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12 orders of placental mammals

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1 12 orders of placental mammals
12 orders of placental mammals *the 6 remaining orders contain just ONE PERCENT of the mammalian species

2 Order Xenarthra Living in southern North America, Central America, & South America About 30 living species Means “strange joints” Many of these organisms do not have prominent teeth Anteaters completely lack teeth Sloths, on other hand, are herbivores that are continuously growing teeth that are adapted to grinding plants


4 Order Lagomorpha Lagomorphs ~ about 70 species Rabbits, hares, pikas
Native to many continents Differ from rodents = have double row of incisors, with 2 large front teeth backed by 2 smaller ones Teeth continue to grow throughout lifetime Adaptation to herbivorous diet

5 Pikas

6 Difference between newborn rabbit & hare
Kittens – Leverets -- Rabbits-completely helpless when born Hares-on their own an hour after birth Rabbits-smaller, shorter legs Hares-larger, longer hind legs Rabbits-eat live in burrows below ground Hares—live above ground

7 Order Rodentia Rodents = largest mammalian order… +1,800 species (40% of placental mammals) Squirrels, marmots, chipmunks, gophers, muskrat, mouse, rat, beavers, porcupines Every continent except Antarctica Produce many young each litter Teeth consist of a few molars and premolars & 2 pairs of incisors that continue to grow throughout life



10 misconceptions of rodents


12 Order Primates 235 living species : lemurs, tarsiers, monkeys, apes, gibbons, humans Most are omnivores & have teeth suited for a varied diet Brains have a relatively large cortex = enables complex behavior Wide range of body sizes and adaptations to live in a variety of terrains Most have forward-facing eyes that enables depth perception All have grasping hands All but humans have grasping feet Some have grasping tail (for living in trees)

13 Tarsier


15 Order Chiroptera Only mammals that TRULY fly 900 species = BATS
Found worldwide except in polar environments Modified front limb with a membrane of skin that stretches between extremely long finger bones to the hind limb Wingspan can measure up to 1.5 meters Bat’s clawed thumb sticks out from top edge of wing (used for walking, climbing, grasping)

16 Small eyes & large ears for ECHOLOCATION
Most are nocturnal & feed on insects Some tropical bats are diurnal & feed on fruit & flower nectar They have large eyes & keen sense of smell Few species feed on meat or blood

17 Order Insectivora ~390 species … shrews, hedgehogs, moles
Found in North America, Africa, & Europe Insectivores ~ animals that eat insects **NOT all insectivores belong to this order = ANTEATERS Most have long, pointed noses that enable them to probe into soil for insects, worms, etc. Sharp teeth for grasping and piercing prey

18 Moles are members of the mammal family Moles live underground and burrow holes. Some species are aquatic or semi-aquatic. Moles have cylindrical bodies covered in fur with small or covered eyes; the ears are generally not visible. They eat small invertebrate animals living underground. Moles can be found in North America, Europe and Asia.

19 Order Carnivora ~274 living species: dogs, cats, raccoons, bears, otters, seals, hyenas, sea lions, walruses, ETC Carnivores ~ eat meat Most are skilled hunters with strong senses of sight and smell Other adaptations: strong jaws, long canine teeth, clawed toes, long limbs Aquatic carnivores=pinnipeds Efficient swimming, streamlined body and 4 limbs adapted for flippers Return to land to sleep & give birth


21 When it comes to hunting prey, spotted hyenas seem to know the secret: divide and conquer! Canada allowed hunters to kill more than 300,000 baby seals this year—one of the largest quotas in history.

22 Order Artiodactyla <Mammals with hoofs = ungulates > Deer, cattle, giraffes, pigs, camels, moose 2 main groups characterized by their foot structure and presence of rumen or cecum Rumen=chamber of the stomach that contains microorganisms *Animals that chew cud have this Cud– portion of food that returns from a ruminant’s stomach back to the mouth to be chewed and swallowed again “regurgitated food” Cecum=large sac that branches from the small intestine *Animals that don’t chew cud have this Ungulates with an even # of toes are artiodactyls Most are herbivores & are adapted to grind plants

23 growing up giraffe
giraffe birth

24 Order Perissodactyla Ungulates (have hoof) with an odd # of toes are perissodactyls Horses, rhinos, zebras, tapirs Most are native to Asia & Africa Some species of tapirs live in Central and South America *Have a cecum

25 san diego zoo tapir
national geographic

26 Order Cetacea Cetaceans include about 90 species : whales, dolphins, porpoises Have fish-shaped bodies with forelimbs modified as flippers Lack hind limbs Have broad, flat tails that help propel them thru the water Totally aquatic but evolved from land-dwelling mammals Breathe thru modified nostrils called blowholes

27 killer whale gives birth killer whales vs sea lions


29 Order Sirenia ~Manatees & dugongs~
4 species make up this order .. Called sirenians Large, torpedo-shaped herbivores Live in tropical seas, estuaries, and rivers Front limbs are flippers modified for swimming Lack hind limbs and have flattened tails for propulsion Only sirenian found in North America is the manatee


31 Order Proboscidea Have nose modified into a long, boneless trunk =proboscis Only living species of this order are the Asian and African elephant (largest living land mammal) Live in families w/several families living in a herd Feeds on plants for up to 18 hours a day; lbs per day Trunk allows them to gather water or gather leaves from high branches Modified incisors, (TUSKS), efficently dig up roots and strip bark from branches ; can grow up to 10 ft & weigh 200 lbs


33 Longest gestation of any land mammal, 22 months Female elephants can continue to give birth until the age of 70 Elephants can live to be 80 years old Sleep max of 4 hrs per day Largest brain of any animal

34 endangered elephants baby elephant elephant and dog

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