Presentation on theme: "Assassination at Sarajevo June 28, 1914"— Presentation transcript:
1Assassination at Sarajevo June 28, 1914 Oakmont Sunday SymposiumMay 4, 2014Bob Kirk, Ph.D., Presenter
2Topics this morning . . . The Archduke and the Hapsburg Dynasty The assassinationUnderlying tensions that led to warHow the war startedWhy the war lasted four yearsWhy the results of the war were worse than the war itself
4Ferdinand and SophieMarried She was created Duchess of Hohenburg but was forbidden to stand or sit beside her husband in public ceremonies.
5House of HabsburgIn 1276 Rudolf, Count of Habsburg, became Duke of Austria.The Habsburgs gained lands through marriage rather than war.By 1867, Hapsburg rulers were Emperors of Austria and Kings of Hungary..
8Emperor of Austria-Hungary Franz Josef (1848-1916) was age 84 at the time of the assassination. He was a conscientious monarch, but was extremely conservative.He had already suffered several family tragedies.
9Empress Elizabeth,Born a Bavarian princess, she married Franz Josef at 16.She was obsessed with her own beauty and had to be sewn into corsets.“Children are the curse of a woman!”
101898: Geneva An Italian anarchist assassinated Empress Elizabeth. She was Austria’s longest-reigning empress –- 44 years, but she was often off traveling.
111867: A firing squad ended the short reign of Franz Josef’s younger brother, Maximilian, Emperor of Mexicod
121889: Rudolf and his teen lover Maria Vetsera killed themselves at Mayerling
13Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to the throne of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. He was Emperor Franz Josef’s nephew.When Crown Prince Rudolf died, he was next in line.
14Konopiste Castle, Bohemia Franz Ferdinand recorded an estimated 300,000 game kills, including 5,000 deer. He even went to Australia to shoot kangaroos.100,000 trophies are here at Konopiste Castle.
1599 years, 10 months, and 10 days ago June 28, 191499 years, 10 months, and 10 days ago
21Serb Black Hand formed in 1911 to unify all South Slavs under Serbia
22Director “Apis” of Serbian Secret Service Serbian Intelligence supplied • 6 hand grenades* 4 Browning automatic pistols and • ammoMoney• Suicide pills (ineffective)• Training
233rd car in a 6-car caravan. The governor was in the front
246 conspirators lined the route 6 conspirators lined the route. Nedeljko Cabrinovic threw a grenade and wounded two in the fourth car. They were rushed to the hospital.Cabrinovic swallowed an expired cyanide tablet and merely got sick. He then jumped into the Miljacka River, but it was only four-inches deep.
25A scheduled visit to city hall minutes after the bomb explosion
26The archduke demanded to go to the hospital to visit the wounded men The archduke demanded to go to the hospital to visit the wounded men. But Governor Oskar Potiorek forgot to tell the driver about the change of route.The driver turned right on Franz Josef Street – - and there was Gavrilo Princip in front of Schiller’s Café.
27The assassination took place just across this bridge
28Bosnian terrorist Gavrilo Princip shot Franz Ferdinand and his wife Sophie
2919-year old Gavrilo Princip Who says kids can’t change the world?
43A small war or a gigantic war? Most observers thought Austria-Hungary would exact some retribution from Serbia and the problem would be contained.Diplomacy was highly refined and had prevented several crises in the last decade.Almost nobody expected a 4-year world war.
44Germany planned to knock out France in six weeks, then turn on Russia
45It all happened so fast . . .July 23 – Austria-Hungary ultimatum to SerbiaJuly 28 – Austria-Hungary attacks SerbiaJuly 29 – Russia mobilizes against A/H & GermanyAugust 1 – Germany mobilizes in east and west and invades Luxembourg and BelgiumAugust 3 – Germany at war with France & RussiaAugust 3 – Italy declares neutralityAugust 4 – Britain declares war on Germany
56About 10 million died in the war But Woodrow Wilson thought if the victors could design a perfect peace, including the League of Nations, it would have been the “war to end all wars.”It turned out to be the war to end all peace.
57As hard as is to believe, the consequences were far worse than the war itself . . .
58An unintended consequence: 50-100 million died from influenza