1226 – 1228 Prince Konrad brought the Order to Poland. Soon the order created an independed country.
In 1308 the Teutonic order seized the Polish city of Gdańsk, and a year later the entire Gdańskie Pomerania. This event began a long lasting conflict between Poland ant the Teutonic Order. The first efforts to regain the land were taken by Władysław Łokietek, who started a war with the Order. After Władysław Łokietks death, his son Kazimierz – later called the Great – became the king of Poland. The Teutonic Order in Kalisz in 1331.
Since Poland was seriously weakend after the long lasting patrition, the only way to solve the conflict with the Teutonic Order was through diplomacy. After the ten years of fruitless conflict, in 1343 the Polish and Teutonic sides concluded the so called Kalisz peace. King Kazimierz came to Kalisz while the documents for the truce were being prepared. Polish nobles preparing documents for the Polish – Teutonic peace in 1343 called the Kalisz peace.
The last king of the Piast dynastee, Kazimierz Wielki built a castle in Kalisz (his mother was born here). The city was surrounded by walls and towers. The wall remainings can be still seen in Kalisz. reconstruction of the Kalisz castle
King Kazimierz opened Jagielloński Univerity in Kraków, and an affilate school preparing for the university was opened in Kalisz. front and back side of the Kazimierz Wielki coin made in a mint in Kalisz.
At this time a town hall was built in Kalisz. It had the highest gothic tower in Poland. Unfortunately it collapsed during the great fire of the city at the end of the XVIII century. gothic town hall in Kalisz
King Kazimierz often came to Kalisz, but king Władysław Jagiełło, saint Jadwigas husband visited the city even more often. The king is famous for winnig the battle of Grundwald in 1410. The Kalisz knights took part in the batle. Grundwald battle and king Władysław Jagiełło meeting in Kalisz the king of Denmak, Eryk VII who was on his way back from Pallestine.
In the XVI century Kalisz was under several religious influences created by m. Luter and J. Kalwin. Archbishop of Gniezno Stanisław Karnkowski tried to fight the reformation and for this reason he brought the jesuit order to Kalisz in 1583. The archbisop promied to build a monastery and church for the order.
The Jesuits built in Kalisz the first baroque style church in Poland. Next to the church a Jesuit college was built where up to 700 students were educated every year. The most famous student of the Jesuit college is Augustyn Kordecki. reconstruction of the courtyeard of the Jesuit college in Kalisz a complex of the Jesuit buildings and scences from the Jesuits work: college, theatre, printing house, astronomical observatory.
Kalisz experienced all different kinds of disasters: floods, hurricans, epidemics and fires. Until the XVIII century the city buildings were mainly wooden and therefore fires caused serious demages. Kalisz in XVIII c.
The biggest fire in the city took place in 1792. It started at late hours of Septemeber 13 th and lasted till the morning of the next day. It started from a candle left in a stable. In a short time the entire city was in flames. Fire in Kalisz in 1792.
Stanisław August Poniatowski was the last Polish king. During his reign Poland lost its independence. Kalisz was overtaken by the Prussians for a short time and then the Napoleon army entered the city. armies stopping in Kalisz in XIX century
After the Napoleons victory in 1807 WarszawskieDuchy was created. It was divided into six districts and Kalisz became the capital city of one of the territories. After Napoleons failure Kalisz went under Russian influence. A time of Russian captivity, which lasted for 100 yers, began. Cadet of the Kalisz Cadet Corps
In 1815 Kingdom of Poland was established. The government wanted to make Kalisz the industrial century of the country. In the XIX century textile, food and building pianoes industries expanded. Before World War I there were 70 000 people living in Kalisz, many of them were Jews. textile factory of the Repphan Brothers in Kalisz.
Due to the industry devolpment in Kalisz, there was a need for transport improvement. In 1899 the city began to buid a railway. The first train with 67 passengers left the Kalisz train station on November 15th 1902 at 8 oclock in the morning. The first train from Warsaw arrived the following day. Every morning at 8 oclock two trains were leaving the Kalisz station: one to Warsaw, the other one in the opposite direction. They reached their destinies at 6 p.m., so the average speed of the trains was 25 km/h Kalisz train station – beginning of XX century
In 1914 World War I began. In August the Prussians attacked the city, destroyed and burned the city. Only 5 000 citizens were left. bombing of Kalisz - 1914
On November 11, 1918 Kalisz - together with the entire Poland - regained independence.
The city was rebuilt and the population increased to 80 000 people. Rebuilding the city
In 1939 another war began, half of the population was exported, murdered or lost. German army entering Kalisz - 4.09.1939
For a numerous Jewish community a ghetto was built in Kalisz. During the occupation the Germans tried to germanize Polish children. Many children were taken from their Polish families and placed in so called upbringing homes. The Kalisz camp for germanizing Polish children was established in the buildings of the convent of the Sisters of the Holy Family of Nazareth. The sisters were forced to leave the convent. For a few weeks the children would stay in those houses where they were prepared to be taken to Germany and adopted by German families. The children were given German names and surnames. They were strictly forbidden to use their mother tongue.
The Kalisz childrens camp (Gaukinderheim). commemorative plque in memory of all the children from the childrens camp in Kalisz
The battle to free Kalisz began in the morning of 23 January, 1945. In the evening the city was free! Russian army entering the city – 23.01.1945 r.
At present there are over 100 000 people living in Kalisz.