Presentation on theme: "Higher Order Thinking Skills David W. Dillard Arcadia Valley CTC."— Presentation transcript:
Higher Order Thinking Skills David W. Dillard Arcadia Valley CTC
Definition Higher-order thinking essentially means thinking that takes place in the higher-levels of the hierarchy of cognitive processing. Blooms Taxonomy is the most widely accepted hierarchical arrangement of this sort in education and it can be viewed as a continuum of thinking skills starting with knowledge-level thinking and moving eventually to evaluation- level of thinking.
Higher Order Thinking Skills: The Learning Research and Development Center (1991) lists the following higher order thinking skills: "Size up and define a problem that isn't neatly packaged. Determine which facts and formulas stored in memory might be helpful for solving a problem. Recognize when more information is needed, and where and how to look for it. Deal with uncertainty by 'brainstorming' possible ideas or solutions when the way to proceed isn't apparent.
Higher Order Thinking Skills: Carry out complex analyses or tasks that require planning, management, monitoring, and adjustment. Exercise judgment in situations where there aren't clear-cut 'right' and 'wrong' answers, but more and less useful ways of doing things. Step outside the routine to deal with an unexpected breakdown or opportunity."
Thought "Every day thinking, like ordinary walking, is a natural performance we all pick up. But good thinking, like running the l00-yard dash, is a technical performance... Sprinters have to be taught how to run the 100-yard dash; good thinking is the result of good teaching, which includes much practice." David Perkins, Howard University
Realigning your curriculum to improve student achievement at the college- preparatory level HOT curriculum focuses on Higher Order Thinking and Technology HOT courses utilize Hands-On Technology HOT instruction promotes Cognitive Development HOT classroom environments reflect Active Interactions
Knowledge Comprehension Application Analysis Synthesis Evaluation Benjamin Bloom (1956) 6 levels of Bloom's Taxonomy:
Knowledge statements ask the student to recite the pledge. Example: Say the pledge. Comprehension statements ask the student to explain the meaning of words contained in the pledge. Example: Explain what indivisible, liberty, and justice mean.
6 levels of Bloom's Taxonomy: Application statements ask the student to apply understandings. Example: Create your own pledge to something you believe in. Analysis statements ask the student to interpret word meanings in relation to context. Example: Discuss the meaning of and to the Republic for which it stands in terms of its importance to the pledge.
6 levels of Bloom's Taxonomy: Synthesis statements ask the student to apply concepts in a new setting. Example: Write a contract between yourself and a friend that includes an allegiance to a symbol that stands for something you both believe in. Evaluation statements ask the student to judge the relative merits of the content and concepts contained in the subject. Example: Describe the purpose of the pledge and assess how well it achieves that purpose. Suggest improvements.
Different types of thinking: 1. Critical thinking - This is convergent thinking. It assesses the worth and validity of something existent. It involves precise, persistent, objective analysis. When teachers try to get several learners to think convergently, they try to help them develop common understanding. 2. Creative thinking - This is divergent thinking. It generates something new or different. It involves having a different idea that works as well or better than previous ideas.
Different types of thinking: 3. Convergent thinking - This type of thinking is cognitive processing of information around a common point, an attempt to bring thoughts from different directions into a union or common conclusion. 4. Divergent thinking - This type of thinking starts from a common point and moves outward into a variety of perspectives. When fosering divergent thinking, teachers use the content as a vehicle to prompt diverse or unique thinking among students rather than a common view.
Different types of thinking: 5. Inductive thinking - This is the process of reasoning from parts to the whole, from examples to generalizations. 6. Deductive thinking - This type of reasoning moves from the whole to its parts, from generalizations to underlying concepts to examples.
Different types of thinking: 7. Closed questions - These are questions asked by teachers that have predictable responses. Closed questions almost always require factual recall rather than higher levels of thinking. 8. Open questions - These are questions that do not have predictable answers. Open questions almost always require higher order thinking.
WHAT STRATEGIES HELP TO DEVELOP THESE SKILLS? Help Students Organize Their Knowledge Build on What Students Already Know Facilitate Information Processing Facilitate Deep Thinking Through Elaboration Make Thinking Processes Explicit
Becoming a guide (promoting cognitive development) --Require justification for ideas and probe for reasoning strategies --Challenge students to develop alternatives and to ask thought- provoking questions --As an instructor, ask open-ended questions and accept varied responses --Require all students to participate actively in class discussions --Serve as a master of apprentices rather than a teacher of students
An Igniting Interactive Environment --Reflects real-life situations and contexts --Shows collaboration among teachers, disciplines, and students --Encourages curiosity, exploration, and investigation --Demands student responsibility for his or own learning --Encourages various performance –based displays of competencies
How do I foster higher-order thinking in my classroom? 1. Set up a classroom environment which is conducive to high-level thinking. A. Multi-level materials B. Flexible grouping C. Accept and celebrate diversity D. Print-rich environment E. High expectations F. Teacher as co-learner G. Nurture risk-taking 2. Engage students in activities which foster high- level thinking.
How do I foster higher-order thinking in my classroom? A. Collaborative group activities in which students can communicate with others in a variety of ways. B. Problem-solving activities that require more than routine calculations. C. Open-ended activities with more than one "right" answer. D. Activities which acommodate multiple intelligences. E. Activities in which both genders participate freely. 3. Construct questions that call for high-level thinking. A. Ask yourself, "Do I always know the answer to my questions?" B. Use a variety of assessment methods that match teaching strategies. For example, use a project for assessment instead of an end-of-unit test.
Evaluation: Words Appraise Choose Compare Conclude Decide Defend Evaluate Give your opinion Judge Justify, Prioritize Rank Rate Select Support Value
Synthesis Change Combine Compose Construct Create Design Find an unusual way Formulate Generate Invent Originate Plan
Application Apply Compute Conclude Construct Demonstrate Determine Draw Find out Give an example Illustrate Make Operate Show Solve State a rule or principle Use
Comprehension Convert Describe Explain Interpret Paraphrase put in order Restate Retell in your own words Rewrite Summarize Trace Translate
Knowledge Define fill in the blank Identify Label List Locate Match Memorize Name Recall Spell State Tell Underline
Knowledge: Identification and recall of information Who, what, when, where, how? Describe ___________________. Comprehension: Organization and selection of facts and ideas Retell ___________ in your own words. What is the main idea of ___________________? Application: Use of facts, rules, principles How is __________ and example of _______________? How is __________ related to _________________? Why is _________________ significant? Analysis: Separation of the whole into component parts What are the parts or features of ________________? Classify _______________ according to ________________. Outline/diagram/web ____________________. How does ______________ compare/contrast with __________________? What evidence can you list for _____________________? Synthesis: Combination of ideas to form a new whole What would you predict/infer from __________________? What ideas can you add to __________________? How would you create/design a new __________________? What might happen if you combine _______________ with ________________? What solutions would you suggest for __________________? Evaluation: Development of opinions, judgments, or decisions Do you agree with _________________? What do you think about _______________? What is the most important _____________? Prioritize ________________. How would you decide about ________________? What criteria would you use to assess ______________________?
QUESTIONS THAT PROBE ASSUMPTIONS What are you assuming? What is Karen assuming? What could we assume instead? You seem to be assuming________. Do I understand you correctly? All of your reasoning depends on the idea that. Why have you based your reasoning on ______ rather than ____? You seem to be assuming _______. How would you justify taking this for granted? Is it always the case? Why do you think the assumption holds here? Why would someone make this assumption?
QUESTIONS OF CLARIFICATION What do you mean by? Could you give me an example? What is your main point? Would this be an example? How does_________relate________to? Could you explain this further? Could you put that another way? Would you say more about that? Is your basic point______or_____? Why do you say that? What do you think is the main issue here? Let me see if I understand you; do you mean_______or______? How does this relate to our discussion (problem, issue)? What do you think John meant by his remark? What did you take John to mean? Jane, would you summarize in your own words what Richard has said?...Richard, is that what you meant?
QUESTIONS THAT PROBE REASONS AND EVIDENCE What would be an example? How do you know? Why do you think that is true? Do you have any evidence for that? What difference does that make? What are your reasons for saying that? Could you explain your reasons to us? Is there reason to doubt that evidence? What would you say to someone who said________? Can someone else give evidence to support that response? Who is in a position to know if that is so?
QUESTIONS THAT PROBE REASONS AND EVIDENCE By what reasoning did you come to that conclusion? How could we find out whether that is true? Are these reasons adequate? Why did you say that? What led you to that belief? How does that apply to this case? What would change your mind? What other information do we need? But is that good evidence to believe that? Who is in a position to know if that is so?
QUESTIONS ABOUT VIEWPOINTS OR PERSPECTIVES You seem to be approaching this issue from________ perspective. Why have you chosen this rather than that perspective? How would other groups/types of people respond? Why? What would influence them? How could you answer the objection that________would make? What might someone who believed________ think? Can/did anyone see this another way? What would someone who disagrees say? What is an alternative?
QUESTIONS THAT PROBE IMPLICATIONS AND CONSEQUENCES What are you implying by that? But if that happened, what else would happen as a result? Why? What effect would that have? Would that necessarily happen or only probably happen? What is an altenative? If this and this are the case, then what else must also be true? If we say that this is unethical; how about that? When you say________you are implying?
Suggestions Related to Using Writing to Promote Higher-Order Thinking Write daily or frequently rather than sporadically. Write for real audiences and purposes. Allot sufficient time for stages of thought and editing to occur. Encourage peer review Write with an initial emphasis on thinking rather than on proofreading and editing.
Writing to Promote Higher-Order Thinking (Synthesized from Teaching Children to Be Literate: A Reflective Approach, by Anthony and Ula Manzo, 1995) Writing activates the readers background knowledge before reading/thinking. Writing builds anticipation of upcoming learning events. Writing raises the readers level of intellectual activity. Writing encourages meaningful comparisons of the students perspective with that of the writer (in reading situations) Writing helps students better formulate their world view. Writing allows students to examine their perspectives on key issues. Writing builds metacognitive as well as cognitive abilities because writing forces deeper levels of introspection, analysis, and synthesis than any other mediational process.
(Synthesized from Teaching Children to Be Literate: A Reflective Approach, by Anthony and Ula Manzo, 1995) 1. Remember to ask for it; that is, for discovery, invention, and artistic/literary creation. 2. Great curiosity and new ideas with enthusiasm; these can often lead to the most valuable teachable moments. 3. Expose learners to new twists on old patterns and invite looking at old patterns from new angles. 4. Constructively critique new ideas because they almost always require some fine-tuning. 5. Reset our expectations to the fact that there will be many more misses than hits when reaching for workable new ideas. 6. Learn to invite contrary, or opposing, positions; new possibilities are often discovered in this way and existing thoughts, patterns, and beliefs can be tested and strengthened.
Head-on Approaches to Teaching Higher-Order Thinking (Synthesized from Teaching Children to Be Literate: A Reflective Approach, by Anthony and Ula Manzo, 1995) Thinking Thursdays Consider setting aside a given amount of time on a regular basis to try some of these direct approaches to teaching critical and creative thinking. Word Creation: Define the word squallizmotex and explain how your definition fits the word. If dried grapes are called raisins, and dried beef is called beef jerky, what would you call these items if they were dried: lemons, pineapple, watermelon, chicken.
Unusual Uses: Have students try to think of as many unusual uses as they can for common objects such as bricks, used toys, old tennis balls, soda bottles, and 8-track cassette tapes.
Circumstances and Consequences: What would happen if... school was on weekends and not during the week? water stuck like glue? gravity took a day off? there were no colors? everyone in the country could vote on every issue that is now decided by government representatives?
Product Improvements: How could school desks be improved? How could living room furniture be improved to provide better storage and even exercise while watching television? How can we better equip book- carrying bags to handle lunches and other needs that you can think of?
Systems and Social Improvements: A sample question that could lead into plenty of higher-level discussion and a good give-and- take of views and needs could be: How can schools be made more fun without hurting learning?