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Asterids – Part 1 Basal Asterids, Lamiids Spring 2013.

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Presentation on theme: "Asterids – Part 1 Basal Asterids, Lamiids Spring 2013."— Presentation transcript:

1 Asterids – Part 1 Basal Asterids, Lamiids Spring 2013

2 Fig. 8.1

3 Asterid characters Molecular data Sympetalous corollas Epipetalous stamens Number of stamens = number of petals Ovules with a single integument and a thin nucellus (reduction from two integuments and a thick nucellus) Iridoid compounds

4 Asterid characters Sympetaly and epipetalous stamens # stamens = # petals Unitegmic, tenuinucellate ovules

5 Fig. 8.83

6 Asterid taxa Basal Asterids Order Cornales – dogwoods Order Ericales – azaleas, blueberries, cranberries Lamiids Order Solanales – potatoes, tomatoes, peppers Order Gentianales – gentians, milkweeds, coffee Order Lamiales – mints, olives, snapdragons Campanulids Order Apiales – ginseng, carrots, dill, parsley Order Dipsacales – honeysuckle, elderberry Order Asterales – bluebells, sunflowers Core Asterids

7 Asterid taxa – Part 1 Basal Asterids Order Ericales Ericaceae – blueberries, heaths Lamiids Order Gentianales *Apocynaceae – dogbanes, milkweeds Rubiaceae – coffee, quinine Order Solanales *Solanaceae – potatoes, tomatoes, pepper Order Lamiales *Lamiaceae – mints Campanulids (Part 2) *family required for recognition

8 Basal Asterids: Ericales: Ericaceae (The Heath or Blueberry Family) Cosmopolitan; most diverse in montane habitats in E. Asia, E North America, S Africa, Australia. Favor acid soils; sunny or part-shaded habitats Trees, shrubs, lianas, occasionally mycoparasitic herbs lacking chlorophyll; leaves usually alternate and spiral Diversity: 4,100 species in 124 genera Flowers: Often showy. Sepals 4-5; petals 4-5, connate forming a cylindrical to urn-shaped corolla; stamens (3) 8-10; anthers inverted, often with appendages, and poricidal dehiscence, pollen grains often in tetrads; carpels 2-10, connate, superior to inferior ovary; fruit a septic. or loculic. capsule, berry, drupe Significant features: anthers often with poricidal dehiscence & sometimes with appendages; leaves often coriaceous Special uses: blueberries & cranberries (Vaccinium), Rhododendron and allies (Rhododendron, Erica, Kalmia, Pieris) are showy ornamentals Family not required

9 Ericaceae anthers (Fig. 8.89)

10 Ericaceae: Rhododendron -ecologically important in forests in the Eastern U.S. and Eastern Asia -the deciduous taxa are known as azaleas

11 Sarraceniaceaeanother origin of carnivory by pitchers

12 Asterid taxa – Part 1 Basal Asterids Order Ericales Ericaceae – blueberries, heaths Lamiids Order Gentianales *Apocynaceae – dogbanes, milkweeds Rubiaceae – coffee, quinine Order Solanales *Solanaceae – potatoes, tomatoes, pepper Order Lamiales *Lamiaceae – mints Campanulids (Part 2) *family required for recognition

13 Asterids -- Lamiids: Gentianales: Apocynaceae (The Milkweed Family; incl. Asclepiadaceae) Widespread in tropical and subtropical regions; some in temperate regions Trees, shrubs, herbs, lianas, vines with laticifers and usually milky sap Diversity: ca. 4,600 species in ca. 400 genera Flowers: Sepals usu. 5; petals usu. 5, connate forming bell- funnel- or tubular-shaped corolla; stamens usually 5, filaments always adnate to the corolla, anthers distinct or connate and forming a ring to fused to the stylar head; staminal outgrowths (corona) often present and petal- like; carpels usually 2, connate by styles/stigmas only & ovaries distinct to fully connate, superior ovary; apex of style expanded and highly modified, forming a 5-sided stylar head, secreting viscin; fruits often paired, each ovary developing into a dry follicle, drupe or berry Significant features: Usually opposite leaves; pollen in sticky masses (w/ viscin) or in pollinia; seeds flattened, often with a tuft of hairs Special uses: Some chemical uses (e.g., Catharanthus, Madagascar periwinkle) and ornamentals (Asclepias, Vinca, Plumeria, Nerium) Family required

14 anther views paired fruits separate ovaries G: stylar head

15 Apocynaceae – Groups without pollinia Plumeria Nerium oleander Vinca Apocynum Catharanthus Thevetia

16 corona pair of pollinia

17 Apocynaceae with pollinia (Asclepiadoideae) Asclepias Stapelia Ceropegia Hoya Calotropus

18 Apocynaceae: Asclepias -plants herbaceous, stems erect to leaning -leaves usually opposite, sometimes alternate or whorled -inflorescence an umbel -corona of 5 hooded fleshy bodies, each usually with an incurved horn but lacking a crest -pollen in pollinia, the pollinia suspended -fruit a dry, ovoid or lanceolate follicle, one of the pair often aborting

19 Asterids -- Lamiids: Gentianales: Rubiaceae (The Coffee or Madder Family) Cosmopolitan, most diverse in the tropics and subtropical regions Trees, shrubs lianas or herbs, vines, shrubs; leaves opposite or whorled Diversity: Ca. 12,000 species in ca. 600 genera Flowers: usually bisexual and radial; sepals 4-5, connate; petals 4-5, connate, forming a funnel shaped corolla; stamens usually 4 or 5, adnate to corolla; carpels usually 2 (-5), connate, inferior ovary; fruit a loculicidal or septicidal capsule, berry, drupe, or schizocarp Significant features: interpetiolar stipules (connate stipules) Special uses: Major commodity is coffee (Coffea); anti-malarial drug obtained from the bark of Cinchona (quinine); ipecac (make-U-vomit) comes from Psychotria; gardenias (Gardenia), Pentas, and Ixora provide ornamentals Family not required

20 Rubiaceae interpetiolar stipules

21 Rubiaceae Coffea arabica Pentas

22 Asterids -- Lamiids: Solanales: Solanaceae (The Potato or Nightshade Family) Widespread but most diverse in the neotropics Herbs, shrubs, trees, vines; leaves alternate; often with a solanaceous smell Diversity: 2,450 species in genera Flowers: Sepals 5, connate; petals 5, connate, forming variously tubular corolla, plicate (folded) ; stamens 5, filaments adnate to corolla, sometimes anthers connivant; carpels usually 2 (-5), connate, oriented obliquely to the median plane of the flower; superior ovary; fruit usually a berry (occ. a capsule, schizocarp or nutlet) Significant features: Complex chemistry with solanacous tropane alkaloids (belladonna/atropine, nicotine, capsaicin, etc.); stems with internal phloem Special uses: Many fruits and vegetables (potatoes & tomatoes - Solanum, peppers - Capsicum), tobacco (Nicotiana), some ornamentals (Petunia) Family required; required genus: Solanum

23 Solanaceae diversity

24 Solanaceae: Solanum -herbs or shrubs -corolla regular, rotate, 5-merous, deeply lobed -anthers forming a tube around the style (connivent), with terminal openings; filaments short -fruit a berry, usually 2-locular -ca. 1,400 species, mostly tropical

25 Solanaceae Economic plants and products: Edibles: Cayenne pepper (Capsicum) Eggplant (Solanum) Green pepper (Capsicum) Red pepper (Capsicum) Potato (Solanum) Tomato (Solanum)

26 Solanaceae Economic plants and products: Medicinal/toxic plants ~ Alkaloids! Belladona (Atropa) Henbane (Hyoscyamus) Jimson-weed (Datura) Nightshade (Solanum) Mandrake (Mandragora) Tobacco (Nicotiana)

27 Fig. 8.83

28 Lamiales -gland-headed hairs -diacytic stomates -oligosaccharides (instead of starch) -anther anatomy -protein inclusions in the nuclei of mesophyll cells -endosperm with a micropylar haustorium -molecular data -ca. 22 families and 20,000 species

29 Major Families of Lamiales *Lamiaceae – mints Oleaceae – olives, ashes, lilacs Orobanchaceae – louseworts, beechdrops, Indian paintbrushes Plantaginaceae – snapdragons, vervains, penstemons Scrophulariaceae – mulleins, figworts *family required for recognition

30 Asterids -- Lamiids: Lamiales: Lamiaceae (The Mint Family; Labiatae) Cosmopolitan Herbs, shrubs, trees; stems square in herbaceous taxa Diversity: Ca. 6,800 species in genera Flowers: Sepals 5, connate, calyx radial or bilateral; petals 5, connate, bilabiate; stamens 4, didynamous to more or less equal; carpels 2, 2 ovules per carpel, connate, styles terminal to an often gynobasic, superior, often deeply 4-lobed ovary; fruit a drupe w/ 1-4 pits, an indehiscent 4-seeded pod, or a schizocarp splitting into 4 nutlets or drupelets Significant features: Opposite leaves (usually); aromatic volatile compounds - mint oils; inflorescences with main axis indeterminate and determinate (cymose) lateral axes, these often congested into pseudowhorls (verticillasters) Special uses: Many herbs: oregano (Origanum), basil (Basilicum), peppermint/spearmint (Mentha), sage (Salvia), thyme (Thymus); teak wood (Tectona); ornamentals (e.g., Salvia, Callicarpa) Family required

31 Lamiaceae Stachys floridana Ovary: 2-carpellate deeply 4-lobed 4 locules Gynobasic style Schizocarp (4 nutlets) Corolla: zygomorphic sympetalous bilabiate Stamens: 4, didynamous epipetalous Square stems (herbaceous taxa) Opposite leaves Inflorescence: false whorls (verticils or verticillasters) From Zomlefer

32 Lamiaceae Nepeta Ocimum Phytostegia Clinopodium Note verticillate whorls of flowers at each node Rosmarinus Monarda

33 Lamiaceae Economic plants and products: Condiments & perfumes: Basil (Ocimum) Lavender (Lavandula) Oregano (Origanum) Peppermint (Mentha) Rosemary (Rosmarinus) Sage (Salvia) Spearmint (Mentha) Thyme (Thymus) Mentha

34 Lamiaceae Economic plants and products: Ornamental plants: Beautyberry (Callicarpa) Coleus (Coleus) Salvia (Salvia)

35 Other interesting Lamiales Oleaceae (olive family) Orobanchaceae (hemi- and holoparasitic plants) Conopholis (parasitic on oaks) Pedicularis (often parasitizes the heath family) Castilleja (often parasitizes grasses and various forbs lilac ash olives

36 Other cool Lamiales Lentibulariaceae – more carnivorous plants Bignoniaceae Gesneriaceae

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