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**Second-Order Circuits (6.3)**

Dr. Holbert November 20, 2001 ECE201 Lect-23

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2nd Order Circuits Any circuit with a single capacitor, a single inductor, an arbitrary number of sources, and an arbitrary number of resistors is a circuit of order 2. Any voltage or current in such a circuit is the solution to a 2nd order differential equation. ECE201 Lect-23

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**Important Concepts The differential equation**

Forced and homogeneous solutions The natural frequency and the damping ratio ECE201 Lect-23

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A 2nd Order RLC Circuit i (t) R + – vs(t) C L The source and resistor may be equivalent to a circuit with many resistors and sources. ECE201 Lect-23

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**Applications Modeled by a 2nd Order RLC Circuit**

Filters A lowpass filter with a sharper cutoff than can be obtained with an RC circuit. ECE201 Lect-23

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**The Differential Equation**

vr(t) i (t) + – R + + – vc(t) vs(t) C – vl(t) – + L KVL around the loop: vr(t) + vc(t) + vl(t) = vs(t) ECE201 Lect-23

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**Differential Equation**

ECE201 Lect-23

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**The Differential Equation**

Most circuits with one capacitor and inductor are not as easy to analyze as the previous circuit. However, every voltage and current in such a circuit is the solution to a differential equation of the following form: ECE201 Lect-23

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**Important Concepts The differential equation**

Forced and homogeneous solutions The natural frequency and the damping ratio ECE201 Lect-23

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**The Particular Solution**

The particular (or forced) solution ip(t) is usually a weighted sum of f(t) and its first and second derivatives. If f(t) is constant, then ip(t) is constant. If f(t) is sinusoidal, then ip(t) is sinusoidal. ECE201 Lect-23

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**The Complementary Solution**

The complementary (homogeneous) solution has the following form: K is a constant determined by initial conditions. s is a constant determined by the coefficients of the differential equation. ECE201 Lect-23

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**Complementary Solution**

ECE201 Lect-23

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**Characteristic Equation**

To find the complementary solution, we need to solve the characteristic equation: The characteristic equation has two roots-call them s1 and s2. ECE201 Lect-23

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**Complementary Solution**

Each root (s1 and s2) contributes a term to the complementary solution. The complementary solution is (usually) ECE201 Lect-23

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**Important Concepts The differential equation**

Forced and homogeneous solutions The natural frequency and the damping ratio ECE201 Lect-23

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**Damping Ratio () and Natural Frequency (0)**

The damping ratio is . The damping ratio determines what type of solution we will get: Exponentially decreasing ( >1) Exponentially decreasing sinusoid ( < 1) The natural frequency is w0 It determines how fast sinusoids wiggle. ECE201 Lect-23

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**Roots of the Characteristic Equation**

The roots of the characteristic equation determine whether the complementary solution wiggles. ECE201 Lect-23

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**Real Unequal Roots If > 1, s1 and s2 are real and not equal.**

This solution is overdamped. ECE201 Lect-23

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Overdamped ECE201 Lect-23

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**Complex Roots If < 1, s1 and s2 are complex.**

Define the following constants: This solution is underdamped. ECE201 Lect-23

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Underdamped ECE201 Lect-23

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**Real Equal Roots If = 1, s1 and s2 are real and equal.**

This solution is critically damped. ECE201 Lect-23

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Example i (t) 10W + – vs(t) 769pF 159mH This is one possible implementation of the filter portion of the IF amplifier. ECE201 Lect-23

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More of the Example For the example, what are z and w0? ECE201 Lect-23

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**Even More Example z = 0.011 w0 = 2p455000**

Is this system over damped, under damped, or critically damped? What will the current look like? ECE201 Lect-23

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Example (cont.) The shape of the current depends on the initial capacitor voltage and inductor current. ECE201 Lect-23

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**Slightly Different Example**

i (t) 1kW + – vs(t) 769pF 159mH Increase the resistor to 1kW What are z and w0? ECE201 Lect-23

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**More Different Example**

z = 2.2 w0 = 2p455000 Is this system over damped, under damped, or critically damped? What will the current look like? ECE201 Lect-23

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Example (cont.) The shape of the current depends on the initial capacitor voltage and inductor current. ECE201 Lect-23

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Damping Summary ECE201 Lect-23

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**Class Examples Learning Extension E6.9 Learning Extension E6.10**

ECE201 Lect-23

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