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Phylogeny of the order Corallimorpharia (Cnidaria: Hexacorallia) Harim Cha Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology Natural History Museum & Biodiversity.

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Presentation on theme: "Phylogeny of the order Corallimorpharia (Cnidaria: Hexacorallia) Harim Cha Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology Natural History Museum & Biodiversity."— Presentation transcript:

1 Phylogeny of the order Corallimorpharia (Cnidaria: Hexacorallia) Harim Cha Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology Natural History Museum & Biodiversity Research Center The University of Kansas harim@ku.edu

2 Corallimorpharia One of six orders of Hexacorallia Coral-like sea anemones Solitary or clonal polyps without skeleton Current Classification four families, 12 genera, and 50 species Widely distributed from tropical to polar areas and from shallow to deep water Vincent B. Hargreaves Adorian Ardelean George Miller

3 Corallimorpharia Cylindrical body (CO I) Family Sideractiidae Family Corallimorphidae Plate-like body (CO II) Family Ricordeidae Family Discosomatidae Questions about relationships within the order Vincent B. Hargreaves

4 Questions about relationship between Corallimorpharia and orders Actiniaria (sea anemones) and Scleractinia (stony corals) Corallimorpharia SCCOAC SCCOACSCCO AC Hypothesis 1 Hypothesis 3Hypothesis 4 SCCOAC Hypothesis 2

5 b. Chen et al. (1995): 28S rRNA d. Daly et al. (2003): Morphology, 16S, 18S, 28S c. France et al. (1996): 16S rRNA a. Fautin & Lowenstein (1994): radioimmunoassay Phylogenetic hypothesis based on molecular data e. Medina et al. (2006): mtDNA

6 Phylogenetic analysis using morphological characters Major characters used for analysis: Calcareous exoskeleton Polyp shape / size Tentacle shape / number / arrangement Nature of mesenteries and mesenterial arrangement Muscle development Nematocyst composition Life style – solitary or clonal Habitat Zooxanthellae Methods: 32 morphological characters 12 genera of Corallimorpharia, 6 genera of Scleractinia, and 11 genera of Actiniaria Outgroup: genus Cerianthus Maximum parsimony criterion, 1000 bootstrap replicates

7 Maximum Parsimony analysis ( CI = 0.58, RI = 0.69) Strict consensus tree of 12 equally parsimonious trees Number of parsimony informative characters = 30 Corallimorpharia (CO) Scleractinia (SC) Actiniaria (AC) Ceriantharia (CE) CO I CO II

8 Genes sequenced: 16S mtDNA (1233 bp), 28S rDNA (345 bp), 18S rDNA (1836 bp) Taxon sampling: Corallimorpharia - more than one genus of each family except family Sideractidae - collected from Oman and Caribbean - borrowed from the Field Museum Scleractinia - Robust and Complex groups Actiniaria - at least one taxon of each tribe Outgroup: Genus Cerianthus MacClade 4.0 and PAUP 3.3.1 Maximum likelihood Maximum parsimony – 2000 bootstrap replicates Phylogenetic analysis using molecular characters

9 Results 16S mtDNA Robust Scleractinia (RS) Complex Scleractinia (CS) Corallimorpharia (CO) Actiniaria (AC) Ceriantharia (CE) Complex Scleractinia (CS) Robust Scleractinia (RS) Actiniaria (AC) Ceriantharia (CE) Corallimorpharia (CO) Maximum Likelihood Maximum Parsimony analysis Strict consensus of 9 equally parsimonious trees Number of parsimony-informative characters: 498 CO II CO I

10 28S rDNA maximum likelihood analysis 18S rDNA maximum likelihood analysis CO CS AC CE RS CO II CO I CE CO AC Scleractinia CO II CO I

11 Summary of results Phylogeny based on morphological characters 1) Plate-like corallimorpharians are more closely related to deep-sea cylindrical corallimorpharians (genera Corallimorphus, Sideractis, Nectactis, and Sphincteractis) than to shallow-water ones. 2) Corallimorpharia is a monophyletic group 3) Corallimorpharia is a sister taxon of Scleractinia Each gene gives a different signal on phylogenetic relationships of Corallimorpharia 1) 16S mtDNA: Corallimorpharia is monophyletic and a sister taxon of the Complex group of Scleractinia 2) 28S rDNA: Corallimorpharia is monophyletic and a sister taxon of Scleractinia 3) 18S rDNA: Corallimorpharia is within Scleractinia

12 Further study Better molecular markers are required to resolve higher level phylogeny of Hexacorallia Extensive morphological data including polyp anatomy of scleractinians may help to clarify the position of corallimorpharians Data from deep-sea corallimorpharians (family Sideractidae) will complete sampling of corallimorpharians and may be able to provide new insights on corallimorpharian phylogeny

13 Acknowledgments Dr. Daphne Fautin and all lab people Dr. Adorian Ardelean (WHOI) Dr. Paulyn Cartwright (KU) Dr. Rachel Collin (STRI) Dr. Meg Daly (OSU) Mr. Matthew Kost (KU) Ms. Abby Reft Dr. Sandra Romano (UVI) NSF grant 9978106 in the program Partnerships to Enhance Expertise in Taxonomy (PEET) to Dr. Daphne Fautin KU Natural History Museum and Biodiversity Research Center Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, KU


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