Presentation on theme: "Chemical Kinetics Lab 2. Outline Purpose Reaction(s) Kinetics Reactions and Reaction Rates Procedure Reaction Plots o Zero Order Reactions o First Order."— Presentation transcript:
Chemical Kinetics Lab 2
Outline Purpose Reaction(s) Kinetics Reactions and Reaction Rates Procedure Reaction Plots o Zero Order Reactions o First Order Reactions o Second Order Reactions Precautions Lab Computer Etiquette Next Lab Reminder
Purpose This lab will help you explore the meaning of the term chemical kinetics. You will be able to use this knowledge to evaluate the rate law for one reactant from graphical relationships generated from the changing concentration of the reactant over time.
Reaction(s) 5 SO 3 2- (aq) + 2 IO 3 - (aq) + 2 H + (aq) I 2(aq) + 5 SO 4 2- (aq) + H 2 O (aq) starch (aq) + I 2(aq) starch I 2 · complex
Kinetics Explores the steps by which a reaction takes place The main step by which a reaction takes place is described by a rate law of the rate-limiting step of the reaction. The rate is studied only under forward conditions and is determined by the number of effective collisions and the energy per collision.
Reactions and Rates Effective collisions must occur with the correct orientation of species and sufficient energy The reaction could be facilitated or inhibited by molecular / ionic structure. The rate of a reaction is affected by these things (among others): o Temperature o Concentration o Presence or absence of a catalyst
Procedure 1. Determine the reaction order of the reaction with respect to the iodate ion Find the reaction times of six solutions by varying the [IO 3 - ], but holding the [SO 3 2- ] constant. Determine the reaction order by finding the linear plot. 2.Determine the reaction order of the reaction with respect to the sulfite ion. (Beyond the scope of this class.) 3.Combine rate laws to determine the overall reaction order and rate law. (Beyond the scope of this class.)
Concentration Decay Curve The shape (and function) of this curve depends on the order of the reaction. T0T0 T1T1 T2T2 T3T3 T4T4 T5T5 T6T6
Reaction Plots To determine which reaction order a reaction follows, and therefore, which rate law a reaction obeys, we plot three different graph types for each reagent participating in the reaction. Whichever graph yields a linear response dictates the reaction order and rate law to be used.
Zero Order Reaction Linear when [x], M vs. Time, s is plotted. k = -m; In this case k = What should the unit be? Rate Law: Rate = k[x] 0 = k; In this case Rate =
First Order Reaction Linear when ln [X] vs. Time, s is plotted k = -m; In this case k = What should the unit be? Rate Law: Rate = k[X] 1 = k[X] ; In this case Rate = [X]
Second Order Reaction Linear when 1/[X], 1/M vs. Time, s is plotted. k = m; In this case k = What should the unit be? Rate Law: Rate = k[X] 2 ; In this case Rate = [X] 2
Rate Laws A rate law is a mathematical description of a reaction rates dependence on concentration. When you identify the rate law for your reaction, be sure to substitute in a value for k and an identity for the X in [X].
Safety Concerns Reagents: o Potassium Iodate (0.1 N) o Potassium Sulfate o Sodium Sulfite o Soluble Starch o Sulfuric acid (0.1 N) Eye Contact: o Irritation, redness, burns, pain, and irreversible damage. Skin Contact: o Irritation, redness, burns and pain. Inhalation: o Coughing, sneezing, sore throat, labored breathing, burns, delayed lung edema and chest pain. Ingestion: o Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, gastric irritation, circulatory disturbances, and CNS depression
Precautions and Waste All solutions are acidic and must be disposed in the acid waste container in the fume hood. Iodine stains clothing and skin! Be careful when working with your solutions today. Wear gloves if youd like to protect your hands.
Lab Computer Etiquette Do not surf the web Do not check your Do not print materials unrelated to lab Do not connect a USB mass storage drive No social networking!!! Do not open any attachments, unless directly from your lab Blackboard shell. You may access Blackboard from your lab computer once given permission.
Lab 3 Reminder Read through the write-up for Lab 3. Complete the pre-lab questions for Lab 3 and submit them by the deadline. Complete and submit your Lab 2 Report at the start of next weeks lab. Study for the quiz.