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Contracts, Change Order Administration and Claims Management Dieter J. Preiser, PMP.

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Presentation on theme: "Contracts, Change Order Administration and Claims Management Dieter J. Preiser, PMP."— Presentation transcript:

1 Contracts, Change Order Administration and Claims Management Dieter J. Preiser, PMP

2 03/08/14352 What is a Contract? 4 A contract is a mutual business agreement recognized by law under which one party undertakes to do work (or provide a service) for a second party for a consideration. 4 A contract is an agreement between two parties, one called the contracting party or owner and the other the contracted party or the contractor to perform a previously determined scope of work for a previously determined amount of money.

3 03/08/14353 Why do we need written contracts? 4 Basic lack of trust 4 Clearly establishes the risks and obligations of each party 4 Provides means by which performance can be assessed and measured 4 Provides means by which breaches can be identified 4 Provides means by which default can be established 4 Establishes the owners means of control 4 Establishes the contractors scope of work

4 03/08/14354 What does a written contract do for us? 4 A written contract provides the document by which risks, obligations, and relationships of both parties are clearly established, thus ensuring the performance of these elements in a disciplined manner.

5 03/08/14355 Goals of Contract Management and Administration 4 The effective management and administration of contracts results in reducing risks, maximizing cost savings, minimizing claims, and improving economic return.

6 03/08/14356 How do contracts minimize risks? 4 A contract provides the means to manage and allocate risks. You you want to share the risks appropriately through your contractual relationship. 4 Your contracting strategy needs to be built around the relationship between the terms and conditions, and the accompanying risks and cost impacts. 4 The type of contract and the specific language used should flow from these relationships. 4 Failure to manage risks in this manner can result in cost overruns, loss of market, or loss of quality.

7 03/08/14357 Risk Areas 4 Cost - possibility of overruns and other financial losses 4 Time - delays in schedule and resultant loss of market 4 Quality - loss of desired quality of engineering and construction

8 03/08/14358 Contracting Strategy 4 Priority of project management goals –Cost, schedule, quantity 4 Status of project definition 4 Schedule and cost constraints –Facility startup date and availability of capital 4 State of the economy –Market urgency for product –Number of competitive bidders –Workload of competitive bidders –Vendor backlogs

9 03/08/14359 Types of Contracts 4 Lump-sum fixed price 4 Unit price 4 Fixed price with escalation (price adjustment) 4 Guaranteed maximum price (target price) 4 Cost plus incentive fee (time/cost goals) 4 Cost plus fixed fee 4 Cost plus percentage of cost

10 03/08/ Elements of Cost 4 Labor Costs 4 Material Costs 4 Equipment Costs 4 Overhead Costs - Direct and Indirect 4 Profit

11 03/08/ Analysis of Cost DIRECT COSTINDIRECT COST Costs which are incurred for specific items of work Costs which cannot be allocated to specific jobs Difference between all costs and all income Costs which cannot be allocated to specific items The WorkThe SiteThe FirmThe Motive Profit MarginItems of Work At the JobOperating COSTFEE TOTAL CONTRACT SUM OVERHEAD COSTS

12 03/08/ Fixed Price vs. Cost Reimbursable Definitions 4 Fixed Price Agreement to perform the scope of work at a set price regardless of Contractors actual cost. 4 Cost Reimbursable Agreement to perform work on a reimbursable basis.

13 03/08/ Fixed Price vs. Cost Reimbursable Basic Conditions 4 Fixed Price Fair and reasonable price can be established using a detailed scope of work, complete design and specifications and known environmental and business conditions. Adequate professional inspection & supervision provided by other parties. Risk: Contractor assumes maximum amount of risk, and has incentive to perform economically. 4 Cost Reimbursable Scope & cost of work not defined sufficiently to allow fixed price quotes. Qualified contractors unwilling to accept financial risk of fixed price. Owner wishes to exert more control, develop design as project progresses, or achieve technology transfer from contractors. Owner is required to be more sophisticated in contractor selection and oversight. Risk: Owner accepts most risk

14 03/08/ Fixed Price vs. Cost Reimbursable Advantages 4 Fixed Price Less risk on the Owner, at least on the surface. Substantial amount of case law and administrative protocol. Overall cost known before project begins. Minimal Owner involvement Owner realizes price competition. Contractor has incentive to finish early. 4 Cost Reimbursable Construction can be phased. Changes can be accommodated more easily. Reduces adversarial relations:Contractor & Owner are partners. Reduced Contractor contingency included in price.

15 03/08/ Fixed Price vs. Cost Reimbursable Disadvantages 4 Fixed Price Adversarial relations Contractor may bear risk for conditions beyond his control Changes more likely to end in dispute. Contractor has no direct financial motivation to provide superior quality or service. Extra time required to complete the plans and specs. 4 Cost Reimbursable Generally, the construction costs are higher. Increased Owner involvement. Final cost not known until project is finished. More detailed negotiations and contractor selection process. More cumbersome administrative and bookkeeping requirements.

16 03/08/ Fixed Price vs. Cost Reimbursable Applicability 4 Fixed Price Routine projects. Conditions with an abundance of qualified contractors. Public works projects. 4 Cost Reimbursable High-risk industrial or manufacturing projects (petrochemical, power, offshore). Situation where qualified contractors are scarce. R&D projects (aerospace, military).

17 Types of Contracts Lump Sum Lump Sum + Variation Bill of Quantities Schedule of Rates Cost + Fixed Fee Cost + % Fee (Contract Type) Admeasurement Cost Reimbursable Max Min Owners Control Owner's Flexibility Clients Risk Contractor's Incentive to Perform Clients Project Definition MaxMin Max Min ChangeableFirm Min Max

18 03/08/ Project Schedule Duration vs. Type of Contract 1. Cost Reimbursable w / %Fee 2. Cost Reimbursable w / Fixed Fee 3. Cost Reimbursable w / Incentive 4. Guaranteed Maximum Price 5. Lump-Sum Fixed Price Engineering Required to Start Construction Project Completion Start of Construction Project Duration Contract Type

19 03/08/ Phased Construction Design Bid/AwardConstruction Phase Design Construction Phase (Single Construction Contract) (Multiple Construction Contracts) Landscape Sitework Foundations Structures Mechanical Electrical Phased Construction Method Traditional Construction Method

20 03/08/ Precontracting Activities Prepare Pre-Qual Documents Establish Plan of Action Prepare Management Submittal Management Review Release Pre-Qual Contractors Develop Response Score Pre-Quals and Prepare Bid Slate Management Approval Prepare Contract Draft Review Contract Draft Revise Contract Draft Prepare Job Ex Meeting Release Bid Package Job Ex Meeting

21 03/08/ Pre-Contracting Activities Contractor Prepares Bid Prepare Company Estimate Functional Review Prepare Management Recommendation Management Review Prepare Contract Receive Bids Tech Bid Review Price Bid Review Contract Award Contractor Signs Owner Signs

22 03/08/ Pre-Qualification Process 4 Financial Strength and Credit Rating 4 Previous Experience on Similar Projects 4 Organization 4 Loss Prevention Program 4 QA/QC Program 4 Equipment Availability 4 Availability of Key Personnel 4 Current and Future Workload

23 03/08/ Components of Contract Package 4 Invitation for the Bid 4 Instructions to Bidders 4 Bid Form 4 Contract Form 4 Schedule of Plant 4 General Conditions or Provisions 4 Special Conditions, Supplementary Conditions or Special Provisions

24 03/08/ Components of Contract Package 4 Performance Schedule 4 Price Schedules 4 Scope of Work 4 Specifications –Performance Specification –Proprietary Specification 4 Design Drawings

25 03/08/ Contract Bonds 4 Bid Bond (5% to 10% of contract price) 4 Performance Bond (50% of contract price) 4 Payment Bond 4 Maintenance Bond

26 03/08/ Insurance 4 Public Liability Insurance –Provides coverage against bodily injury and property damage to third parties as the result of construction activities. 4 Builders Risk Insurance –Protects against loss/damage of structures and equipment 4 Comprehensive Automobile Liability Insurance 4 Special Policies


28 03/08/ Change Order Administration 4 An organized effort to eliminate unnecessary cost and time impact as a result of processing project work outside the scope of the contract. A Change is not a Claim.

29 03/08/ Contract Change Clause 4 Fixed price contract require a change clause. 4 Establishes the owners right to make changes and provides a mechanism for their administration and resolution.

30 03/08/ Types of Changes 4 Formal –Via contract change clause 4 Constructive –Action of owner that has the effect of directing a change, although not initially documented as such. 4 Cardinal –Change totally out of scope of original contract. –Should re-negotiate entire contract.

31 03/08/ Change Orders 4 Virtually all project have change orders. 4 Need to recognize their implications. 4 Set up an effective management system to handle them. 4 Minimize cost/time impact and prevent costly legal action. 4 Modification of the contract.

32 03/08/ Sources of Change Orders 4 Unanticipated site conditions 4 Owner requested design modifications, additions or deletions 4 Clarification of contract documents

33 03/08/ Disagreements 4 Change or design development 4 Scope of the change 4 Material cost 4 Equipment rental rates 4 Acceptable profit 4 Overhead cost 4 Consequential effects of the change

34 03/08/ Change Orders 4 Prior approval –Adverse effect on construction 4 Unilateral change order –Urgent situations or conditions 4 After the fact

35 03/08/ Change Order Process Change Order Identification C.O. Request C.O. Design Cost/Schedule Analysis Bid Period Bid Analysis Prepare Bid Package Bid Closing C.O. Award

36 03/08/ Cost of Changes Time EngineeringConstruction Flexibility Cost


38 03/08/ Typical Claims Against Owner 4 Poor project planning 4 Scope changes 4 Constructive change orders 4 Errors and omissions 4 Contract accelerations and stoppages 4 Site access or availability 4 Other construction interference and delays 4 Strikes and acts of God 4 Low bidders

39 03/08/ Typical Claims Against Contractor 4 Late completion - liquidated damages 4 Out of specification materials 4 Defective work 4 Property damage

40 03/08/ Delays 4 Excusable Delay –Beyond control of owner or contractor 4 Inexcusable Delay –Beyond the control of the contractor –Owner caused changes to work –Differing site conditions –Suspension or termination of work by owner 4 Concurrent Delay –Two or more delays in same time frame

41 03/08/ Claims Analysis 4 Brief of the case 4 Owners position 4 Contractors position 4 Analysis and evaluation 4 Recommendations

42 03/08/ Claim Prevention Suggestions 4 Carefully analyze and consider exactly what you are building and precisely how it will be built so the contractor does not have to assume or guess about any aspect of the job. 4 Complete the project design before the contract is bid, and if some parts of the project cannot be completely designed at bid stage, clearly identify them and its possible impact.

43 03/08/ Claim Prevention Suggestions 4 Conduct a thorough review of the design prior to the bid stage to identify and correct any design errors or inadequacies. 4 Give bidders sufficient time to carry out a complete review of the bid package and an investigation of the construction site. 4 Allow enough construction time, remember in this context, time is not money. Do not assume that bidders will simply increase their bids to cover a short schedule.

44 03/08/ Claim Prevention Suggestions 4 Identify with enough anticipation what type of contract will best suite the project. 4 Think about every sentence included in the contract, why it is there and whether it is necessary. 4 Clearly identify in the contract every operation that the contractor must accomplish to complete the job.

45 03/08/ Claim Prevention Suggestions 4 Draft for clarity, not confusion. Use standard list of definitions, and always use the same defined word consistently. 4 Consider material arrival schedules as part of the contract. Identify long-lead items and possible vendors in the bid package. Avoid sole-source procurement unless absolutely necessary. 4 Clearly identify who will be responsible for material delays.

46 03/08/ Claim Prevention Suggestions 4 Analyze all potential bidders before preparing a bid slate. Examine contractors prior contracting experience, claims history, management capabilities and financial ability. 4 Carefully analyze contractors technical proposal paying particular attention to the proposed method of construction and the planned number of man- hours claimed necessary to execute the job.

47 03/08/ Claim Prevention Suggestions 4 Seriously question the contractors excessively low bid. 4 If you are forced to accept a low-ball contractor, anticipate a claim and work on it from the beginning. 4 Be reasonable when analyzing the contractors complaints about changes and omissions. Negotiate settlement as soon as possible and keep in mind that the older the issue, the more difficult it will be to settle.

48 03/08/ Claim Prevention Suggestions 4 Appreciate the contractors right to perform the contract in any fashion he deems appropriate, as long as the methods and results conform to contractually specified standards. 4 Keep in min that the owner has the obligation to provide: a suitable construction site, accurate plans and specifications, well-defined scope of work, and inspection without interference.

49 03/08/ Claim Prevention Suggestions 4 Understand how many factors can affect a contract and delay and disrupt the work. Cooperate to establish an atmosphere of understanding and mutual respect. 4 Keep strict control of: progress reports, daily meetings, schedule revisions, cost estimates, change orders and their justifications, correspondence. 4 Develop a solid document control plan.

50 03/08/ Contract Disputes Resolution Continuum Budget and Contract Pre-construction Meeting A Problem and Request for Information Change Order Request Change Order Estimate and Negotiation Settlement Phase II - Contract Administration (LOW COST RESOLUTION RISK) PM Selection Policies and Procedures Risk Assessment and Allocation Identify Disputes Resolution in Contract Review Contract Documents for Completeness and Accuracy Budget and Contract Phase I - Program/Project Planning (NO COST RESOLUTION RISK) Denial of Entitlement and Cost Change Order Issued

51 03/08/ Contract Disputes Resolution Continuum Construction Master Mediation Mini-Trial Rent-a- Judge/Jury Phase IV - Outside Intervention (HIGH COST RESOLUTION RISK) Rapid Response Team Disputes Review Board Negotiations Involving the Party Principals Contracting Officers Decision Selection of Outside Intervention Options Phase III - Contract Identified Resolution (MEDIUM COST RESOLUTION RISK) Denial of Entitlement and Cost Selection of Venue Options Selection of Outside Intervention Options

52 03/08/ Contract Disputes Resolution Continuum Settlement Hearings Non-Binding Arbitration Binding Arbitration Litigation Phase V - Arbitration and/or Litigation (MAXIMUM COST RESOLUTION RISK) Selection of Venue Options

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