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Chapter 8 Medieval Society: Hierarchies, Towns, Universities, and Families (1000–1300) Chapter 8 Medieval Society: Hierarchies, Towns, Universities, and Families (1000–1300) Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.
Traditional Social Order: Those who fight on horseback (landed nobility) Those who pray (clergy) Those who work in fields & shops (peasantry & artisans) Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.
New Social Group Rising with Towns from 11th c.: Long-distance traders & merchants: anomalous, because often wealthy but owned no land; middling classes; rise causes crack in old order Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.
Nobles Large hereditary landholders or warrior knights with accumulated fiefs Late medieval distinction between higher & lower nobility: Higher: long-established large landowners Lower: small landowners, descendants of minor knights, merchants able to buy country estates, wealthy farmers risen from serfdom Distinguishing feature: lived off labor of others; neither worked the land nor engaged in commerce Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.
Nobles (cont.) Warriors: war was sole occupation Wealth required to maintain horses, arms & armor Celebrated strength, courage, glory in combat; bored by peace Contemptuous of peasants & merchants Knighthood: comparable to ordination as a priest Sportsmen: favorite peacetime pursuits: hunting & tournaments Courtly love: evolution of courtesy, or behavior at court Noblemen formed broad spectrum from minor vassals to princes with many vassals Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.
Clergy Two basic types: Regular clergy: orders of monks set apart from the world in cloisters Secular clergy: lived & worked directly among laity Separate first estate: collected church taxes; under jurisdiction of ecclesiastical, not secular, courts; churches & monasteries free from secular taxation & legal jurisdiction Held powers of excommunication & interdiction Late Middle Ages saw growing resentment of clerical privilege Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.
Peasants Largest & lowest social group; many lived & worked on noble manors Organized own labor, with lord of manor getting a cut of all produce and requiring various other types of service - banalities Two types of manors: Free: peasants original landowners who swapped their land for the protection of a lord (milder serfdom) Servile: tenants had no original claim to land (serfdom) Lord had judicial & police powers Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.
Changes in the Manor, early to late Middle Ages Breakup into single-family farms; nuclear family replaces clan as basic family unit Conversion of dues payment with crops to payment with moneybrought about by revival of trade & rise of towns Noble resistance to change leads to 14th-c. peasant revolts (crushed) Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.
Towns and Townspeople The Chartering of Towns 11th & 12th cs.: only about 5% of western European population in towns Most towns under 1,000 people Towns created by lords granting charters to those agreeing to live & work there Original purpose was to concentrate skilled laborers who could manufacture finished goods for lords & bishops Residents had more freedom there than on the land Manorial society created its own urban challenger Rise of merchants: eventually formed protective associations to challenge lords, esp. over tolls & tariffs Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.
New Models of Government Around 1100, old urban nobility (inherited wealth) merged with new burgher upper class (commercial wealth) aristocratic town council Guilds: protective associations of small artisans & craftspeople; eventually gained voice in government Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.
Towns and Kings Towns come to ally with kings against rural lords, becoming a major force in transition from feudal societies to national governments Towns provided bureaucrats and lawyers who knew law, necessary to run kingdom Towns interest served by having king as protector against nobles Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.
Jews in Christian Society Urban centers attracted Jews by choice and for safety The Church forbade much interaction between Jews and Christians Anti-Jewish sentiment fueled by: Kings desire for Jewish wealth and property Churchs determination to assert spiritual hegemony Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.
Schools and Universities 12th c.: Islamic scholars preserve & make available works of classical learning (Aristotle on logic, Euclid & Ptolemy on astronomy, Greek medicine, Arab mathematics, Roman law)translated into Latin Rise of universities: modeled on trade guilds; protection from church authorities, townspeople; students hired teachers, set pay scales, drew up lists of lecture topics; no physical campus yet, so could move relatively easily Liberal arts program: language arts (grammar, rhetoric, logic) & mathematical arts (arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, music) University of Bologna: 1st important Western university, founded by Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa; 1st formal organizations of students & masters, 1st degree programs; famous for revival of Roman law Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.
Schools and Universities (cont.) Cathedral Schools: before universities, liberal arts taught in cathedral & monastery schools to train clergy; later open to laity (merchants, etc.) University of Paris: grew out of cathedral school of Notre Dame; originated college systemfixed structures; Sorbonne most famous, founded for theology students around 1257 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.
The Curriculum Scholasticism: based on premise that truth is already available, just has to be organized, explained, and defended; logic & dialectic initial curricular focus; commentaries written on authoritative texts (Aristotle, Church Fathers) Students learned grammar, rhetoric, and elementary geometry and astronomy The renaissance of the twelfth century made many Greek and Arabic texts available Few books existed, so memorization and fast- thinking were essential Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.
Philosophy and Theology Scholastic quarrels over squaring Aristotelian philosophy with Christian theology Abelard & Héloïse He was first popular scholar Their affair led to a painful conclusion Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.
Women Image and Status Theoretically weaker than and subordinate to men; practically, in most cases, worked side by side with men Treated as superior to men in purity Germanic law, unlike Roman law, recognized basic rights of women Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.
Womens Life Choices Nunnery an option for single women from higher social classes b/c dowry was required Never more than 3,500 women in cloisters 9th c.: Carolingians made monogamy official policy Wifes labor increased Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.
Working Women Could be apprenticed, appeared in most blue-collar trades, belonged to trade guilds Could not be scholars, doctors, lawyers Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.
Children 30–50% mortality rate from birth to age 5 Infancy: birth to 6 months up to 2 yearsperiod of speechlessness & breastfeeding Higher level of infancy: to age 7 Childhood proper considered to start at 7: child can think, speak, act decisively; ready for schooling, private tutoring, or apprenticeship Childhood extended to end of physical growth up to 21; till then, under control of parents Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.
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