Presentation on theme: "Social Darwinism: Europeans should colonize Africa in order to spread their superior civilization."— Presentation transcript:
Social Darwinism: Europeans should colonize Africa in order to spread their superior civilization.
Religion: Europeans should colonize Africa in order to spread Christianity.
Economics: Europeans should colonize Africa in order to make their own countries richer.
National Pride: Europeans should colonize Africa in order to compete with other Europeans.
King Leopolds Congo HOW DID ONE MAN TAKE CONTROL OF MUCH OF CENTRAL AFRICA?
The Democratic Republic of Congo Now the third-largest country in Africa Valuable minerals, diverse geography Portuguese arrived in 1480s and began trading minerals, then slaves By 1850s, slave trade mostly replaced by trade in resources – ivory, gold, copper, rubber
King Leopold II of Belgium King of Belgium, 1865-1909 Desperately wanted an overseas empire (national pride) Interested in Central Africa – little competition 1876: hosted conference of explorers and geographers Aim: to bring civilization to Africa Formed International Africa Association explore and open trade with Central Africa
Exploring the Congo Henry Morton Stanley – American hired by Leopold to explore Congo Rivalry with France Stanley signed 450 treaties with local chiefs – exclusive rights to land and trade
Berlin Conference (again) 1884-1885 European countries divide up Africa International Africa Association not represented – but Henry Morton Stanley is there Leopold manipulates events US recognizes Leopolds control Leopold gains control over an area 75 times larger than Belgium Creates the Congo Free State