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Patterns of Organization Authors use Patterns of Organization : Pattern of Organization refers to how a piece of text is organized. Writers use different.

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Presentation on theme: "Patterns of Organization Authors use Patterns of Organization : Pattern of Organization refers to how a piece of text is organized. Writers use different."— Presentation transcript:

1 Patterns of Organization Authors use Patterns of Organization : Pattern of Organization refers to how a piece of text is organized. Writers use different structures to build their ideas. Each structure of organization communicates ideas in a different way. Help readers understand their main idea. Show relationships between ideas.

2 Different ways to organize your writing: Sequential/Chronological Order Compare and Contrast Cause and Effect Problem and Solution Order of Location/Spatial Order of Importance

3 To determine the correct overall pattern of organization, you must: Focus on the supporting details Identify the main idea (detail + detail + detail = main idea) Think about the author's purpose Learn the transitional phrases/signal words associated with each pattern

4 Sequential/Chronological PatternDescriptionSignal Words / Transitions Types of Writing Sequential or Chronological Order ( Sequence or Time) Details arranged in numerical or chronological order. First Second Third Soon Later Meanwhile Immediately After Finally Autobiographical and biographical essays Science and history articles or reports

5 Which paragraph is in chronological order? Pennsylvania has many historic sites. You can visit Revolutionary war sites, like Valley Forge. You can also visit important locations from the Civil War, like Gettysburg. Finally, you can also see the site of the first oil well in Titusville. Pennsylvania has many neat places to visit! Through the ages, Pennsylvania has seen many interesting events. The state was founded in 1681 by William Penn. Later, Pennsylvania was the site of important Revolutionary War battles. After that, Pennsylvania was home to new factories during the Industrial Revolution. Today, Pennsylvania continues to make history.

6 Which paragraph is in chronological order? Through the ages, Pennsylvania has seen many interesting events. The state was founded in 1681 by William Penn. Later, Pennsylvania was the site of important Revolutionary War battles. After that, Pennsylvania was home to new factories during the Industrial Revolution. Today, Pennsylvania continues to make history. This is the paragraph in chronological order. Can you find the clue words that show this order?

7 Which paragraph is in chronological order? Through the ages, Pennsylvania has seen many interesting events. The state was founded in 1681 by William Penn. Later, Pennsylvania was the site of important Revolutionary War battles. After that, Pennsylvania was home to new factories during the Industrial Revolution. Today, Pennsylvania continues to make history. This is the paragraph in chronological order. Can you find the clue words that show this order?

8 What is a structure? What does chronological order mean? What are some clue words that show chronological order? Think about it!

9 Another text structure Suppose an author wanted to explain how these two birds are similar and different Chronological order wouldnt work---there is no order of events The author would need to use compare and contrast

10 Compare and Contrast PatternDescriptionSignal Words / Transitions Types of Writing Compare and Contrast Or Similarities and Differences Developing two or more subjects by showing how they are alike and how they are different. Written either block form or point by point Also In the same way Similarly Like But Although Otherwise On the other hand Even though Article Editorial Letter Persuasive Essay

11 Another text structure The cardinal and the cedar waxwing are two common birds. Both have crests on their heads. Both are common at birdfeeders. But the birds have some differences. The male cardinal is a bright red, while the waxwing is brown. The cedar waxwing often migrates from place to place. On the other hand, the cardinal stays in one place year after year.

12 Compare and contrast clue words When authors use the text structure of compare and contrast, they often use special clue words to show this text structure. Can you find the clue words in the paragraph?

13 Can you find the clue words? The cardinal and the cedar waxwing are two common birds. Both have crests on their heads. Both are common at birdfeeders. But the birds have some differences. The male cardinal is a bright red, while the waxwing is brown. The cedar waxwing often migrates from place to place. On the other hand, the cardinal stays in one place year after year.

14 Here they are! The cardinal and the cedar waxwing are two common birds. Both have crests on their heads. Both are common at birdfeeders. But the birds have some differences. The male cardinal is a bright red, while the waxwing is brown. The cedar waxwing often migrates from place to place. On the other hand, the cardinal stays in one place year after year.

15 Review Can you explain the difference between chronological order and compare and contrast? How can clue words help you as a reader?

16 Another text structure Sometimes, a writer will want to explain how one event leads to another This kind of text structure is called cause and effect

17 Cause and Effect PatternDescriptionSignal Words / Transitions Types of Writing Cause and EffectWriting is started with a general statement giving the cause of a problem and then a number of specific effects following. Because Cause Effect As a result If/then Therefore Consequently Since For this reason Thus Often based on current events. Editorial Article Letter

18 Can you find the clue words? The nights snowstorm had many effects. People were out shoveling snow from their sidewalks. The power lines were draped with ice. Snow plows drove down every street. Children were the happiest of all. The unexpected snow caused school to be cancelled!

19 Can you find the clue words? The nights snowstorm had many effects. People were out shoveling snow from their sidewalks. The power lines were draped with ice. Snow plows drove down every street. Children were the happiest of all. The unexpected snow caused school to be cancelled!

20 More with cause and effect Baby painted turtles spend all winter in their nests. They have special chemicals in their blood that can keep their blood from freezing. As a result, baby painted turtles can survive freezing temperatures!

21 More with cause and effect Baby painted turtles spend all winter in their nests. They have special chemicals in their blood that can keep their blood from freezing. As a result, baby painted turtles can survive freezing temperatures! This is the cause

22 More with cause and effect Baby painted turtles spend all winter in their nests. They have special chemicals in their blood that can keep their blood from freezing. As a result, baby painted turtles can survive freezing temperatures! This is the effect

23 Review Which text structure tells about how things are similar and different? Compare and contrast Which text structure explains how things happen in time order? Chronological order

24 Another kind of text structure Sometimes, an author will want to explain a problem, and then show one or more solutions This kind of text structure is called problem and solution

25 Problem and Solution PatternDescriptionSignal Words / Transitions Types of Writing Problem and Solution (Closely related to Cause and Effect) First a problem is explained, and then one or more solutions are presented. Problem Solution If/then To solve the problem Editorial Article Letter

26 An example of problem and solution Park School had a terrible problem. Every day at recess, students would argue over the slides. Teachers had to spend time every day taking care of the arguments. Finally, one teacher came up with a great solution. They bought another set of slides that everyone could enjoy.

27 An example of problem and solution Park School had a terrible problem. Every day at recess, students would argue over the slides. Teachers had to spend time every day taking care of the arguments. Finally, one teacher came up with a great solution. They bought another set of slides that everyone could enjoy. Can you find the problem and the solution in this paragraph?

28 An example of problem and solution Park School had a terrible problem. Every day at recess, students would argue over the slides. Teachers had to spend time every day taking care of the arguments. Finally, one teacher came up with a great solution. They bought another set of slides that everyone could enjoy. Here is the problem

29 An example of problem and solution Park School had a terrible problem. Every day at recess, students would argue over the slides. Teachers had to spend time every day taking care of the arguments. Finally, one teacher came up with a great solution. They bought another set of slides that everyone could enjoy. Here is the problem Here is the solution

30 Order Location PatternDescriptionSignal Words / Transitions Types of Writing Order of Location Or Spatial A subject described by its characteristics, features, attributes, and/or examples. Details are arranged in the order in which they are located. Above Among Around Below Beneath In particular For example For instance Such as Descriptions Observation reports Certain explanation (such as giving directions)

31 What is a structure? What does chronological order mean? What are some clue words that show chronological order? Think about it!

32 Order of Importance PatternDescriptionSignal Words / Transitions Types of Writing Order of Importance Details arranged from the most important to the least or from the least important to the most, preferably least to most. (Your audience will remember your last argument. So leave them with the strongest/most important one to think about.) Also As well Another Along with Additionally In Addition Next Finally Persuasive essay Editorial Persuasive letter Review Article

33 What is a structure? What does chronological order mean? What are some clue words that show chronological order? Think about it!

34 Lets practice identifying the correct organization pattern.

35 Example #1 1. Identify the topic. 2. State the main idea. 3. Identify the major details.

36 Practice identifying the correct organization pattern. EXAMPLE #1 Among the many reasons why the American colonists sought independence from Britain are the series of acts which Great Britain enforced upon the colonists. The Royal Proclamation of 1763 restricted the westward settlement of territory in the Colonies, and the Currency Act of 1764 prohibited the use of paper money. From 1754 to 1763, the British fought the French in the French and Indian War, an expensive war that left them deeply in debt. To replenish their deficit, the British government turned to the Colonies as a source of revenue. They enacted the Sugar Act of 1764 as a way to restructure the collection of duties on sugar and molasses. They also enforced the Quartering Act of 1765, which obliged Colonists to provide housing and supplies to British troops in America.

37 Answers to Example #1 1. Always begin by identifying the topic. (British Acts on the Colonies) 2. State the main idea. Among the many reasons why the American colonists sought independence from Britain are the series of acts which Great Britain enforced upon the colonists. 3. Identify the major details. Each of the acts described is a major details.

38 What is the organization pattern? a. they are showing a cause-effect relationship b. they are showing a comparison or contrast of ideas c. they are stating a problem and showing a solution d. they are in chronological (time) order

39 Pattern Example #1 The correct answer is d, because the major details (the acts) are arranged according to their dates: 1763, 1764, and Although there may be evidence of cause-effect between some sentences, the general overall pattern is that the details are arranged in chronological order

40 Example #2 1. Identify the topic. 2. State the main idea. 3. Identify the major details.

41 Example 2 Children in our public school systems are failing at an alarming rate. Educators have spent a considerable amount of time and money trying to discover the causes of their lack of success and determining what will be needed to remediate this problem. Due to the increase in single-parent families, the family structure in America has changed. Parents who work full time have less time to spend with their children on reviewing homework and supervising their studies. Children today have schedules that are as jam-packed as adults had a generation ago. Besides school, many are involved in sports, youth groups, and social clubs. Another factor is that families today are much more transient than in past generations. Moving from place to place has become the norm rather than the exception, and consequently, children's education is disrupted and fragmented. Finally, students and parents do not view educational study as important as it was in previous generations.

42 Answers to Example #2 1. What is the topic? (Children failing in school.) 2. What is the main idea? (Children in our schools are failing at an alarming rate.) 3. What are the major details? (The author lists the reasons why children are failing.)

43 What is the organization pattern? a. in chronological order b. compare/ contrast c. cause and effect d. a simple listing.

44 Pattern Example #2 The correct answer is c, because the author is trying to show the reasons why (causes) children are failing in school. Answer choice a is incorrect because no data has been given in any special order or sequence. Answer choice b is incorrect because there are no comparisons between two or more ideas. Choice d is incorrect; although the author does list the reasons why children are failing, the primary purpose of the passage is to show why children are failing. Always consider the purpose of the writing to help you decide the correct pattern.

45 Example #3 1. Identify the topic. 2. State the main idea. 3. Identify the major details.

46 Example #3 The mechanical processes of the human brain are dictated by the most posterior parts of the brain. The hindmost part is the medulla, which specializes in the basic controls of breathing, heartbeat, and digestion. Located above the medulla and toward the back of the head is the cerebellum. It controls functions such as coordination, equilibrium, and balance. The Pons, a part of the brainstem just above the medulla, acts as a connection between the cerebellum and the cerebral cortex. The frontal lobes of the brain are located in the front of the brain, and is the center for precise voluntary movement and the use of language. At the side of the brain, the temporal lobe processes visual information and auditory reception.

47 Answers to Example 3 1. What is the topic? (The human brain) 2. What is the main idea? (The brain has many various parts, and each part has a different function.) 3. What are the major details? (The various parts of the brain and their functions.) 4. What is the overall pattern of organization?

48 What is the organization pattern? a. A statement followed by an explanation (Statement & Clarification) b. Spatial Order c. Cause and Effect d. Compare & Contrast (Comparison & Contrast)

49 Pattern Example #3 The correct answer choice is b, spatial order. Notice the transitions: above, toward the back, between, front, side. All of these indicate that the information is arranged according to location. Choice a is incorrect because the paragraph doesn't begin with a broad statement or thesis, and then explain what is meant by it. Choice c is incorrect because the intent of the author is not to show the causes of brain function, although the functions may be misinterpreted as effects. Are the functions of the brain a direct result of a cause? If no cause and effect relationship can be established, then this was not the author's intent. Also, choice d is incorrect, because the author is not pointing out how the parts of the brain are alike. Even though the parts are all different, the author's primary intent is not to show the differences between them, but rather their location and function.

50 Additional Transitions Write Source 2000 p. 106

51 Exit Slip What have you learned about text structures and organization patterns? Share your ideas with a partner Be sure to explain how you can find the text structure of a paragraph

52 Resources organization-for-text/ organization-for-text/ Write Source Organization.htm 20Organization.htm


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