Presentation on theme: "A Focus on Higher Level Thinking Skills"— Presentation transcript:
1 A Focus on Higher Level Thinking Skills Bloom’s TaxonomyJack TruschelEast Stroudsburg UniversityFall 2006
2 Nothing in life is to be feared. It is only to be understood. CHALLENGESNothing in life is to be feared. It is only to be understood.Marie Curie
3 BackgroundIn 1956, Benjamin Bloom, a professor at the University of Chicago, shared his famous "Taxonomy of Educational Objectives."Bloom described 3 Domains of LearningCognitive – how someone processes informationAffective – attitude towards the informationPsychomotor – demonstrating the informationHISTORY – The Original Bloom’s TaxonomyBloom developed the Taxonomy of Cognitive Objectives in the 1950sThe name “Bloom’s Taxonomy” came from the first editor listed on the book – being Benjamin Bloom. There were actually about 40 people who worked on this.It as become a means of expressing qualitatively different types of intellectual skills and abilities and most recently is has been adapted for classroom use as a planning tool.In a fundamental manner, it provides a way to organize thinking skills into six levels, from the most basic to the more complex levels of thinking.
4 Higher-Level Thinking Skills EvaluationSynthesisAnalysisApplicationComprehensionKnowledgeBloom’s (et al) original level of higher thinking included these steps to the domains of learning. Many terms were revised to match what is really taking place in the higher level of thinking. See following slide for explanation.
5 In the 1990s, Lorin Anderson, who was a former student of Bloom, revisited the taxonomy to what would be termed as more contemporary terminology.
6 Higher-order thinking EvaluationSynthesisAnalysisApplicationComprehensionKnowledgeBloom’s Taxonomy- RevisedCreateHigher-order thinkingEvaluateAnalyzeBloom’s Taxonomy has been revised, based on over 50 years of using Taxonomy for Learning Teaching and Assessing (Bloom’s Taxonomy)The names of the six major categories were changed from noun to verb and the word knowledge was replaced with the word remembering instead.Bloom’s Taxonomy was adapted for classroom use as a planning tool.This model continues to be one of the most universally applied models.This model provides a way to organize thinking skills into six levels, from the most basic to the higher order levels of thinking.Comprehension and synthesis were retitled to understanding and creating respectively, in order to better reflect the nature of the thinking defined in each category. Creating took the place of Synthesis and moved to a more cognitively complex position on the matrix.(Pohl, 2000, Learning to Think, Thinking to Learn, pp. 7-8)ApplyUnderstandRemember
7 Levels of Bloom’s Taxonomy Level I – RememberMemorizing of information in a basically word-for-word fashionReciting definitions of termsRemembering lists of itemsThe basic elements students must know to be acquainted with a discipline or solve problems in it.Knowledge of terminologyKnowledge of specific details and elements
8 Levels of Bloom’s Taxonomy Level II – UnderstandUnderstanding the meaning and intent of the materialBeing able to put into one’s own wordsRewording a definitionParaphrasing a rule
9 Levels of Bloom’s Taxonomy Level III – ApplyApplying knowledge to new situationsApplying math principles to the solution of a word problem
10 Levels of Bloom’s Taxonomy Level IV – AnalyzeBreakdown of knowledge into parts and show relationship among partsDiscovering the assumptions underlying a philosophical essayIdentifying key points in a seeming logical argument
11 Levels of Bloom’s Taxonomy Level V - EvaluateBring together parts of knowledge to form a whole; build relationships for new situationsConstructing something new by integrating several pieces of informationDeveloping a theory
12 Levels of Bloom’s Taxonomy Level VI – CreatingMaking judgments on basis of criteriaExamining the internal and external validity of an experimentCritiquing a theory
13 Blooming QuestionsQuestioning should be used purposefully to achieve well-defined goals.Bloom's Taxonomy is a classification of thinking organized by level of complexity. It gives learners an opportunity to learn and practice a range of thinking and provides a simple structure for many different kinds of questions and thinking.The taxonomy involves all categories of questions.
14 Level of ThinkingLower-level questions – questions that require students to answer in the way they learned it.Usually questions at the lower levels are appropriate forReciting a definitionDescribing a topic the way that their teacher presented it classEvaluating students’ preparation and comprehensionDiagnosing students’ strengths and weaknessesReviewing and/or summarizing content
15 Level of ThinkingHigher-level questions – questions that require students to do something new with the information they have learnedUsually questions at the higher levels are appropriate forConsists of applying, synthesizing, or evaluatingEncouraging students to think more deeply and criticallyProblem solvingEncouraging discussionsStimulating students to seek information on their own
16 Remember list classify name describe identify locate show outline Recall or recognition of informationlistnameidentifyshowdefinerecognizerecallmatchclassifydescribelocateoutlinegive examplesdistinguish opinion from fact
17 Understanding summarize paraphrase explain differentiate interpret The ability to understand, translate, paraphrase, interpret or extrapolate material (Predict outcome and effects)paraphrasedifferentiatedemonstratevisualizerestate rewritegive examplessummarizeexplaininterpretdescribecompareconvertdistinguishestimate
18 Apply apply solve classify illustrate modify calculate The capacity to use information and transfer knowledge from one setting to another (Use learned material in a new situation)applyclassifymodifyput into practicedemonstratecomputeoperatesolveillustratecalculateinterpretmanipulatepredictshow
19 Analyze contrast compare distinguish categorize outline relate analyze Identifying detail and having the ability to discover and differentiate the component parts of a situation or informationcontrastcomparedistinguish categorizeoutlinerelateanalyzeorganizededucechoosediagramdiscriminate
20 Top of Bloom’s Taxonomy Higher Order Thinking Analyze | Evaluate | CreateEx: There have been a number of studies that indicate tutoring services assist with retention. What are some of the research questions that can support this hypothesis? What factors can be attributed to retention other than tutoring and do these factors interact in a positive or negative manner?The “higher order of thinking” of Bloom’s Taxonomy may be followed as one researches the affects of tutoring on student retention. The researcher would gather the information that would analyze the questions on the slide.
21 Evaluate discuss plan compare create construct rearrange compose The ability to combine parts to create the big picturediscussplancomparecreateconstruct rearrangecomposeorganizedesignhypothesizesupportwritereportcombinecomplydevelop
22 Top of Bloom’s Taxonomy Higher Order Thinking Analyze | Evaluate| CreateEx: Evaluation entails recommending the best manner in assisting students to develop better study skills, based upon all available factors related to a student persisting in college, his or her GPA and motivation to do well in school.
23 Create criticize justify debate support your reason conclude assess The ability to judge the value or use of information using appropriate criteria (Support judgment with reason)criticizejustify debatesupport your reasonconcludeassessrateevaluatechooseestimatejudgedefendappraise
24 Top of Bloom’s Taxonomy Higher Order Thinking Analyze | Evaluate | CreateEx: Answering the aforementioned questions would lead to the review of the currently available research and the preparation of a report on the findings.
25 Summary He who learns but does not think is lost! To summarize, Bloom’s taxonomy is a classification in which there are six learning tasks that vary in degrees of complexity.Remember:He who learns but does not think is lost!(Chinese Proverb)
26 ReferencesAnderson, L. W., & Krathwohl, D. R. (Eds.). (2001). A taxonomy for learning, teaching and assessing: A revision of Bloom's Taxonomy of educational objectives: Complete edition, New York : Longman.Anderson , L.W., & Sosniak, L.A. (Eds.). (1994). Bloom's taxonomy: a forty-year retrospective. Ninety-third yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education, Pt.2 . , Chicago , IL . , University of Chicago Press.
27 ReferencesBloom, Benjamin S. & David R. Krathwohl. (1956). Taxonomy of educational objectives: The classification of educational goals, by a committee of college and university examiners. Handbook 1: Cognitive domain. New York , Longmans.Pohl, M (2000), Learning to Think, Thinking to Learn, (pp. 7-8).