Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

“Basal” Asterids, Lamiids

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "“Basal” Asterids, Lamiids"— Presentation transcript:

1 “Basal” Asterids, Lamiids
Asterids – Part 1 “Basal” Asterids, Lamiids Spring 2013

2 Fig. 8.1

3 Asterid characters Molecular data Sympetalous corollas
Epipetalous stamens Number of stamens = number of petals Ovules with a single integument and a thin nucellus (reduction from two integuments and a thick nucellus) Iridoid compounds

4 Asterid characters # stamens = # petals Unitegmic, tenuinucellate
ovules Sympetaly and epipetalous stamens

5 Fig. 8.83

6 Asterid taxa “Basal” Asterids Order Cornales – dogwoods Lamiids
Order Ericales – azaleas, blueberries, cranberries Lamiids Order Solanales – potatoes, tomatoes, peppers Order Gentianales – gentians, milkweeds, coffee Order Lamiales – mints, olives, snapdragons Campanulids Order Apiales – ginseng, carrots, dill, parsley Order Dipsacales – honeysuckle, elderberry Order Asterales – bluebells, sunflowers Core Asterids

7 Asterid taxa – Part 1 “Basal” Asterids Order Ericales Lamiids
Ericaceae – blueberries, heaths Lamiids Order Gentianales *Apocynaceae – dogbanes, milkweeds Rubiaceae – coffee, quinine Order Solanales *Solanaceae – potatoes, tomatoes, pepper Order Lamiales *Lamiaceae – mints Campanulids (Part 2) *family required for recognition

8 “Basal” Asterids: Ericales: Ericaceae (The Heath or Blueberry Family)
Cosmopolitan; most diverse in montane habitats in E. Asia, E North America, S Africa, Australia. Favor acid soils; sunny or part-shaded habitats Trees, shrubs, lianas, occasionally mycoparasitic herbs lacking chlorophyll; leaves usually alternate and spiral Diversity: 4,100 species in 124 genera Flowers: Often showy. Sepals 4-5; petals 4-5, connate forming a cylindrical to urn-shaped corolla; stamens (3) 8-10; anthers inverted, often with appendages, and poricidal dehiscence, pollen grains often in tetrads; carpels 2-10, connate, superior to inferior ovary; fruit a septic. or loculic. capsule, berry, drupe Significant features: anthers often with poricidal dehiscence & sometimes with appendages; leaves often coriaceous Special uses: blueberries & cranberries (Vaccinium), Rhododendron and allies (Rhododendron, Erica, Kalmia, Pieris) are showy ornamentals Family not required

9 Ericaceae anthers (Fig. 8.89)

10 Ericaceae: Rhododendron
-ecologically important in forests in the Eastern U.S. and Eastern Asia -the deciduous taxa are known as azaleas

11 Sarraceniaceae—another origin of carnivory by pitchers

12 Asterid taxa – Part 1 “Basal” Asterids Order Ericales Lamiids
Ericaceae – blueberries, heaths Lamiids Order Gentianales *Apocynaceae – dogbanes, milkweeds Rubiaceae – coffee, quinine Order Solanales *Solanaceae – potatoes, tomatoes, pepper Order Lamiales *Lamiaceae – mints Campanulids (Part 2) *family required for recognition

13 Asterids -- Lamiids: Gentianales: Apocynaceae (The Milkweed Family; incl. Asclepiadaceae)
Widespread in tropical and subtropical regions; some in temperate regions Trees, shrubs, herbs, lianas, vines with laticifers and usually milky sap Diversity: ca. 4,600 species in ca. 400 genera Flowers: Sepals usu. 5; petals usu. 5, connate forming bell- funnel- or tubular-shaped corolla; stamens usually 5, filaments always adnate to the corolla, anthers distinct or connate and forming a ring to fused to the stylar head; staminal outgrowths (corona) often present and petal-like; carpels usually 2, connate by styles/stigmas only & ovaries distinct to fully connate, superior ovary; apex of style expanded and highly modified, forming a 5-sided stylar head, secreting viscin; fruits often paired, each ovary developing into a dry follicle, drupe or berry Significant features: Usually opposite leaves; pollen in sticky masses (w/ viscin) or in pollinia; seeds flattened, often with a tuft of hairs Special uses: Some chemical uses (e.g., Catharanthus, “Madagascar periwinkle”) and ornamentals (Asclepias, Vinca, Plumeria, Nerium) Family required

14 paired fruits anther views separate ovaries G: stylar head

15 Apocynaceae – Groups without pollinia
Vinca Plumeria Catharanthus Apocynum Thevetia Nerium oleander

16 corona pair of pollinia

17 Apocynaceae with pollinia (Asclepiadoideae)
Ceropegia Hoya Calotropus Asclepias Stapelia

18 Apocynaceae: Asclepias
-plants herbaceous, stems erect to leaning -leaves usually opposite, sometimes alternate or whorled -inflorescence an umbel -corona of 5 hooded fleshy bodies, each usually with an incurved horn but lacking a crest -pollen in pollinia, the pollinia suspended -fruit a dry, ovoid or lanceolate follicle, one of the pair often aborting

19 Asterids -- Lamiids: Gentianales: Rubiaceae (The Coffee or Madder Family)
Cosmopolitan, most diverse in the tropics and subtropical regions Trees, shrubs lianas or herbs, vines, shrubs; leaves opposite or whorled Diversity: Ca. 12,000 species in ca. 600 genera Flowers: usually bisexual and radial; sepals 4-5, connate; petals 4-5, connate, forming a funnel shaped corolla; stamens usually 4 or 5, adnate to corolla; carpels usually 2 (-5), connate, inferior ovary; fruit a loculicidal or septicidal capsule, berry, drupe, or schizocarp Significant features: interpetiolar stipules (connate stipules) Special uses: Major commodity is coffee (Coffea); anti-malarial drug obtained from the bark of Cinchona (quinine); ipecac (make-U-vomit) comes from Psychotria; gardenias (Gardenia), Pentas, and Ixora provide ornamentals Family not required

20 Rubiaceae interpetiolar stipules

21 Rubiaceae Pentas Coffea arabica

22 Asterids -- Lamiids: Solanales: Solanaceae (The Potato or Nightshade Family)
Widespread but most diverse in the neotropics Herbs, shrubs, trees, vines; leaves alternate; often with a ‘solanaceous smell’ Diversity: 2,450 species in genera Flowers: Sepals 5, connate; petals 5, connate, forming variously tubular corolla, plicate (folded) ; stamens 5, filaments adnate to corolla, sometimes anthers connivant; carpels usually 2 (-5), connate, oriented obliquely to the median plane of the flower; superior ovary; fruit usually a berry (occ. a capsule, schizocarp or nutlet) Significant features: Complex chemistry with solanacous tropane alkaloids (belladonna/atropine, nicotine, capsaicin, etc.); stems with internal phloem Special uses: Many fruits and vegetables (potatoes & tomatoes - Solanum, peppers - Capsicum), tobacco (Nicotiana), some ornamentals (Petunia) Family required; required genus: Solanum

23 Solanaceae diversity

24 Solanaceae: Solanum -herbs or shrubs
-corolla regular, rotate, 5-merous, deeply lobed -anthers forming a tube around the style (connivent), with terminal openings; filaments short -fruit a berry, usually 2-locular -ca. 1,400 species, mostly tropical

25 Economic plants and products:
Solanaceae Economic plants and products: Edibles: Cayenne pepper (Capsicum) Eggplant (Solanum) Green pepper (Capsicum) Red pepper (Capsicum) Potato (Solanum) Tomato (Solanum)

26 Economic plants and products:
Solanaceae Economic plants and products: Medicinal/toxic plants ~ Alkaloids! Belladona (Atropa) Henbane (Hyoscyamus) Jimson-weed (Datura) Nightshade (Solanum) Mandrake (Mandragora) Tobacco (Nicotiana)

27 Fig. 8.83

28 Lamiales -gland-headed hairs -diacytic stomates
-oligosaccharides (instead of starch) -anther anatomy -protein inclusions in the nuclei of mesophyll cells -endosperm with a micropylar haustorium -molecular data -ca. 22 families and 20,000 species

29 Major Families of Lamiales
*Lamiaceae – mints Oleaceae – olives, ashes, lilacs Orobanchaceae – louseworts, beechdrops, Indian paintbrushes Plantaginaceae – snapdragons, vervains, penstemons Scrophulariaceae – mulleins, figworts *family required for recognition

30 Asterids -- Lamiids: Lamiales: Lamiaceae (The Mint Family; Labiatae)
Cosmopolitan Herbs, shrubs, trees; stems square in herbaceous taxa Diversity: Ca. 6,800 species in genera Flowers: Sepals 5, connate, calyx radial or bilateral; petals 5, connate, bilabiate; stamens 4, didynamous to more or less equal; carpels 2, 2 ovules per carpel, connate, styles terminal to an often gynobasic, superior, often deeply 4-lobed ovary; fruit a drupe w/ 1-4 pits, an indehiscent 4-seeded pod, or a schizocarp splitting into 4 nutlets or drupelets Significant features: Opposite leaves (usually); aromatic volatile compounds - mint oils; inflorescences with main axis indeterminate and determinate (cymose) lateral axes, these often congested into pseudowhorls (verticillasters) Special uses: Many herbs: oregano (Origanum), basil (Basilicum), peppermint/spearmint (Mentha), sage (Salvia), thyme (Thymus); teak wood (Tectona); ornamentals (e.g., Salvia, Callicarpa) Family required

31 Lamiaceae From Zomlefer Corolla: zygomorphic sympetalous bilabiate
Stamens: 4, didynamous epipetalous Ovary: 2-carpellate deeply 4-lobed 4 locules Gynobasic style Schizocarp (4 nutlets) Square stems (herbaceous taxa) Opposite leaves Inflorescence: false whorls (verticils or verticillasters) Stachys floridana

32 Lamiaceae Nepeta Phytostegia Rosmarinus Monarda Clinopodium
Note verticillate whorls of flowers at each node Nepeta Phytostegia Ocimum Rosmarinus Monarda Clinopodium

33 Economic plants and products:
Lamiaceae Economic plants and products: Condiments & perfumes: Basil (Ocimum) Lavender (Lavandula) Oregano (Origanum) Peppermint (Mentha) Rosemary (Rosmarinus) Sage (Salvia) Spearmint (Mentha) Thyme (Thymus) Mentha

34 Economic plants and products:
Lamiaceae Economic plants and products: Ornamental plants: Beautyberry (Callicarpa) Coleus (Coleus) Salvia (Salvia)

35 Other interesting Lamiales
Orobanchaceae (hemi- and holoparasitic plants) Oleaceae (olive family) lilac Conopholis (parasitic on oaks) ash olives Castilleja (often parasitizes grasses and various forbs Pedicularis (often parasitizes the heath family)

36 Other cool Lamiales Bignoniaceae Lentibulariaceae –
more carnivorous plants Gesneriaceae

Download ppt "“Basal” Asterids, Lamiids"

Similar presentations

Ads by Google