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Finding Order In Diversity

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Presentation on theme: "Finding Order In Diversity"— Presentation transcript:

1 Finding Order In Diversity
CLASSIFICATION Finding Order In Diversity Linnaean Taxonomy. In Wikipedia [Web]. Retrieved 03/09/2007, from

2 Definition of Taxonomy
Discipline of classifying organisms and assigning each organism a universally accepted name 1 Leptinotarsa decemlineata Colorado potato beetle

3 Why Classify? 1. To study the diversity of life, biologists use a classification system to name organisms and group them in a logical manner. 2. Taxonomists are able to organize organisms into groups that have biological importance.

4 Why Classify? 3. Classification makes life easier. What are some ways we classify in our daily living?

5 Assigning Scientific Names
1. Using common names is confusing because many organisms may have several different common names. 2. For example, the cougar is also known as the mountain lion, puma or catamount…thus the need for a scientific name. Scientific name: Puma concolor

6 Assigning Scientific Names
3. A Swedish botanist named Carolus Linnaeus developed a two-word naming system for naming all species on Earth. 4. This two-word naming system is called Binomial Nomenclature. 2

7 Assigning Scientific Names
5. The first part of the scientific name is the genus name. This word is always written first with the first letter capitalized. This name appears in italics or is underlined. 6. The second part of the scientific name is the species name. This word is always written second and is not capitalized. This name also appears in italics or is underlined. Write the scientific name for humans: Genus name: Homo Species name: sapien Homo sapien or H. sapien

8 Linnaeus’ System of Classification
1. Linnaeus’ hierarchical system of classification includes seven levels. They are, from largest to smallest, kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, and species. Kingdom Phylum Class Order 2. In taxonomic nomenclature, each level is called a taxon (plural: taxa) or taxonomic category. Family Genus Species

9 Linnaeus’ System of Classification
3. The kingdom is the largest and most inclusive (includes) of the taxonomic categories. 4. Species is the smallest and least inclusive of the taxonomic categories. 5. The more taxonomic categories that two organisms share, the more closely related they are considered to be. What do the scientific names of each bear tell you about their similarity to each other? Ailuropoda melanoleuca Ursus arctos Ursus maritimus

10 Application of Linnaeus’ Classification System
Organism Cat Wolf Fly Kingdom Animalia Phylum Chordata Arthropoda Class Mammalia Insecta Order Carnivora Diptera Family Felidae Canidae Muscidae Genus Felis Canis Musca Species domesticus lupus domestica

11 Application of Linnaeus’ Classification Systmem
1. What type of animal is M. domestica? 2. Which two animals listed on the table are most closely related? 3. At what classification level does the evolutionary relationship between cats and wolves diverge (become different)? Family Level

12 Evolutionary Classification
1. Darwin’s theories on descent with modification have led to the study of phylogeny, which is the study of evolutionary relationships among organisms. 2. Biologists group organisms into categories that represent lines of evolutionary descent or phylogeny and not just physical similarities. 3. Grouping organisms based on their evolutionary history is called evolutionary classification.

13 Evolutionary Classification and Cladograms
1. Cladograms are tree-like diagrams that show the evolutionary relationships among a group of organisms Domain Eukarya Domain Archaea Domain Bacteria Three Domains Cladogram

B C D A T I M E Clade or lineage Speciation:formation of two New species from one

15 Evolutionary Classification and Cladograms
2. Cladistic analysis identifies and considers new characteristics that arise as lineages evolve over time. 3. Derived characters are those that appear in recent parts of a lineage but not in its older members. 4. When a derived characteristics appears ahead of an organism listed on a cladogram, the organism lacks that derived characteristics. 5. When a derived characteristics appears below, beneath, or before the organism, the organism possesses or has that derived characteristics.

16 CLADOGRAM Mouse Chimp Lizard Pigeon Fish Frog Hagfish Feathers Fur &
Mammary Glands Claws or Nails Lungs Jaws

17 VENN DIAGRAMS 1. VENN Diagrams can be used to make models of hierarchical classification schemes. A Venn diagram is shown below: A. B. C. D.

18 Four groups are represented by circular regions
Each region represents different taxonomic levels. Regions that overlap, share common members. Regions that do not overlap do not have common members.

19 Animals with backbones Insects
D. Matching: Mammals C Animals with backbones B Insects D All animals A

20 Citations 1. In Wikipedia [Web]. Retrieved 03/09/2007, from 2. Carlolus Linnaeus. In Wikipedia [Web]. Retrieved 03/09/2007, from

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