2 Outline Purpose Reaction(s) Kinetics Reactions and Reaction Rates ProcedureReaction PlotsZero Order ReactionsFirst Order ReactionsSecond Order ReactionsPrecautionsLab Computer EtiquetteNext Lab Reminder
3 PurposeThis lab will help you explore the meaning of the term chemical kinetics. You will be able to use this knowledge to evaluate the rate law for one reactant from graphical relationships generated from the changing concentration of the reactant over time.
5 Kinetics Explores the steps by which a reaction takes place The main step by which a reaction takes place is described by a rate law of the rate-limiting step of the reaction.The rate is studied only under forward conditions and is determined by the number of effective collisions and the energy per collision.
6 Reactions and RatesEffective collisions must occur with the correct orientation of species and sufficient energyThe reaction could be facilitated or inhibited by molecular / ionic structure.The rate of a reaction is affected by these things (among others):TemperatureConcentrationPresence or absence of a catalyst
7 Procedure1. Determine the reaction order of the reaction with respect to the iodate ionFind the reaction times of six solutions by varying the [IO3-], but holding the [SO32-] constant.Determine the reaction order by finding the linear plot.Determine the reaction order of the reaction with respect to the sulfite ion. (Beyond the scope of this class.)Combine rate laws to determine the overall reaction order and rate law. (Beyond the scope of this class.)
8 Concentration Decay Curve The shape (and function) of this curve depends on the order of the reaction.T0T1T2T3T4T5T6
9 Reaction PlotsTo determine which reaction order a reaction follows, and therefore, which rate law a reaction obeys, we plot three different graph types for each reagent participating in the reaction.Whichever graph yields a linear response dictates the reaction order and rate law to be used.
10 Zero Order Reaction Linear when [x], M vs. Time, s is plotted. k = -m; In this case k = What should the unit be?Rate Law: Rate = k[x]0 = k; In this case Rate =
11 First Order Reaction Linear when ln [X] vs. Time, s is plotted k = -m; In this case k = What should the unit be?Rate Law: Rate = k[X]1= k[X] ; In this case Rate = [X]
12 Second Order Reaction Linear when 1/[X], 1/M vs. Time, s is plotted. k = m; In this case k = What should the unit be?Rate Law: Rate = k[X]2; In this case Rate = [X]2
13 Rate LawsA rate law is a mathematical description of a reaction rate’s dependence on concentration.When you identify the rate law for your reaction, be sure to substitute in a value for k and an identity for the X in [X].
15 Precautions and WasteAll solutions are acidic and must be disposed in the acid waste container in the fume hood.Iodine stains clothing and skin! Be careful when working with your solutions today. Wear gloves if you’d like to protect your hands.
16 Lab Computer Etiquette Do not surf the webDo not check yourDo not print materials unrelated to labDo not connect a USB mass storage driveNo social networking!!!Do not open any attachments, unless directly from your lab Blackboard shell.You may access Blackboard from your lab computer once given permission.
17 Lab 3 Reminder Read through the write-up for Lab 3. Complete the pre-lab questions for Lab 3 and submit them by the deadline.Complete and submit your Lab 2 Report at the start of next week’s lab.Study for the quiz.