2 1. In order to show respect to the emperor a person performed a series of three low bows, with the forehead actually touching the ground. This series of bows was known as thea. tea ceremonyb. Great Leap Forwardc. divinationd. KowtowIn order to show respect to the emperor a person performed the kowtow. The kowtow was a series of three deep bows in which the person's forehead actually touched or knocked on the ground. By performing this act of submission, the person acknowledged the superior status of the emperor.
3 2. The major text of Confucianism is the a. Analectsb. Dao De Jingc. Korand. TorahThe disciples of Confucius ( B.C.) recorded the major tenets of Confucianism in the Analects after the philosopher's death. Confucianism stressed social conformity, obedience to authority, and respect for one's elders. In general, Confucianism maintained that through education, and by following the exemplary behavior of one's superiors, the people of society could be shaped into a harmonious and orderly whole.
4 3. What major contribution did Confucius make to the cultural development of China? a. He created a system of cooking in which food is finely dicedand sauteed in a wok.b. He created a system of ethics which, if followed, would leadto a stable and harmonious society.c. He created a system of brush painting and calligraphy.d. He created a system of herbal medicine to ease the suffering of the sick.Confucius created a system of ethics and behavior which, if followed, would lead to a stable and harmonious society. Many of Confucius's ideas, which were recorded in the "Analects" by his disciples, codified practices already in existence in Chinese society -- such as filial piety. While Confucianism originally began as a code of conduct, it became a religious system for some people who worshipped Confucius as a deity.
5 4. Which of the following was NOT a principle of Confucianism? a. emphasis on proper conductb. filial pietyc. social conformityd. individual rightsIndividual rights were NOT stressed in Confucianism since it was believed that the group was more important than the individual. Confucianism promoted peace and harmony by stressing social conformity, obedience to authority, and respect for one's elders. Confucius's sayings were recorded in the book known as the "Analects." According to Confucius, there were five important social relationships: friend to friend, son to father, subject to emperor, younger brother to older brother, and wife to husband.
6 5. In Confucianism's four-class system, which group sat at the top of the hierarchy? a. nobilityb. merchantsc. peasantsd. ScholarsWithin Confucianism's four-class system, scholars sat at the top of the hierarchy. This positioning highlighted the importance that the Confucian value system placed on education. Peasant farmers occupied the second highest class. The farmer earned respect because he produced food for the large Chinese population. Artisans occupied the position below peasants. Although merchants may have been wealthy, Chinese society did not view them as highly since wealth lacked importance in the Confucian value system. This four-class system omitted the nobility.
7 6. Which of the following was NOT part of the traditional religious practice of a Chinese family? a. keeping a family shrineb. ancestor worshipc. monotheismd. making offerings of rice and wineThe ancient Chinese did NOT practice monotheism. Instead, many spirits and gods filled the Chinese religious system. For example, Guan Yin was the Goddess of Mercy and appeared in a thousand forms. Many people even worshipped the philosopher Confucius as a deity.
8 7. Which of the following people is believed to be the founder of Daoism? a. Confuciusb. Menciusc. Lao-Zid. Siddhartha GautamaLao-Zi is credited with founding Daoism in the 6th century B.C. His writings can be found in a volume titled "Dao De Jing" ("Tao Te Ching"), the Way of Virtue. Daoism, with its emphasis on the individual, became an alternative to Confucianism.
9 8. What do yin and yang represent in Chinese culture? a. two ancient Chinese paintersb. opposing forces in naturec. two rivers in Chinad. an ancient Chinese musical systemYin and yang are believed by the Chinese to be the major energy forces of life. Both yin and yang are to be found within every natural object. They are frequently shown as two parts of a divided circle, representing a balance of opposing forces. Yin is negative, feminine, cool, dark, secret, and submissive.
10 9. Which of the following beliefs do we associate with Legalism? a. belief in reincarnationb. belief in polytheismc. belief that minor offenses should be punished severelyd. belief that the best government places the fewestrestrictions on its citizensWe associate with Legalism the belief that minor offenses should be punished severely. Legalism was a philosophy which developed in ancient China at the end of the Zhou era. It was concerned primarily with the political system. It was believed that rulers had the right to make laws which must be obeyed by all people. Minor offenses were punished severely to discourage the people from committing more serious ones. As a result, in ancient Chinese society the emperor had great power.
11 a. Legalistic Confucianism b. Shintoism c. Daoism 10. The combination of Legalism and Confucianism which the Han Dynasty (206 B.C A.D.) implemented as its ruling ideology is calleda. Legalistic Confucianismb. Shintoismc. Daoismd. Imperial ConfucianismThe Han Dynasty implemented a combination of Legalism and Confucianism as their ruling ideology, an ideology called Imperial Confucianism. In calling it "Imperial Confucianism," this ideology is distinguished from the original teachings of Confucius. Unlike Legalism, Imperial Confucianism recognized that a ruler could not exercise power solely through the threat of violence. The ruler needed to set a positive, moral example for his subjects, thereby encouraging others to embrace his leadership.
12 11. The attitude of respect and devotion to one's family observed in Chinese society, especially in the Imperial era, is known asa. animismb. reincarnationc. ethnocentrismd. filial pietyFilial piety is the Chinese belief, especially prevalent in imperial times, which demanded an attitude of respect and devotion toward one's family. Filial piety pre-dated Confucianism, but upon the establishment of that belief system, it was incorporated as a main tenet of Confucian thought.