2 All around us are organisms (living things) living in communities, e.g. in NZ native bush. Each species has its own population within the community, and a niche where it lives.
3 Producers – Organisms that make their own food from sunlight energy Examples: plants, trees, moss, algaeConsumers – Organisms that eat other organisms (plants or animals)Examples: caterpillars, bugs, birds, dogs, possums, fish, frogs, humansDecomposers – Organisms that break down the bodies of dead organisms and wasteExamples: bacteria and fungi
4 Different types of consumers Carnivores – only eat other animalsHerbivores – only eat plantsOmnivores – eat plants and animals
5 Food chainsA community contains many food chains which link up to form a food webe.g. grass sheep humanEach step in the food chain is called a trophic level.It shows “who eats who”Energy flows from the lowest trophic level to the highest trophic level. Energy enters the chain as light and exits as heat.The arrow shows the direction of energy flowOnly 10% of energy flows from one level to the next. The other 90% is converted to heat.
6 Trophic levels grass grasshopper birds cats Grass is the….. Third-order consumerGrass is the…..Consumers can be first order (herbivores), second or third order (omnivores and carnivores), and higher!Grasshopper is the…..Birds are the….Cats are the….Second-order consumerFirst-order consumerProducer
7 Trophic levels grass grasshopper birds cats Grass is the producerConsumers can be first order (herbivores), second or third order (omnivores and carnivores), and higher!Grasshopper is the first-order consumerBirds are the second-order consumersCats are the third-order consumersThird-order consumerSecond-order consumerFirst-order consumerProducer