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1st Semester Exam in Advanced Placement Biology

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1 1st Semester Exam in Advanced Placement Biology

2

3 A student designs an experiment that determines the effectiveness of a particular enzyme. In the design, 4 types of food products are used. The experimenter uses 5ml, 10ml, 15ml, and 20ml of enzyme with each of the 4 food types. In addition, the experimenter places the 5ml and 10ml containers in the freezer. Which of the following statements BEST describes this experimental design? A. This experimental design will easily be supported by other scientists. B. This experimental design is flawed due to the lack of a control variable and the presence of multiple experimental variables. C. This experimental design will produce multiple trials of data. D. This experimental design will show that an enzyme can work in any temperature and any volume or concentration.

4  2. The enzymes that catalyze cellular reactions are macromolecules made of organiccompounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen. These types of macromolecules are known as __________. A. starches B. sugars C. proteins D. fats

5 3. Which biomolecule's function is LEAST likely to be affected by the order of its singlemolecule units? A. DNA B. starch C. RNA D. protein

6 4. Many plants have waxy coatings on some surfaces
4. Many plants have waxy coatings on some surfaces. This coating reduces water loss because it is not waterpermeable.This waxy coating is which of the following types of organic molecule? A. carbohydrate B. lipid C. nucleic acid D. protein

7 5. Many land plants store energy in starch
5. Many land plants store energy in starch. When energy is needed, the starch molecules can be broken down quickly. This chemical reaction produces which of the following? A. amino acids B. lipids C. monosaccharides D. RNA chains

8 6. Which of the following macromolecules are a prominent part of animal tissues that function in insulation, helping animals conserve heat? A. carbohydrates B. lipids C. proteins D. nucleic acids

9 7. Which is the MOST valid conclusion based on this graph?
A. Enzymes are not affected greatly by temperature. B. Enzymes work most effectively at low temperatures. C. Raising the temperature always makes an enzyme work better. D. Enzyme function decreases after a certain favorable temperature.

10 8. A student measured the time required for a protein sample to be completely digested in the presence of an enzyme under different pH levels. At which pH is the enzyme LEAST active? A B C D

11 9. Which of the following are commonly found in organic molecules?
A. I, II I. Carbon B. II, IV II. Nitrogen C. I, II, III III. Phosphorus D. I, II, III, IV IV. Helium Carbon Nitrogen Phosphorus

12 10. Which of the following is a function of a carbohydrate?
A. forms the cell wall B. forms the cell membrane C. gene expression D. regulates enzymes

13 11. Which of the following is a function of a protein. A
11. Which of the following is a function of a protein? A. forms the cell wall B. forms the cell membrane C. gene expression D. regulates enzymes

14 12. What simple molecule reacts with itself to form this disaccharide?
A. DNA B. amino acids C. glucose D. lipids

15 13. Which structure can be found in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells?
A. mitochondrion B. nucleic acid C. nucleus D. chloroplast

16 14. Which structure does NOT belong in a prokaryotic cell?
A. DNA B. phosolipid membrane C. cytoplasm D. nuclear envelope

17 15. What kind of cells most likely result from uncontrolled growth due to mutations in genes that control the cell cycle? A. nerve cells B. bone cells C. cancer cells D. cardiac cells

18 16. What structure(s) allows chromosomes to separate and move during mitosis?
A. spindle apparatus B. nuclear envelope C. chromatids D. radiating fibers

19 17. In the Enzyme Substrate Complex, what is represented by Y ?
A. enzyme B. substrate C. active site D. product

20 18. What does Step III illustrate?
A. enzyme specificity B. changes in enzymes after reaction C. conversion of substrate into products D. release of activation energy

21 Use the chart to help you answer the following 4 questions.

22 A. enzyme B. amino acids C. monomer D. polymer
19. What BEST completes the chart at I? A. enzyme B. amino acids C. monomer D. polymer

23 20. Which statement BEST describes the function of nucleic acids (IV)?
A. stores genetic information and helps to make proteins B. increases the rate of chemical reactions C. stimulates metabolism in all body cells D. activates secretion of the body's hormones

24 21. What molecule is described in column III?
A. phosphates B. lipids C. polysaccharides D. minerals

25  22. Complete the chart at II.
A. polysaccharides B. biomolecules C. amino acids D. lipids

26 23. In guinea pigs, the allele for rough coat (R) is dominant over the allele for smooth coat (r). A heterozygous guinea pig and a homozygous recessive guinea pig are mated. Which of the following would be the phenotypes of the offspring? A. all rough coat B. all smooth coat C. 2 rough coat and 2 smooth coat D. 3 rough coat and 1 smooth coat

27 24. Which of the following do plant cells have that animal cells do not?
A. chloroplasts and cell walls B. vacuoles and cell membranes C. chloroplasts and mitochondria D. cell walls and cell membranes

28 25. Four of the six kingdoms are comprised of organisms that contain eukaryotic cells. Which structures in a cell would give you the BEST evidence that the cell is eukaryotic? A. mitochondria B. vacuoles C. cell walls D. internal membranes

29 A. chloroplasts and cell walls B. vacuoles and cell membranes
26. Which of the following do plant cells have that animal cells do not? A. chloroplasts and cell walls B. vacuoles and cell membranes C. chloroplasts and mitochondria D. cell walls and cell membranes plant cells animal cells

30 27. Which of the following is arranged in the order of increasing levels of function?
A. atom, molecule, cell B. molecule, atom, cell C. cell, atom, molecule D. cell, molecule, atom molecule cell atom

31 28. In the Nested Venn diagram, what kinds of cells are found in section III? A. animal B. plant C. fungi D. fungi and plant

32 29. Identify the Venn diagram section(s) which includes prokaryotic cells.
A. I B. II, III, IV C. I, II, III, IV D. IV

33 30. Which sections do NOT include characteristics of cells from this organism?
A. I B. I, II C. II, III D. III, IV

34 31. Draw two cells, an animal cell and a plant cell
31. Draw two cells, an animal cell and a plant cell. The animal cell will need at least six organelles drawn and labeled. The plant cell will need at least eight organelles drawn and labeled. Two of the plant organelles will need to be ones not found in an animal cell. Plant Cell Animal Cell Diagrams should have six of the same structures, and 2 in the plant only found there. Parts shown in the Plant cell diagram Below is a list of the main parts shown in the plant cell diagram and the roles that they play in the cell. Nucleus - contains the genetic information of the cell.  Nuclear envelope - double membrane surrounding the nucleus. Perinuclear space - space between the two membranes of the nuclear envelope. Nucleolus - site of ribosome synthesis - densely granular. Chromatin - DNA-Protein Complex.  Ribosomes - site of protein synthesis. Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum - covered in ribisomes - lamellar. Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum - tubuler. Golgi Body - synthesis and secretion of polysaccharides. Chloroplast - Site of Photosynthesis. Granum (Grana) - stacked thyalkoid membranes. Stroma - fluid matrix surrounding the thylakoids. Thylakoid - Membrane found in the chloroplast. Intercellular air space - gap between cells. Cell Wall - Rigid structure surrounding plant cells, not present in animal cells.  Middle lamella- protein rich cement between adjacent plant cell walls. Primary Cell Wall - earliest created cell walls - usually thin - found in young growing cells. Secondary Cell Wall - Formed in older cells as part of the differentiation process. Plasma Membrane - Outer boundary of the cell. Mitochrondrian - Energy producing organelle - respiration. Peroxisome- Removes hydrogens from substrates - present in photosynthetic cells - has a crystalline core. Oleosome - Oil lipid storage (seeds). Vacuole - Water filled part of the cell that may represent up to 90% of the total plant cell - also contains ions, sugars, secondary metabolites and enzymes. Tonoplast - Membrane surrounding the Vacuole.

35 31. Draw two cells, an animal cell and a plant cell
31. Draw two cells, an animal cell and a plant cell. The animal cell will need at least six organelles drawn and labeled. The plant cell will need at least eight organelles drawn and labeled. Two of the plant organelles will need to be ones not found in an animal cell. Plant Cell Animal Cell Parts shown in the Plant cell diagram Below is a list of the main parts shown in the plant cell diagram and the roles that they play in the cell. Nucleus - contains the genetic information of the cell.  Nuclear envelope - double membrane surrounding the nucleus. Perinuclear space - space between the two membranes of the nuclear envelope. Nucleolus - site of ribosome synthesis - densely granular. Chromatin - DNA-Protein Complex.  Ribosomes - site of protein synthesis. Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum - covered in ribisomes - lamellar. Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum - tubuler. Golgi Body - synthesis and secretion of polysaccharides. Chloroplast - Site of Photosynthesis. Granum (Grana) - stacked thyalkoid membranes. Stroma - fluid matrix surrounding the thylakoids. Thylakoid - Membrane found in the chloroplast. Intercellular air space - gap between cells. Cell Wall - Rigid structure surrounding plant cells, not present in animal cells.  Middle lamella- protein rich cement between adjacent plant cell walls. Primary Cell Wall - earliest created cell walls - usually thin - found in young growing cells. Secondary Cell Wall - Formed in older cells as part of the differentiation process. Plasma Membrane - Outer boundary of the cell. Mitochrondrian - Energy producing organelle - respiration. Peroxisome- Removes hydrogens from substrates - present in photosynthetic cells - has a crystalline core. Oleosome - Oil lipid storage (seeds). Vacuole - Water filled part of the cell that may represent up to 90% of the total plant cell - also contains ions, sugars, secondary metabolites and enzymes. Tonoplast - Membrane surrounding the Vacuole.

36 31. Draw two cells, an animal cell and a plant cell
31. Draw two cells, an animal cell and a plant cell. The animal cell will need at least six organelles drawn and labeled. The plant cell will need at least eight organelles drawn and labeled. Two of the plant organelles will need to be ones not found in an animal cell. Plant Cell Animal Cell

37 Use your diagrams above to answer the following three questions.
32. Identify the two organelles in the diagrams that are NOT found in the animal cell. cell wall Chloroplasts large central vacuole

38 Use your diagrams above to answer the following question.
33. What is the purpose of the two organelles? cell wall that surrounds the cell membrane, thereby making the cells in plants more sturdy. chloroplasts which capture sunlight for photosynthesis large central vacuole for water storage.

39 Use your diagrams above to answer the following question.
34. How do the two pictures relate to evidence of the cell theory? Answers will vary. All cells have similar parts.

40 Discuss the evidence for the cell theory
The cell theory states that: Cells are the smallest unit of life  All organisms are composed of one or more cells All cells come from preexisting cells 

41 The cell theory can’t be ‘proven true’ because that would require us to examine every single cell, which would be an impossible task. However the theory would be ‘proven false’ if a scientist made a discovery that violated the existing cell theory. Evidence for the cell theory comes from observation and experimentation. When observed with a light microscope, every kind of cell - from every kind of organism – has so far upheld the central tenets of the cell theory. The statement that all living cells come from pre-existing cells does not mean that life has always existed; biologists believe that self-replicating molecules gradually evolved into the earliest cells.

42 There is compelling evidence that mitochondria and chloroplasts were once primitive bacterial cells. This evidence is described in the endosymbiotic theory.

43 Mitosis Use the following diagram to answer the next three questions.
35. During which part of the cell cycle does this process occur? A. M B. S C. G1 D. G2 Mitosis

44 36. Refer to the diagram. Arrange the stages in order. A
36. Refer to the diagram. Arrange the stages in order. A. I, II, III, IV, V, VI B. VI, II, I, IV, V, III C. III, VI, I, IV, II, V D. V, II, IV, I, II, VI

45 37. What is the name of this process?
A. metaphase B. mitosis C. meiosis D. mucousis

46 Explain the process illustrated in the diagram.
A. passage of water molecules through a Semipermeable membrane to equalize concentration B. movement of molecules against a concentration gradient expending energy C. separation of suspended particles from a fluid environment through a porous membrane D. transport of molecules across a membrane from a high to low concentration gradient by means of a carrier molecule

47 39. Which statement does NOT describe cell cycle checkpoints. A
39. Which statement does NOT describe cell cycle checkpoints? A. Normal checkpoints assess damage to DNA. B. Faulty checkpoints may lead to abnormal cell growth. C. Cell checkpoints can fail in mitosis and meiosis. D. Defective checkpoints result in the death of the cell.

48 40. The compound synthesized during photosynthesis is_________________ .
A. H2O B. CO2 C. O2 D. C6H12O6

49 41. Refer to the diagram. Choose the terms that complete the diagram at X and Y.
A. X oxygen, Y carbon dioxide B. X energy, Y energy C. X energy, Y carbon dioxide D. X water, Y energy

50 42. What equation BEST describes the process occurring at A?
A. H2O + CO2 C6H1 2O6 + H2O B. O2 + C6H12O6 H2O + CO2 C. H2O + CO2 C6H1 2O6 + O2 D. H2O + O2 C6H1 2O6 + CO2

51 43. What equation describes the process occurring at B?
A. H2O + CO2 C6H1 2O6 + H2O B. O2 + C6H1 2O6 H2O + CO2 C. H2O + CO2 C6H1 2O6 + O2 D. H2O + O2 C6H1 2O6 + CO2

52 44. Which statement applies to meiosis, but not mitosis?
A. Daughter cells are genetically identical to parent cells. B. Daughter cells are genetically different from parent cells. C. The number of chromosomes in daughter cells is the same as the number in the parent cell. D. The number of chromosomes in daughter cells is more than in parent cells.

53 45. What is the purpose of mitosis?
A. Guarantees that each daughter cell has half the amount of DNA than parent cells. B. It ensures that new nuclei have the correct amount of DNA. C. It ensure the reproduction of mitochondria and chloroplasts. D. It prevents the occurrence of cancer cells

54 46. Which of the following includes two requirements that are needed for photosynthesis AND aerobic respiration? A. electron charge transport system and regulating enzymes B. oxygen and carbon dioxide C. glucose and water D. carbon dioxide and electron charge transport system

55 47. Meiosis plays a more significant role in reproduction than mitosis in which of the following?
A. increasing the variability of genetic information B. more efficiently using energy in the cell division process C. more rapidly reproducing and growing D. increasing the process of asexual Reproduction

56 48. In both mitosis and meiosis a specific process occurs the same number of times. What is that process? A. The cytoplasm is divided evenly between the cells. B. The DNA in the chromosomes is duplicated. C. The cells divide into equally sized halves. D. The chromosomes align themselves at opposite ends of the cells.

57 49. Compared with mitosis, the process of meiosis results in ___________________ .
A. greater number of cell chromosomes per cell B. greater volume of cell cytoplasm per cell C. greater number of daughter cells D. greater amount of genetic material per cell

58 50. What is the purpose of ATP in both cellular respiration and photosynthesis?
A. to breakdown glucose to release energy B. to transfer energy from one molecule to another C. to work as an enzyme D. to absorb electrons from water

59 51. During intense aerobic activity, the rate of respiration and circulation increases. Which of the following BEST describes why this occurs? A. Muscle tissues deplete their oxygen supply at a faster rate during exercise resulting in an increased level of carbon dioxide. B. Lung tissue requires more carbon dioxide to deliver the increased amount of oxygen required by muscle tissue during exercise. C. Levels of carbon dioxide in muscle tissue decrease during exercise due to the increased amount of oxygen being used. D. The amount of oxygen required during exercise decreases due to the increase of production of carbon dioxide by muscle tissues.

60 52. The body can respond to a drastic decrease in skin temperature in a variety of ways in order to conserve heat and to increase heat production. Which of the following is NOT one such response? A. vasodialation to decrease the flow of heat to the skin B. cessation of sweating C. shivering to increase heat production in the muscles D. erection of body hairs or fur to increase Insulation

61 53. The body depends on feedback loops to maintain a constant internal environment. Which of the following is an example of a negative feedback loop? A. the generation of nerve signals by the release of sodium ions B. release of gastric fluids to maintain a consistent pH level in the stomach C. the release of oxytocin to stimulate contractions during childbirth D. the activation of platelets in the formation of a blood clot

62 54. Organisms in both aquatic and terrestrial environments must maintain the right amount of water and proper concentration of solutes in their body fluids. This balance of solutes and water is known as osmoregulation. Which of the following is NOT an example of osmoregulation? A. fish retaining high concentrations of urea in their blood B. humans excreting sweat through the skin C. increase in level of oxygen retention in body cells D. regulation of the amount of water in urine waste

63 55. What conclusion can be drawn from the following statements regarding adaptation of organisms?
1. Variation exists among individuals in a population. 2. Genes are passed from one generation to the next. 3. Speciation occurs when variation occurs over time in geographic isolation. A. Organisms adapt to changes in the environment on an individual basis. B. Adaptation leads to change in a species. C. Variation is caused by a single factor. D. Species only adapt when they make the decision to adapt.

64 56. Likenesses in structure between parts of different organisms which are evidence of common ancestry are called— A. phylogenies B. analogies C. genealogies D. homologies

65 57. Speciation occurs when variation occurs over time in geographic isolation.
A. Organisms adapt to changes in the environment on an individual basis. B. Adaptation leads to change in a species. C. Variation is caused by a single factor. D. Species only adapt when they make the decision to adapt.

66 58. Likenesses in structure between parts of different organisms which are evidence of
common ancestry are called— A. phylogenies B. analogies C. genealogies D. homologies

67 A. reproductive differential B. genetic variability
59. The ability of an organism to compete successfully for environmental resources, survive predation, resist disease, and live to adulthood affects the organism’s _______________ . A. reproductive differential B. genetic variability C. genetic potential D. physical fitness reproductive differential

68 60. Which of the following are homologous structures?
A. bee wings and bird wings B. legs on a beetle and legs on a cat C. bird wings and bat wings D. human eyebrows and ant antenna bird wings and bat wings

69 61. The total number of different alleles present in a population make up a ___________ .
A. genotype B. phenotype C. gene pool D. gene flow

70 62. Which pair illustrates analogous structures?
A. butterfly wings and dolphin fins B. fish fins and whale flippers C. moth wings and butterfly wings D. penguin wings and ostrich wings

71 63. Which statement does not accurately describe natural selection?
A. Individual organisms change their genes to adapt to their environment. B. The genetic composition of a population changes from one generation to the next. C. More advantageous traits become more common in populations. D. Beneficial and useful traits are inheritable.

72 64. The occurrence of the same amino acid sequence in digestive proteins in two morphologically unrelated species provides evidence that these two species A. occupy the same niche B. have homologous structures C. descended from a common ancestor D. have evolved convergently

73 A. pharyngeal gill slits B. a bony tail C. fins D. a coat of fine fur
human fetus dolphin fetus 65. A human fetus, when compared to a dolphin fetus, exhibits all of the following similarities during development EXCEPT: A. pharyngeal gill slits B. a bony tail C. fins D. a coat of fine fur pharyngeal gill slits a bony tail a coat of fine fur fins

74 66. In cats, the bones in the legs involved in walking are very similar to the bones in whales’ flippers that are involved in swimming. Although they have different functions, these bones, called homologous structures, lead us to the theory that cats and whales: A. lived in the same time period B. have a common ancestor C. are both great swimmers D. have analogous structures to begin with cats leg bones whales' flippers bone

75 67. Which of the following is an example of a heritable characteristic possessed by an animal that will improve its reproductive potential and survivability in its environment? A. position of geese flying in V formation B. color and shape camouflage of preying mantis C. muscle atrophy in aging dogs D. male dominance in a pack of wolves

76 68. Organisms with functionally similar structures that come from different taxonomic groups illustrate — A. convergent evolution B. divergent evolution C. coevolution D. parallel evolution

77 When an eagle preys on mice, some mice are killed and some escape.
69. Which part of Darwin’s theory of natural selection can be used to describe the following predator/prey relationship? When an eagle preys on mice, some mice are killed and some escape. A. directional selection B. vestigial structures C. survival of the fittest D. homologous structures

78 70. Geographical isolation as a barrier for groups of organisms is determined by—
A. the ability of organisms to move freely B. the fitness of the organism in its new environment C. the success of the population to compete for resources D. the size of the new habitats

79 71. Heritable structures or behaviors that an organism possesses that allow it to more
efficiently use its environment are— A. acclimations B. adaptations C. variations D. mutations

80 72. What theory explains the origin of chloroplasts and mitochondria in eukaryotic
cells? A. theory of natural selection B. cell theory C. endosymbiotic theory D. theory of evolution

81 73. Looking through the fossil record, there are times when numerous fossils look to just appear all at the same time, with similar characteristics. What is a good explanation for this? A. A change in the environment occurred, and animals choose to express different traits. B. New species are always just occurring, and there is no reason for it. C. Ancient man killed off all the animals, and they raised new animals, which are then found in the fossil record. D. A change in the environment caused different genetic traits to allow for a greater chance of survival and the fossil record shows this.

82 74. Which structures in figures 2 and 3 are homologous to C in figure 1?
A. figure 2 – T & figure 3 – M B. figure 2 – V & figure 3 – O C. figure 2 – W & figure 3 – N D. figure 2 – U & figure 3 – P

83 75. Some animals will lay thousands of eggs, many more than could be supported by the environmental resources in their area. How does inherited variation allow for a population with limited resources to adapt over time? In any given generation, populations tend to create more offspring than can survive to reproductive age. As the population increases, and traits that made the ancestor successful therefore also increase in frequency. Natural selection leads to adaptation, in which an organism's traits conform to the environment's conditions for existence. Inherited variation allows for the animals with the better traits to survive to pass along their genetic code to the next generation.

84 76. A biologist is studying an environment that contains many different types of finches. Describe two methods the biologist could use to determine how closely the different types of finches are related. Explain how the biologist will be able to interpret the results of each method. - The biologist can collect samples of DNA or body fluids from each finch. The finches with the most similar DNA sequence, or whose body fluids contain the most similar molecules, are probably most closely related. - The biologist can compare the adaptations or body structures of the finches. The finches with the most similar adaptations or structures are probably most closely related. - The biologist could try breeding the different finches. Finches that can successfully interbreed are more closely related than those that cannot. You can test their genetics- take a feather or blood from each type. You could also group them by similar colors or features (such as type of beak). The biologist should collect samples of DNA from each finch. The finches with the most similar DNA sequences are probably most closely related. The biologist can also compare structural similarities. Finches with more similar structures are probably more closely related.

85 77. A good hypothesis _____________ .
A. can be tested by experiment B. can be an educated guess predicting the outcome of an experiment C. can only be formed when you know something about what is going to happen D. may be described by all of the above

86 78. Unlike most substances, water is unusual because it _________ when it goes from the liquid to solid state. A. contracts B. melts C. expands D. diffuses expands

87 End of Exam


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