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Amistad © 2009 Desegregation Start
Amistad © 2009 End What Is Desegregation? Ending racial segregation was the focus of the Civil Rights Movement both before and after the United States Supreme Courts decision in Brown v. Board of Education. With important victories in the desegregation of schools and the military, civil rights leaders and groups now focused on other areas. During the Civil Rights Era, people promoting desegregation were often met with violence. One of the Little Rock Nine, Elizabeth Eckford, is accosted by a mob of whites, led by Hazel Bryan, during the Little Rock integration crisis.
Amistad © 2009 Background: Jim Crow Laws The Jim Crow Laws were state and local laws enacted in the Southern and border states and enforced between 1876 and 1965. These laws negated the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments. Separate but equal became the standard in the American South. Every aspect of the South was segregated, and African Americans were treated as inferior to white Americans. Because of voting restrictions such as poll taxes and literacy tests, most African Americans could not vote; and others did not vote for fear of retribution. After 1877 the federal government did little or nothing to override these state and local laws; and African Americans were prohibited from exercising their constitutional rights. End
Amistad © 2009 Jackie Robinson Breaking the Major League Baseball Color Barrier April 15, 1947 Jackie Robinson became the first African-American player in Major League Baseball. After a very successful career in the Negro Leagues, the Brooklyn Dodgers signed Robinson; he made his major-league debut on April 15, 1947. He was faced with constant racist attacks from fans, opponents, and even his own teammates. Jackie Robinson was inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame, and his uniform number 42 was retired. End
Amistad © 2009 Executive Order 9981 President Harry Truman issued Executive Order 9981 on July 26, 1948. This order expanded Executive Order 8802 which established equality of treatment and opportunity in the Armed Services for people of all races, religions, and national origins. The order also established a committee to investigate and make recommendations to the civilian leadership of the military to enforce the policy. One of the orders effects was the elimination of Montford Point as a segregated Marine Corps boot camp. The last of the totally African-American units in the United States military was abolished in September 1954. End
Amistad © 2009 Brown v. Topeka Board of Education May 16, 1954 Originally, the district court ruled in favor of the Topeka Board of Education based on the precedent of Plessy v. Ferguson. This meant the Topeka Board of Education won on the grounds of separate but equal. Three years later the United States Supreme Court handed down its decision regarding the case. The Supreme Court ruled the education of African-American children in schools separate from white children was unconstitutional. End
Amistad © 2009 Montgomery Bus Boycott December 1, 1955 – December 20, 1956 After the arrest of Rosa Parks, the Montgomery Improvement Association organized the Montgomery Bus Boycott. The boycott was an economic and political protest campaign started in 1955 in Montgomery, Alabama. The boycott opposed the citys policy of racial segregation on its public transit system. The ensuing struggle lasted from December 1, 1955, to December 20, 1956, and almost put the bus company out of business. The boycott ended when the United States Supreme Court issued a decision declaring the Alabama and Montgomery, Alabama, laws regarding bus seating by race to be unconstitutional. This event also witnessed the rise of a young, charismatic minister named Martin Luther King Jr. End This is the bus from which Rosa Parks was removed; that action started the Montgomery Bus Boycott
Amistad © 2009 Little Rock Nine The Little Rock Nine were African- American students enrolled in Little Rock Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas, in 1957. Arkansas Governor Orval Faubus initially prevented the students from entering the racially segregated school. Later, President Dwight D. Eisenhower intervened to allow their admittance. The Little Rock crisis is considered one of the most important events in the Civil Rights Movement in the United States. End The Little Rock Nine and NAACP President Daisy Bates
Amistad © 2009 Greensboro Sit-ins Four African-American students from North Carolina A&T State University, Ezell A. Blair Jr., David Richmond, Joseph McNeil, and Franklin McCain sat at a segregated lunch counter in a Woolworths store in Greensboro, North Carolina. Only whites were seated at the counter, and African Americans were required to stand and eat. The students were refused service but were allowed to remain at the counter. Over the next few days, the number of students and protesters grew to almost a thousand. The protest sparked sit-ins and economic boycotts that became a trademark of the Civil Rights Movement. End Section of the lunch counter, now on display at the Smithsonian Institution
Amistad © 2009 James Meredith Enrolls at Ole Miss September 1962 President John F. Kennedy sent more than 5,000 federal troops to protect James Meredith as he registered for classes at the University of Mississippi in Oxford, Mississippi. Meredith attempted to enter campus on September 20, 1962, and again on September 25. Mississippi Governor Ross R. Barnett blocked his admission. Governor Barnett proclaimed, no school will be integrated in Mississippi while I am your governor. The ensuing riots resulted in the deaths of two people. James Meredith ultimately was enrolled in the publicly funded University of Mississippi. End United States marshals walking James Meredith to class.
Amistad © 2009 Desegregation of the University of Alabama In June 1963, Alabama Governor George Wallace tried to prevent two black students, Vivian Malone and James Hood, from registering for classes at the University of Alabama. This famously became known as the Stand in the Schoolhouse Door. Federal marshals, Deputy Attorney General Nicholas Katzenbach, and the federalized Alabama National Guard forced Wallace to step aside. End Governor George Wallace (second from left) stands in the doorway of the University of Alabama, preventing Vivian Malone and James Hood from entering.
Amistad © 2009 Busing Busing is the practice of integrating schools by assigning students to schools based on the schools dominant race, rather than the dominant races distance from the school. In 1954 the Brown v. Board Supreme Court decision legally ended segregation; however, most schools in the United States remained segregated due to the housing patterns and racial inequalities in neighborhoods. After two Supreme Court rulings in 1971 and 1974, cities nationwide were allowed to enforce mandatory busing to integrate school districts. Since the Brown v. Board decision, cities across the United States instituted new busing programs. However, busing in cities such as Boston were met with much conflict and resistance. Due to largely segregated neighborhoods, Philadelphia and other cities with large minority populations remained segregated into the 1980s. A picture depicting mandatory busing in Boston, Massachusetts. End
Sojourner © 2009 Desegregation Start. Sojourner © 2009 End What is Desegregation? The process of ending racial segregation was the central focus of the.
Reconstruction Amendments 13 th Amendment – Abolished slavery 14 th Amendment – guaranteed all citizens “due process” and “equal protection” of the.
Warm-up: What was the court’s decision in the Plessy vs. Ferguson in 1896? What case overthrew that decision in Brown vs. Board case in 1954?
Background Post WWI & WWII movement to urban areas African Americans influencing party politics by the 1950s Conflicting feelings about Cold War.
CIVIL RIGHTS AMERICA AND THE 1950’S AND 1960’S. Beginning of Civil Rights Era post Civil War: US adopts segregation * Separate but “equal” treatment.
Exploring American History Unit IX- Postwar America Chapter 28 – Section 1 The Civil Rights Movement Takes Shape.
THE CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT. Plessy v. Ferguson Civil Rights Act of 1875 outlawed segregation Declared unconstitutional in 1883 Plessy v. Ferguson.
Section 1 Early Demands for Equality Describe efforts to end segregation in the 1940s and 1950s. Explain the importance of Brown v. Board of Education.
The 1950s Civil Rights Movement. Since the end of the Civil War, African Americans had been waging a movement to finally gain equality in America – civil.
Harry Truman & Integration of U.S. Military and Federal Government July 26, 1948 Signed Executive Order 9981 integrating the United States Military.
July 26, 1948, President Harry Truman issued and Executive Order to Abolish Segregation in the Armed Services It Was Implemented Over.
Chapter 21 Section 1-2 CIVIL RIGHTS 1950’S-60’S. Plessy v. Ferguson 1896 Separate but equal did not violate 14 th ammendment Jim Crow Laws = Separating.
Student will be able to name the major civil rights legislation of the late 1940s and 1950s.
The Modern Civil Rights Movement Chapter 28 Section 2.
Chapter 29 Section 1 The Civil Rights Movement. Objectives Understand how a Supreme Court decision helped African Americans in their struggle for civil.
Early demands for equality Chapter 14, section 1.
Civil Rights Movement 1950’s-1960’s. Truman’s Policy on Civil Rights Issued an executive order banning segregation in the armed forces. Issued an executive.
March 13, Unit VIII Introduction: Civil Rights Movement Notes (part 1) The Movement Begins 3. Video Clip: Brown vs. Board of Education.
TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas. Civil Rights in the 1940s–1950s.
The Civil Rights Movement. Types of Segregation de facto segregation: established by practice and custom, not by law –seen mostly in northern cities de.
Test Review What 1896 Supreme Court decision made segregation legal and established the principle of “separate but equal?” Plessy v. Ferguson.
The Civil Rights Era: The Movement Makes Gains. Linda Brown.
Chapter 18 Section 1. Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) The Supreme Court's decision in the case of Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) had declared segregation to be constitutional.
AGENDA History Log Standard Bullets 8.2 Notes Key Terms History Log: If you were a teen in the 1960s would you have joined the Civil Rights movement?
Civil Rights Movement. Dwight D Eisenhower Military hero in WWII 34 th President—1953 – 1961 Desegregated D.C. Continued desegregation of Military.
Civil Rights Movement. WWII opened the door for the civil rights movement. WWII opened the door for the civil rights movement. In 1941, Roosevelt banned.
Chapter 14 The Civil Rights Movement 1945– 1975 Who is this woman ? Why is this man impt ?
Patterns of Discrimination Discrimination is the act of being prejudice against a person because of race, religion, or gender Discrimination existed.
Explain how and why African Americans and other supporters of civil rights challenged segregation in the United States after World War II.
CIVIL RIGHTS VOCABULARY 6 Steps to learning new vocabulary Marazano.
The Civil Rights Movement: Chapter 38 Review. What Rights are worth fighting for? Are all Americans entitled to the same civil rights? What are the risks.
Civil Rights Civil Rights are taken, not given! What does the above statement mean? What are Civil Rights? The nonpolitical rights of a citizen, esp. the.
Civil Rights Vocab Chapter 18. De Jure Segregation Segregation based on the law Practiced in the South (Jim Crow Laws)
18.1 The Movement Begins. Lesson Objectives 1. The students will be able to explain the difference between de facto segregation and de jure segregation.
The Civil Rights Movement. How did African Americans challenge segregation after World War II? African Americans were still treated as second-class citizens.
The Civil Rights era. Jackie Robinson Integrated baseball in 1947 Played for Brooklyn (later LA) Dodgers Became one of best players ever.
The Civil Rights Era 1954 – 1975 Objectives: Why efforts to gain civil rights created an effective movement for change How the Civil Rights movement led.
Chapter 20 Section 1 Civil Rights Movement WW2 set the stage for the civil rights movement Opened new job opportunities One million African Americans served.
1947 Jackie Robinson breaks color barrier in major league baseball 1948 Truman Desegregates Military 1940s Civil Rights Events.
Unit 10. Origins of The Civil Rights Movement The Civil Rights Movement is the struggle of African Americans for equal rights -Major Turning point for.
THE ROSA PARKS LEGACY The USA in 1956 International Conflits in 1956.
The Civil Rights Movement 1954 – 1968 Section 1 : The Movement Begins (pgs. 622 – 629). Who is this woman ? Why is this man impt ?
Civil Right Movement Integration of the Armed Forces July 1948 – President Truman signed an executive order ending segregation of the armed.
Add to your notebook Unit 8 Civil Rights Civil Rights Movement Beginnings (44)1.
USH 18:1 Civil Rights Movement Origins of the Movement – Rosa Parks Refused to give up seat on bus NAACP used her case to take “Separate but Equal” (Plessy.
Civil Rights. In the Supreme Court – Brown v. Board of Education (1954) Court overturned Plessy v. Ferguson… “Separate but Equal” is unconstitutional.
Taking on Segregation US History (EOC). Explain how legalized segregation deprived African Americans of their rights as citizens. Summarize civil rights.
APUSH: Civil Rights Movement. Essential Questions Who were the individuals and groups that had an impact on the civil rights movement? What approaches.
EQ: What were the major events of the Civil Rights movement?
Middle Passage Three-fifths Compromise Northwest Ordinances Eli Whitney invents the cotton gin Abolitionist movement Kansas-Nebraska.
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