Presentation on theme: "Finding Order In Diversity"— Presentation transcript:
1Finding Order In Diversity CLASSIFICATIONFinding Order In DiversityLinnaean Taxonomy. In Wikipedia [Web]. Retrieved 03/09/2007, from
2Definition of Taxonomy Discipline of classifyingorganisms and assigning each organism a universallyaccepted name1Leptinotarsa decemlineataColorado potato beetle
3Why Classify?1. To study the diversity of life, biologists use a classification system to name organisms and group them in a logical manner.2. Taxonomists are able to organize organisms into groups that have biological importance.
4Why Classify?3. Classification makes life easier. What are some ways we classify in our daily living?
5Assigning Scientific Names 1. Using common names is confusing because manyorganisms may have several different common names.2. For example, the cougar is also known as the mountain lion,puma or catamount…thus the need for a scientific name.Scientific name: Puma concolor
6Assigning Scientific Names 3. A Swedish botanist named Carolus Linnaeus developed a two-word naming system for naming all species on Earth.4. This two-word namingsystem is calledBinomial Nomenclature.2
7Assigning Scientific Names 5. The first part of the scientific name is the genus name. This word is always written first with the first letter capitalized. This name appears in italics or is underlined.6. The second part of the scientific name is the species name. This word is always written second and is not capitalized. This name also appears in italics or is underlined.Write the scientific name for humans:Genus name: HomoSpecies name: sapienHomo sapien or H. sapien
8Linnaeus’ System of Classification 1. Linnaeus’ hierarchical system of classification includes seven levels. They are, from largest to smallest, kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, and species.KingdomPhylumClassOrder2. In taxonomic nomenclature, each level is called a taxon (plural: taxa) or taxonomic category.FamilyGenusSpecies
9Linnaeus’ System of Classification 3. The kingdom is the largest and most inclusive (includes) of the taxonomic categories.4. Species is the smallest and least inclusive of the taxonomic categories.5. The more taxonomic categories that two organisms share, the more closely related they are considered to be.What do the scientific names of each bear tell you about their similarity to each other?Ailuropoda melanoleucaUrsus arctosUrsus maritimus
10Application of Linnaeus’ Classification System OrganismCatWolfFlyKingdomAnimaliaPhylumChordataArthropodaClassMammaliaInsectaOrderCarnivoraDipteraFamilyFelidaeCanidaeMuscidaeGenusFelisCanisMuscaSpeciesdomesticuslupusdomestica
11Application of Linnaeus’ Classification Systmem 1. What type of animal is M. domestica?2. Which two animals listed on the table are most closely related?3. At what classification level does the evolutionary relationship between cats and wolves diverge (become different)?Family Level
12Evolutionary Classification 1. Darwin’s theories on descent with modification have led to the study of phylogeny, which is the study of evolutionary relationships among organisms.2. Biologists group organisms into categories that represent lines of evolutionary descent or phylogeny and not just physical similarities.3. Grouping organisms based on their evolutionary history is called evolutionary classification.
13Evolutionary Classification and Cladograms 1. Cladograms are tree-like diagrams that show the evolutionary relationships among a group of organismsDomain EukaryaDomain ArchaeaDomainBacteriaThree Domains Cladogram
14EVOLUTIONARY CLASSIFICATION BCDATIMEClade orlineageSpeciation:formation of twoNew species from one
15Evolutionary Classification and Cladograms 2. Cladistic analysis identifies and considers new characteristics that arise as lineages evolve over time.3. Derived characters are those that appear in recent parts of a lineage but not in its older members.4. When a derived characteristics appears ahead of an organism listed on a cladogram, the organism lacks that derived characteristics.5. When a derived characteristics appears below, beneath, or before the organism, the organism possesses or has that derived characteristics.