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© 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

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Presentation on theme: "© 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part."— Presentation transcript:

1 © 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Chapter 5: Job Order Costing Cost Accounting Principles, 9e Raiborn Kinney

2 © 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Learning Objectives How do job order and process costing systems, as well as their related valuation methods, differ? What are the distinguishing characteristics of a job order costing system? What are the primary documents supporting a job order costing system and what purposes are served by each of them? How are costs accumulated in a job order costing system? How does information from a job order costing support management decision making? How are losses treated in a job order costing system? (Appendix) How are standard costs used in a job order costing system?

3 © 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Job Order or Process Costing Job Order Small quantities Batches of identifiable, tailor-made products User-specific services Tracks costs by job Process Large quantities Homogeneous goods Tracks costs by batch of goods by department

4 © 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Job Order Costing A job is a single unit or group of units identifiable as being produced to distinct customer specifications A job can be a Client or customer Engagement Project Product Contract

5 © 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Methods of Product Costing Cost Accumulation System defines cost object method of assigning costs to production Valuation Method specifies how product costs will be measured

6 Six Possibilities Job Order Actual Normal Standard Process Actual Normal Standard V A L M U E A T T H I O O D N COST ACCUMULATION SYSTEM © 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

7 Job Order Costing System Each job is a cost object Costs are accumulated for each job A job can consist of one or more units of output There is a subsidiary ledger for each job

8 Job Order Costing System WIP ControlJob 2Job 1Job 3 Job 1 + Job 2 + Job 3 = WIP Control WIP Subsidiary Ledger = Job Job Job Total © 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

9 Job Order Costing and Technology Automate data collection and data entry Accounting software includes job costing modules Share information using intranet

10 © 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Intranet Restricted network for sharing information and delivering data from corporate databases to local-area network (LAN) desktops

11 © 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Tracking Job Order Cost Sheet All financial information about a job direct material (from material requisition) direct labor (from time sheets or labor tickets) applied overhead budgeted cost information Material Requisition Form Tracks who is responsible for materials Verifies flow of materials from warehouse to department to job Employee Time Sheet Time worked on each job When job is complete, use job order cost sheet to analyze actual costs compared to budgeted costs

12 Management Use of Job Order Costing Systems Estimate future job costs Establish realistic bids and selling prices Develop budgets and standards Compare actual costs to estimated costs Furnish performance evaluation information based on profitability of jobs © 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

13 Product and Material Losses Shrinkage Evaporation Leakage Oxidation Production errors Defects can be economically reworked Spoilage cannot be economically reworked Normal Loss expected during production Abnormal Loss exceeds what is expected during production

14 © 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Product and Material Losses Normal Loss Abnormal Loss Loss for most jobs Loss identified with a specific job In overhead rate Period cost Charge to specific job Period cost

15 © 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Standard Cost System Actual cost Normal cost Standard cost Predetermined norms (or standards) for materials, labor, and overhead Compare actual costs to standard costs difference is a variance

16 © 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Questions What is the difference between job order and process costing systems? How do actual, normal, and standard costing valuation methods differ? How is the job order cost sheet used?

17 © 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Potential Ethical Issues Inflating costs assigned to cost-plus contracts Assigning costs from a fixed-fee contract to a cost- plus contract Substituting materials with inferior quality Overstating costs included in Work in Process Using methods or materials that violate intellectual property rights of other firms Recording sales value of defective work as Other Revenue


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