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Communities!. All around us are organisms (living things) living in communities, e.g. in NZ native bush. Each species has its own population within the.

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Presentation on theme: "Communities!. All around us are organisms (living things) living in communities, e.g. in NZ native bush. Each species has its own population within the."— Presentation transcript:

1 Communities!

2 All around us are organisms (living things) living in communities, e.g. in NZ native bush. Each species has its own population within the community, and a niche where it lives.

3 Producers – Organisms that make their own food from sunlight energy – Examples: plants, trees, moss, algae Consumers – Organisms that eat other organisms (plants or animals) – Examples: caterpillars, bugs, birds, dogs, possums, fish, frogs, humans Decomposers – Organisms that break down the bodies of dead organisms and waste – Examples: bacteria and fungi

4 Different types of consumers Carnivores – only eat other animals Herbivores – only eat plants Omnivores – eat plants and animals

5 Food chains A community contains many food chains which link up to form a food web e.g. grass sheep human Each step in the food chain is called a trophic level. It shows who eats who Energy flows from the lowest trophic level to the highest trophic level. Energy enters the chain as light and exits as heat. The arrow shows the direction of energy flow Only 10% of energy flows from one level to the next. The other 90% is converted to heat.

6 Grass is the….. Consumers can be first order (herbivores), second or third order (omnivores and carnivores), and higher! Grasshopper is the….. Birds are the…. Cats are the…. Trophic levels Producer First-order consumer Second-order consumer Third-order consumer grass grasshopper birds cats

7 Grass is the producer Consumers can be first order (herbivores), second or third order (omnivores and carnivores), and higher! Grasshopper is the first-order consumer Birds are the second-order consumers Cats are the third-order consumers Trophic levels Producer First-order consumer Second-order consumer Third-order consumer grass grasshopper birds cats

8 Plant plankton Animal plankton Fish Penguins Krill shrimp Baleen whales Squid Sea birds Sperm whales Seals T1 Producers T2 Herbivores (first-order consumers) T4 Omnivores and Carnivores (second- order consumers) T5 Carnivores (third-order consumers) T6 Carnivores (fourth- order consumers T3 Omnivores (second-order consumers) T=Trophic Level


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