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Teaching Higher Order Literacy Skills through the LNF at KS3

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1 Teaching Higher Order Literacy Skills through the LNF at KS3
The Professional Literacy Company 9.30 start - Kevin Welcome and introductions - team Who we are and what we do PLC: been training primary and secondary schools, both sides of the border, for a number of years now; Asked to run this course by WG/CfBT on the evidence of work we’ve done over past 2 years in RCT, Monmouthshire, Powys 3. we’ve been asked to give our view of how to use the LNF to improve literacy standards 4. Running primary and secondary courses – this is the first secondary one. Next is Llandudno in November Worth stressing independence of PLC: views expressed are our own, not party line You may walk out at the end of the day (hopefully not until then!) and say that’s fine, but it’s not for us, or you may find some or all of what we do practical and helpful: we hope so. Above all, our plan is to be practical, sensible, helpful – but you’ll be the judge of whether it’s worked!

2 Agenda Higher Order Literacy Skills: definitions Literacy in Action
Literacy and the LNF – challenges and solutions for secondary schools The Literacy of Individual Subjects Whole School Literacy: Communities of Researchers The Literacy Rich School: Next Steps This is how we plan to organise the day Emphasis on ‘Literacy in Action’ and how to make best use of the Literacy Framework to set up exciting and effective learning across curriculum Essentially it’s Literacy across the Curriculum we’ll be focussing on. 08.45 – Registration and coffee 09.30 – Session 1: Literacy in Action and HOLS 10.50 – Break 11.10 – Session 2: Literacy and the LNF and Lit in Subjects 12.30 – Lunch 13.15 – Session 3: Whole School Literacy: Communities of Researchers, using a model of research process 14.30 – Break (optional) 14.50 – Session 4: Building a Literacy Rich School Could take an afternoon break or work through – up to you. All those in favour? Over to Gill.

3 Higher Order Reading Skills – What Are They?
Location Re-organisation Inference Evaluation Appreciation Introduction to HOLS via HORS – basis of the day, and the Literacy Framework Reading is our starting point, then incorporate Oracy and Writing HORS grid in folder Anecdotes from life experience – reading the world (hotel bar) Coats/handbags – Stephanie’s entrance! - could we help? Reading Detectives

4 HORS and the LNF Higher Order Reading Skills
LNF Expectation Statements KS3 (Y7) Location Use a range of strategies to skim texts for gist, key ideas and themes, and scan for detailed information Reorganisation Collate and summarise relevant information from different texts Inference Read between the lines using inference and deduction Evaluation Evaluate the content, presentation and appeal of a text Appreciation Identify how a text is organised to make the content clear and informative To emphasise the links between the HORS taxonomy and the LNF, we can use this grid (warning – it will be the first of many!) I’ve just lined up some of the expectation statements from Y7 with the HORS Works well until the last one – appreciation (writer’s craft) – which is less well represented (possibly because of emphasis on non-fiction): a pity, but if we spot that as teachers, we can fill in the gaps!

5 Literacy in Action Handbags or coats.
Needs to be replicable in school – staff training and possibly with students

6 HOLS and the LNF What higher order skills (oracy, reading, writing) did you use in your role as ‘Reading Detectives’? What helped you to use them? How are these skills represented in the LNF? What are the implications for us as teachers? De-brief and link to LNF: Flipchart – 10.30 Reading Detectives and HORS Focus on purpose and audience, literacy and life experience Kevin Grid relating learning objectives from LNF to Reading Detectives activity (next slide) Implications: Assess existing skills and knowledge Teach what is needed Use and apply within ‘real’ , meaningful and engaging contexts

7 Reading Detectives and the LNF
Year Group Oracy: Collaboration & Discussion Reading: Comprehension Writing: Meaning, purposes, readers Y6 Contribute purposefully to group discussion to achieve agreed outcomes Infer ideas which are not explicitly stated use a range of strategies to plan writing Y7 Make a range of contributions to discussions Read between the lines using inference and deduction Plan writing making choices about the best ways to present content for effect Y8 Take a range of roles in more formal group contexts, e.g. when working with unfamiliar peers or adults Use inference and deduction to understand layers of meaning Make connections between texts, their themes and factual content, and identify any agreement and contradictions In planning writing make choices about content, structure, language, presentation to suit the purpose I’ve picked out expectation statements here which are most relevant to the task: In Oracy, I’ve used the Collaboration and Discussion Aspect (others are speaking; listening) In Reading, the Comprehension Aspect (as opposed to Reading Strategies; Response and Analysis) In Writing, the Meaning, purposes and readers aspect (as opposed to Structure and Organisation; Language; Grammar etc) I’ve included Y6 as a starting point – it may of course be that you have to go earlier than that to begin with. You can see the progression built in here in each column. I’ve reconstructed these by reading across – job worth doing. This is useful both for planning – is the task sufficiently rich to encourage and enable work of a high standard? And for assessment: summative – what level did individual participants reach? formative – what feedback do individual pupils need to do more next time?

8 Reading and Writing for Real
Gill and Stephanie

9 Reading and Writing for Real
Providing students with: An engaging and motivating ‘hook’ A clear purpose for reading and writing A strong context for applying literacy skills Authentic audiences for their writing An unfolding narrative to retain their interest This is the basis of how we work and think as teachers and trainers. Always working on the assumption: the richer the context, the greater the potential for achievement With the emphasis on skills and levels, this has sometimes taken a back seat, with children writing for the teacher as examiner in order to get a level. Quick summary of our work on Reading (and Writing) for Real – Include few quick examples and video clip: Professor Pole

10 Real, Realistic or Pure Fantasy?
Realistic – could be real – but it isn’t! (or maybe there are elements of truth?) Fantasy – developing the imagination – having fun! Real opportunities – Olympics, school centenary, Radio word story, design competitions. Realistic – ‘Reading Detectives’ experience you’ve just had Fantasy – obviously not real as you’ll see.

11 Creating Reading and Writing for Real experiences
Classroom based e.g. artefacts, letters, visitors, adult in role School based e.g. playground or field event Out of school e.g. visit or trip Out of school: Castle and forest visit – Robin Hood Local stately home – produce leaflets Time out for group discussion on what you’ve heard. 11

12 Reflection activity How could you make ‘Reading and Writing for Real’, or aspects of it, work for you in your curriculum area? Think about what you are planning to teach: Decide on an exciting ‘way in’. Where possible, give your writing tasks purpose and audience Consider the quality of your outcomes Could this approach work for you – regularly; sometimes? In subjects – across subjects? Kevin Clearly there is a lot of work to be done to improve the quality and consistency of written communication at KS3. An engaging, motivating context which draws students into writing is a start. Before lunch we’ll be working on how to train students to write effectively within each subject. After lunch we’ll be looking at how we could put the two things together. Complete by 10.45

13 Priorities for Today’s Course
Identify a range of Higher Order Literacy Skills Show how these are represented in the LNF Demonstrate how HOLS can be taught and practised in the context of daily lessons Provide working models of strategies and units for delegates to take away and trial Invite schools to evaluate and share the outcomes of their work This is what we’re planning to do today – we’ll come back to it at the end of the day, and see how we’ve got on! Coffee. Back, please, at for the next session.

14 Literacy and the LNF in Secondary Schools
Challenges and Solutions 30 mins While you are still digesting your coffee and biscuits, a few issues and insights into the LNF and its Literacy Framework. Apologies for some of the indigestible language that is an inevitable feature of official documents. Don’t know what has already happened in your school to date re briefings and development work on implementing LNF, so forgive me for making some assumptions – I’m going to assume it’s work in progress! Hopefully we’ll find out as we talk.

15 The LNF: Some Key Messages
Focuses mainly on planning and assessment Establishes national expectations year on year Guide to progression in key aspects of literacy Cross-curricular (all subjects, incl. English) Cross-phase (5-14) Statutory from September 2013 You’ll have picked up some key messages about the LNF – in a nutshell, they are these: It’s a document about ‘what’, not ‘how’. It seeks to nail what should be expected, year on year, based on a pattern of normal (or hoped-for) development. It is about consistent expectations of language use across the curriculum And it seeks to unite primary and secondary schools in common cause.

16 The LNF: Some Key Issues
What definition of literacy are we using? What is the relationship between English (or Welsh) and Literacy? At secondary level, should literacy be taught in English, then practised across the curriculum, or taught in the context of individual subjects? How/where do we bring together the ‘whole picture’ of a student’s competence as a reader, writer, speaker, listener? What’s the timescale? It raises some interesting and important issues: in secondary more than primary. Is literacy greater or smaller than ‘English’ or ‘Welsh’? A narrow or a broad definition? In planning terms, are English and Literacy the same thing? (Primary schools both sides of the border have taken to calling their lessons ‘Literacy’ and ‘Numeracy’ rather than ‘English’ or ‘Maths’) Is it easier to teach the necessary skills in English, then practise them elsewhere, or to teach them as they arise in, say, Science or History or PE? It’s an age-old question, but with a new twist. How/where do we bring together the profile of an individual child as language user - reader, writer, speaker, listener - across all subjects? Who is responsible? Formative and summative; Pupil progress meeting? Reporting to parents? And what’s the timescale? Really. What state of readiness will Estyn be expecting when they visit?

17 Definitions of Literacy
Literacy is not narrowly about the mechanics of being able to decode the words on a page or write a grammatically correct sentence, although these are essential skills in their own right. It is about the skills needed to understand written and spoken language, to interpret what has been written or said, and draw inferences from the evidence that surrounds us. It is also about being able to communicate in our turn – fluently, cogently and persuasively. Some quick answers to some of these questions, as they appear in the official guides (LNF Handbook and Schools Guide) – you may well have come across these already. So it’s a wider definition we are using – about what it is to be ‘literate’ within society (and by implication, the dangers of being illiterate and therefore disenfranchised) My italics – they pick out those Higher Order Skills we’ve already touched on this morning.

18 Extracts from LNF Handbook
The LNF focuses on the learner’s acquisition of and ability to apply the skills and concepts they have learned in order to complete realistic tasks appropriate to their stage of development. Teachers will be able to use the LNF to integrate literacy … into their teaching whatever the subject matter There’s a welcome emphasis here on ‘use and apply’ and ‘realistic tasks’ – exactly in line with our Reading and Writing for Real approach which we touched on earlier – more of which later.

19 Extracts from LNF Handbook
Literacy is not the same as English/Welsh; as a consequence the LNF expectations do not address all aspects of the English/Welsh subject orders and need to be used in combination with other forms of assessment to develop a comprehensive picture of learner achievement. The literacy component of the LNF will help teachers to address the literacy skills requirements of the English/Welsh programmes of study but not the more literary/creative aspects of the subject orders. But here’s a couple of things which had escaped the notice of some teachers we’ve spoken to. The creative/imaginative side of English – fiction, poetry, storytelling, drama – is not targeted within the Framework, although interestingly it was in the Canadian models which form the basis for the Welsh Govt’s early research. So separate provision will have to be made. In Secondary schools, this is traditionally the English dept’s job, and no doubt will continue to be so. In Primary schools, where there is not a distinction between the teacher of English and the teacher of other subjects, this is posing a problem, as some schools are focusing literally on what the framework says. Notice also the reference to reporting pupil progress and achievement: a comprehensive (i.e. holistic?) picture.

20 Some Current Challenges for Secondary Schools
Student attainment and attitudes on arrival The pre-eminence of 14-19 Content and coverage within subject curriculum Staff expertise and orientation Constraints of existing structures: Subject orientation Timetable and time allocations Variable groupings Multiple use of rooms Resources OK. So how does this relate to the present circumstances in secondary schools? Change at Secondary level is way more challenging than change at primary level and often underestimated by those outside school – however necessary that change might be. I’m going to generalise, but you’ll recognise some of these. Attainment (and attitude) on arrival – often unclear and wide-ranging. Evidence of schools doubting the data and the evidence they are given (!) The threshold at which students transfer to KS4 is crucial, but scrutiny of results and exam change makes schools hothouse at KS4 rather than nurture at KS3. More of this later. Coverage – back to Howard Gardner. Completing the syllabus can dominate our thinking. I should say orientation here refers to subject focus, not personal – that’s outside the scope of this course! But literacy has traditionally been seen as the responsibility of the English Dept. Our view is that it’s about T&L in every subject. And there are further constraints akin to turning an oil tanker around, as practice is so often the result of years of competing priorities.

21 Some Working Solutions
Ability grouping based on attainment Literacy Co-ordinator Intervention Teams/Literacy Champions Technical vocabulary displays in classrooms Literacy Placemats; Writing Frames Student Handbook Whole School Marking Guidelines You’ll also (I hope!) recognise some of these too. Since Literacy across the Curriculum became established in the 1970s via James Britton and the Bullock Report, many schools have put particular strategies in place, but the LNF is the first genuinely cross-curricular attempt to legislate for it. These have all got pros and cons, depending on how you use them. Like you I guess, I’ve seen good and not so good examples of all of them. Brief chat – are there any others? What’s your experience been? post-its added to Flipchart sheets on wall in room: Challenges and Solutions. Groups can add to lists, or comment on existing items

22 Something More Radical?
High visibility for literacy: whole school, all areas High priority for reading: at all levels Redesign KS3 curriculum to strengthen focus on acquiring, using, applying, celebrating literacy skills Use Writing for Real approaches to strengthen context, purpose and audience Use Talk for Writing strategies to train students to become effective writers across the curriculum Make LNF clear and intelligible to students Monitor and mentor student progress in literacy: track and support, with particular emphasis on Y7 Some schools have gone further on the basis that faint heart never won fair banding outcome. Deal briefly with each one. This is almost our own blueprint for change – we’ll come back to it in the final session of the day, once we’ve explained individual elements in more detail.

23 The Literacy of Individual Subjects
50 mins Emphasise that, in teaching literacy in their subject, you are not doing the English department’s job for them – they already have their own job to do. You are supporting effective learning and attainment in your own subject. We’re going to focus in this session on how you can improve writing within your own subject. Each subject has a particular set of demands, its own tune, and realistically it’s only the subject teacher who can teach those demands.

24 Developing Speaking and Listening Across the Curriculum
Stephanie to look at how we can use S&L to Extend vocabulary Extend knowledge of sentence structures Improve responses to questioning Use role play to loosen up our language

25 Using visual imagery to stimulate talk

26 Using speaking frames to develop use of language

27 The Writing Demands of GCSE
Subject Task Science Investigate the factors that will increase the rate of a chemical reaction Geography What traffic management scheme would best suit this city? History Why did more and more Americans begin to turn against the Vietnam War? English Literature ‘Lady Macbeth was the driving force behind the murder of Duncan.’ Discuss. Art Compare the work of two artists that have impressed you. RE ‘We should not feed the hungry’. Discuss, showing that you have considered more than one point of view. PE Devise and evaluate a fitness programme We’d recommend starting by thinking about what students are expected to do/write in KS4. This is a typical list of the kinds of writing task set at GCSE in different subjects – you could quickly produce your own version in school. How easy do students find it to write effectively (and quickly) in the required style? Do they arrive in Year 10 able to do these things? If they did, would it increase their chances of good grades at GCSE? What are the implications here for KS3?

28 Strategies for Teaching Writing Across Curriculum
Identify the kinds of writing central to your subject: are students already familiar with them? Find or create model text(s), at the upper end of what you expect your class to achieve Imitate - make sure students get to know and understand the texts really well Innovate – work on the texts together: same purpose, different subject matter Invent – can they now produce versions of the model independently? Going to put ourselves in the shoes of a subject teacher early in Autumn Term Y7. Want to know what pupils can/can’t do independently, to understand what they need to be taught – To equip them to communicate effectively in this subject. Early Y7 unit based in Science/Geography/History, in which teacher is Looking to gauge what students know/can do – cold task Re-run, with explicit teaching including modelling, shared writing, etc – hot task, benchmark performance Later lukewarm re-test in authentic context: what can they remember? Is it better? Does it need more work? Look at model texts and identify purpose

29 The Teaching Process Read it Talk it Write it
So, you’ve identified the written outcome that the students are going to produce. And you’ve found or created a model text that has the features that you would want to see when the students write explanations. You might want to run some familiarisation activities with the model text or other examples before getting into the nitty gritty of looking at the features.

30 Familiarisation Talk about the content
Discuss the audience and purpose Identify the author Focus on language features (e.g. cloze) Identify most and least effective pieces Improve weak pieces of writing Reconstruction Different kinds of Familiarisation Activity with Chosen Text Oral comprehension Who is it aimed at? What is it trying to do to the reader? Who wrote it and what did they need to know in order to write it? Cloze - Filling the gaps. Take out key lang features e.g. signposts, connectives Could explore examples of writing from previous students – different degrees of success/appropriateness. Which is most effective? Why? Look at how to improve weaker pieces. What are the problems? Nos 5 and 6, could well be done after looking at the model text Cut up text into paragraphs/sentences. Students to reconstruct. Justify reasons for order.

31 Explanation Text Stage 1 – Problem to explain
Stage 2 – Research process Stage 3 – Parallel Model Text Stage 4 – Boxing Up; Talk the Text; Toolkit Stage 5 – Shared Writing Stage 6 – Students Writing Stage 7 – Marking/Evaluation Stage 8 – Consolidate the Learning: exemplars In effect, what we’ve done here is followed the TfW process. If you aren’t familiar with this approach, it has been developed over the last few years by Pie Corbett and Julia Strong, Julia has just brought out a book that you may be interested in. TfW in Secondary Schools. We have a couple of copies if you’d like to have a look at them. Summary of process, leading to need to write explanation for given audience

32 Emma – a case study Why is Bangladesh one of the most flood prone countries in the world? Case study, taken from Guidance for KS2/3 by Welsh curriculum authority. Emma is 14 so Y9. Her teacher judges her performance in geography to be L6. Let’s have a look at one sample of her writing. This is in response to this question. Read through the commentary first and then read Emma’s writing. Not reading for geographical knowledge and understanding but for literacy knowledge and understanding. Initial reactions? My initial reaction was that she isn’t L6 in terms of writing. So, how can we help Emma to improve her literacy skills which will in turn improve her geography writing?

33 Focusing on literacy Text level Sentence level Word level
Look at big picture first. Text level. What is purpose of what Emma has written? Explanation in answer to question Why is Bangladesh one of the most flood prone countries in the world? Has she answered that question? Yes – and more! She goes on to talk about what can be done. Either the research question was broadened or Emma has fallen into the trap that we often see in exam situations where students throw everything they know at a question rather than thinking about answering that specific question. What do we think about the structure of her explanation? Think back to our analysis of the model. Personally I wouldn’t include the sub headings. Paras should speak for themselves. Within the para. Is the info in each para about same or similar things? Style and tone at this level? Impersonal – don’t use I. Down a level – sentence structure and grammar. What do we think? Sentence structures aren’t great. Partly about punctuation. Look at 2nd sentence in 2nd para under physical causes sub heading. 1st para in that section, she uses colon but doesn’t carry it through to using semi colons in the following list. Would make it easier to read. Repetition of opening sentences of paras. Varying structure and wording of topic sentences. Look at opening para. Needs cohesion between sentences. They don’t flow. Issue with tenses which change on 2nd page from present to future conditional in a couple of instances. Word level. This is an explanation therefore I would expect to find cause and effect connectives e.g. because, so, this means that … Has Emma used them? Sparingly. If she were to think about cause and effect connectives it would lead her to supporting more of her statements with reasons and evidence which would improve some of her explanations which her teachers describes as confused or incomplete’. Technical vocab? Yes. Word choices? Some too simple. Some too grandiose e.g. frequency and magnitude. How could it be made more formal? And I would say read and re-read for sense. So, have a quick chat about these things we’ve identified. What 3 key aspects would we feedback to Emma so that she could either revisit this piece of writing or use when she next writes an explanation? Clearly not going to say all of them. Poor girl would be completely demotivated! Take feedback.

34 Working on introductions
Marking Oral rehearsal Physical practice What makes a good one Modelling How to help? Marking – try to link the sentences in your introduction. Oral work Sentence level activities with geog content text reconstruction. Modelling. Might have a number of students who need help with intros. 3 or 4 sample intros – some good, some not so. Shared writing. Read the heading so we know what the writing is about. Start with something about Bangladesh. How about we tell the reader where it is? Now, we’re writing about the flooding so let’s give some info about that. Pick up on the floods in that sentence and lead into our next para. Bangladesh is situated north-east of India and south of Nepal. It is one of the most flood prone countries in the world. The frequent and sizeable floods are caused by a number of reasons – both physical and human.

35 Read it, Talk it, Write it and the LNF
Activity: Written explanation Expectation Statements: Year 8 Read It Collect information on a specific topic from a range of sources Make notes, selecting relevant info Organise notes according to agreed structure Use a range of reading strategies to skim for gist and scan for detailed information Make connections between texts, and identify any agreement and contradiction Summarise and synthesise information, using different sources Talk It Share information in pair/group and sift out relevant material Orally rehearse and perform the text Discuss opposing viewpoints and negotiate ways forward Present topics and ideas coherently, using techniques effectively Write It Make notes based on research Contribute to Shared Writing session Produce own draft, drawing on class models Revise draft in light of peer review and publish Select, analyse and present ideas and information convincingly/objectively Use technical terms, language and expression consistent with subject Use the full range of punctuation to clarify meaning An indication of the expectation statements matched to the research and writing task – All 3 strands; Range of aspects. If you have a re-organised set of statements, showing progression, you can identify levels of achievement within group

36 A word on assessment and marking
Students write to communicate effectively not to achieve a level Students edit and assess their own work Marking should reflect the focus of the teaching Assessment should guide the next piece of teaching

37 ‘Feedback to any pupil should be about the particular qualities of his or her work, with advice on what he or she can do to improve, and should avoid comparison with other pupils.’ Black & Wiliam 1998 – Inside the Black Box Timely reminder in these target driven times not to confuse formative assessment with summative assessment

38 A Community of Researchers
The Unlocked Guide Stephanie This morning we touched on reading, but mostly looked at improving writing. This afternoon we are going to focus more on reading, but particularly the research process – reading for information. How good are students at undertaking research? And reporting on their findings? Do they have a clear model to help them? Have they been taught (and do they regularly practise) the requisite skills? But first, A Pub Quiz! What do you know about Cardiff? Play in tables, choose a quizmaster and a scribe.

39 What we Would like to know What we have Learned
What we Know What we Would like to know What we have Learned Sure you are all familiar with KWL grids. So, record children’s existing knowledge (if any) including misconceptions in K col. Then record Emily’s questions in W col. Forms basis for research questions. Open questions more worthwhile than closed questions. Question children – How are we going to find the answers? Where should we look? In books, online, find an expert. Alternatives to KWL

40 Question Answer Details Source Similarly QUADS grids.
Starts to move towards referencing sources in pupils’ writing. Good way of keeping a record. So, in order for children to carry out research which they could do on line or using books. They need some research skills at their fingertips.

41 Research process Identify research questions Set a purpose for reading
Navigate non-fiction texts Interrogate the text Record and evaluate information Next stage in process to record and evaluate info

42 Skimming and scanning Skimming – to quickly identify the main ideas in a text Scanning – to find specific information Volcanoes story. 2 strategies that are rarely explicitly taught.

43 Skimming Read the title, headings and sub-headings Look at visuals
Read first and last sentences of paragraphs and sections Keep thinking about the meaning of the text

44 Scanning Know what questions you are trying to answer
Don’t try to read every word Read vertically rather than horizontally Visualise key words Look for clues e.g. capital letters, spelling patterns, word shapes, numbers Use signposts e.g. sub titles, headings, headers Use textual organisational devices e.g. alphabetical order

45 Interrogate the text Unknown words – to work out word meanings
Stop and think – to monitor understanding Check the text – to interpret visuals Text marking – to identify key information Read, write, read – to read for meaning Ask the teacher – to formulate questions and monitor understanding Analyse the question – to answer different types of question Find the main idea – to identify key information Use laminated spread. Ability level of students: more able – special needs. Unknown/new /interesting words. Strategies for working out meanings. Interesting words chart. Stop and think – to monitor understanding. Encourage children to stop after reading a paragraph and reflect – did I understand what that was about? Any parts I don’t understand? Could I explain what I’ve read to someone else? Any questions I need to have answered? Check the text – cover text and focus on image – photo/diag/map. Discuss in pairs or small groups. Children write text to go with image. Uncover text and compare with children’s version. Text marking is straightforward – use highlighters or different coloured pencils to highlight/underline different aspects of text. Colour coded. Visual. Read, write, read – children read a para silently to remember as much as they can. Brainstorm. Tchr records without questioning/comment. When finished delete repetitions, return to text to check. Categorise info. Repeat with next section. Ask the teacher – children and teacher read passage silently. Tchr closes the book and children ask tchr questions. Once children have finished asking questions, tchr asks them questions – gives you the chance to model different qu types Why do you think … How would you have felt … Analyse the qu – read text. Tchr asks literal, inferential then evaluative questions. Find the main idea – ask who, what, where, why as clues to find main idea.

46 Record and evaluate information
Key words Notemaking Change the form Create student quiz Next steps Notemaking depends on ability to identify key words. usually nouns or verbs, usually identify who, what, when, where, how or why. V young children can come up with key words by discussing a picture. Write up single sentence. Children underline key words. Justify choices. Increase length and complexity of sentences. Key words must be specific enough to mean something. Must trigger memory so that we recall more details. Notemaking does need to be taught explicitly. Start with circling key words in a passage, then list them, then use them in a sentence Change the form. Recording notes as diagrams. So, recount as timeline. Instructions as flow chart. In KS non fiction, guidebook so non chron report. Decide on headings e.g. place name, sub headings – what there is to do, where it is, times and cost. Details. Draw this up as pyramid or skeleton grid. Or could be retrieval chart. Children create own quiz – effective way of assessing understanding Next steps – was the text useful, did I believe what it told me, have I found the info I need, do further research if necessary. Otherwise, we’re into the writing.

47 Directed Activities Related to Texts
DARTs Directed Activities Related to Texts DARTs are activities that are designed to help children to understand what they are reading and to develop HORS. Lunzer and Gardner (ref this morning)

48 Reconstruction DARTs Text completion Sequencing Grouping
Table completion Diagram completion Prediction activities To summarise. 2 types of darts. 1st reconstruction. Uses modified text. In other words one that has been changed in some way. Text completion (Fill in missing words, phrases or sentences.) Like cloze we did this morning. Sequencing (Arrange jumbled segments of text in a logical or time sequence.) So cut up a text into strips – sentences/paras – ch to reconstruct using clues. Grouping (Group segments of text according to categories.) Can be open sort or you give them categories. Table completion (Fill in the cells of a table that has row and column headings, or provide row and column headings where cells have already been filled in.) Diagram completion (Complete an unfinished diagram or label a finished diagram.) NEXT SLIDE Prediction activities (Write the next step or stage of a text, or end the text.) In order to do all of these you need to use HORS and to understand what is being read.

49 Analysis DARTs Text marking Text segmenting and labelling
Table construction Diagram construction Questioning Summarizing 2nd type – analysis darts. Unmodified text Text marking (Find and underline parts of the text that have a particular meaning or contain particular information.) Text segmenting and labelling (Break the text into meaningful chunks and label each chunk.) Give paras a heading. Table construction (Draw a table. Use the information in the text to decide on row and column headings and to fill in the cells.) NEXT SLIDE Diagram construction (Construct a diagram that explains the meaning of the text. For example, draw a flow chart for a text that explains a process, or a branch diagram for a text that describes how something is classified.) NEXT SLIDE Questioning (Answer the teacher's questions or develop questions about the text.) Summarizing – summing up in certain number of words.

50 The teaching process Read it Talk it Write it Remember the process

51 A Community of Researchers: Benefits in relation to LNF
Provides a meaningful context for learning to take place Opportunity to practise and apply skills for a clear purpose and audience Mixes literacy skills with subject content Focuses on active learning Flexible and transferable – can tweak existing programmes of work

52 Options for adopting this approach
Self-contained projects within individual subjects Short-term collaborations between two or more subjects with pooled objectives A collapsed timetable at key points during the year to assess students’ ability to apply learning in ‘real’ situations Transition project: Y6/7 (Y7/8; Y8/9) An integrated curriculum: Y7, KS3

53 Building a Literacy Rich School

54 What would Estyn hope to see?
A rich and dynamic literacy environment, where speaking, listening, reading, writing have high status Plenty of good opportunities for pupils to show higher-order reading skills and good quality writing in all areas of the curriculum Good quality displays of a wide range of texts illustrating the forms and purposes of writing, and pupil-generated examples celebrating best work Practitioners who are good language role models for oracy, reading and writing Practitioners who support the development of good literacy skills in all areas of the curriculum Drawn from revised Estyn inspection guidelines 2011 – KS3/4

55 Visible evidence of literacy
Is your school a literacy –rich environment? Stephanie’s photos

56 8 Key Propositions to Improve Writing
Do the research: what is writing like now? Give time to writing: do less, but do it better Prepare students carefully for writing Be clear about purpose and audience in writing Use the classroom to support and reflect student writing (home grown rather than shop bought) Use AfL techniques to provide practical feedback to students on their writing Encourage students to see themselves as writers Increase students’ experience of reading Support with demonstration/video Provide fuller summary in folder

57 Student Reading Survey (Y7)
Do you think of yourself as a good reader? How often do you find time to read for pleasure? Daily, weekly, less Which of the following are you most likely to read if you have some spare time? Fiction, non-fiction, magazine, website What would you say is your favourite book? Can you name 3 authors whose books you enjoy? Would you say you read more or less now than you did when you were at primary school? Where is your favourite place to read? Do you borrow books from the library? Local, school Some books are made into films. If you had a choice, would you prefer to read the book or see the film? Would you say it was cool in your class to be seen as a keen reader? What would you say is the best thing about being able to read?

58 Student Writing Survey (Y8)
Do you enjoy writing? Do you think of yourself as a good writer? Do you write outside school? What kinds of writing in school do you like most/least? How do your teachers help you with your writing? Do you prefer to write by hand or on screen? Did you find writing easier or more difficult at primary? What advice would you give to a fellow student who was trying to improve their writing? What advice would you give to your school on how they could help students improve their writing?

59 A Blueprint for Change High visibility for literacy: whole school, all areas High priority for reading: at all levels Redesign KS3 curriculum to strengthen focus on acquiring, using, applying, celebrating literacy skills Use ‘Writing for Real’ approaches to strengthen context, purpose and audience Use ‘Talk for Writing’ strategies to train students to become effective writers across the curriculum Make LNF clear and intelligible to students Monitor and mentor student progress in literacy: track and support, with particular emphasis on Y7

60 An Implementation Strategy
Form core group of committed staff (plc): to include SMT member; literacy leader; range of subject staff; SENCO Develop range of model texts: use with students via T4W to improve their writing: record before and after outcomes Use the LNF in planning and assessing: to guide focus, expectations, progression, achievement Keep other staff (dept, school) informed: spread practice in school/cluster through demonstration, coaching Look for opportunities to restructure curriculum once new subject orders are known: links between subjects; integrated units; balance between literacy/content

61 The Professional Literacy Company
Fax: (questionnaires) Website: @ProfLitCo Contacts and evaluations 2 things to do next …


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