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T UTORIAL 3 SOLUTIONS Lecturer: Miss Anis Atikah Ahmad Tel: +604 976 3245 Email: anisatikah@unimap.edu.my

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1. Write the rate laws for the following reactions assuming each reaction follows an elementary rate laws. a) C 2 H 6 C 2 H 4 + H 2 b) (CH 3 ) 3 COOC(CH 3 ) 3 C 2 H 6 + 2CH 3 COCH 3 2. Write the rate law for the reaction: 2A + B C if the reaction a) is second order in B and overall third order, b) is zero order in A and first order in B c) is zero order in both A and B d) is first order in A and overall zero order Q UESTIONS

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3. The formation of ortho-nitroaniline is formed from the reaction of ortho-nitrochlorobenzene (ONCB) and aqueous ammonia. The liquid-phase reaction is first order in both ONCB and ammonia with k= 0.0017 m 3 /kmol-min at 188 ° C with E = 11,273 cal/mol. The initial entering concentration of ONCB and ammonia are 1.8 kmol/m 3 and 6.6 kmol/m 3 respectively. a) Write the rate law for the rate of disappearance of ONCB in terms of concentration. b) Set up stoichiometric table for this reaction for a flow system. c) Explain how part (a) and (b) would be different for a batch system. d) Write – r A solely as a function of conversion. e) What is the initial rate of reaction ( X= 0) at 188 ° C and at 25 ° C? f) What is the rate of reaction when X = 0.9 at 188 ° C and at 25 ° C? g) What would be the corresponding CSTR volume at 25 ° C to achieve 90% conversion at 188 ° C for a feed rate of 2 dm 3 /min

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Q UESTION (1) (a) (b) Write the rate laws for the following reactions assuming each reaction follows an elementary rate laws. a)C 2 H 6 C 2 H 4 + H 2 b)(CH 3 ) 3 COOC(CH 3 ) 3 C 2 H 6 + 2CH 3 COCH 3 C 2 H 6 C 2 H 4 + H 2 A B + C (CH 3 ) 3 COOC(CH 3 ) 3 C 2 H 6 + 2CH 3 COCH 3 A B + 2C

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Q UESTION (2) (a) (b) (c) (d) Write the rate law for the reaction: 2A + B C if the reaction a)is second order in B and overall third order b)is zero order in A and first order in B c)is zero order in both A and B d)is first order in A and overall zero order

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Q UESTION (3)( A ) (a) Write the rate law for the rate of disappearance of ONCB in terms of concentration. Let A = ONCB, B = NH 3, C = Nitroaniline, D = NH 4 Cl The formation of ortho-nitroaniline is formed from the reaction of ortho-nitrochlorobenzene (ONCB) and aqueous ammonia. The liquid-phase reaction is first order in both ONCB and ammonia with k= 0.0017 m 3 /kmol-min at 188 ° C with E = 11,273 cal/mol. The initial entering concentration of ONCB and ammonia are 1.8 kmol/m 3 and 6.6 kmol/m 3 respectively.

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Q UESTION (3)( B ) A + 2B C + D b) Set up stoichiometric table for this reaction for a flow system SpeciesEnteringChangeLeaving A B C0 D0

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Q UESTION (3)( C ) c) Explain how part (a) and (b) would be different for a batch system For batch system,

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d) Write – r A solely as a function of conversion. For liquid phase rxn, υ = υ 0 Q UESTION (3)( D )

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Substituting the concentration of A & B; Q UESTION (3)( D )

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e) What is the initial rate of reaction ( X= 0) at 188 ° C and at 25 ° C i ) At T = 188 ° C, k =0.017m 3 /kmol-min Substituting X= 0 and k =0.017m 3 /kmol-min into (1); Q UESTION (3)( E ) ---(1)

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e) What is the initial rate of reaction ( X= 0) at 188 ° C and at 25 ° C ii ) At T = 25 ° C (298.15 K), k =? m 3 /kmol-min Find k at T =25 ° C first k at initial T is k at any temperature is Taking the ratio; Q UESTION (3)( E ) ---(1)

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e) What is the initial rate of reaction ( X= 0) at 188 ° C and at 25 ° C ii ) Now we know that, at T = 25 ° C (298.15 K), k = 2.039 x 10 -6 m 3 /kmol-min Therefore, we can calculate –r A at 25 ° by susbtituting k= 2.039 x 10 -6 m 3 /kmol-min, and X = 0 in eq (1). Q UESTION (3)( E ) ---(1)

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f) What is the rate of reaction when X = 0.9 at 188 ° C and at 25 ° C? (i) At T = 188 ° C, k =0.0017m 3 /kmol-min Substituting X= 0.9 and k =0.017m 3 /kmol-min into (1); Q UESTION (3)( F ) ---(1)

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f) What is the rate of reaction when X = 0.9 at 188 ° C and at 25 ° C ? (ii) From part (e) when T = 25 ° C, k = 2.039 x 10 -6 m 3 /kmol-min Substituting X= 0.9 and k = k = 2.039 x 10 -6 m 3 /kmol-min into (1); Q UESTION (3)( F ) ---(1)

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g. What would be the corresponding CSTR volume at 25 ° C to achieve 90% conversion at 188 ° C for a feed rate of 2 dm 3 /min? Substituting the value of C A0, υ 0 and –r A (at 288 °C & X=0.9); Q UESTION (3)( G )

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