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Secession! Peaceable secession! Sir, your eyes and mine are never destined to see that miracle. - Daniel Webster 1.

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Presentation on theme: "Secession! Peaceable secession! Sir, your eyes and mine are never destined to see that miracle. - Daniel Webster 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 Secession! Peaceable secession! Sir, your eyes and mine are never destined to see that miracle. - Daniel Webster 1

2 The sovereign people of a territory should determine the statutes of slavery. A good compromise? 1848 Gen. Lewis Cass (D) War of 1812 veteran, supported slavery Gen. Zachary Taylor (W) Old Rough and Ready, no official slavery stance (but a slave holder) Free Soil Party: free soil, free speech, free labor, free men (feared competition for jobs in the West) 2

3 The Free Soil Party's candidate was Martin Van Buren. Van Buren finished last, receiving just over 10% of the total votes cast. Voters did elect 16 Free Soilers to the U.S. Congress, including 2 Senators and 14 members of the House of Representatives. 3

4 The Free Soilers opposed slavery's expansion into any new territories or states. Believed that the government could not end slavery where it already existed but that it could restrict slavery in new areas. Feared competition with Southern slaveholders. Northerners who wanted to own land in the West feared that they would not be able to compete economically with slave labor (the free labor part). The majority were not abolitionists. Some Free Soilers believed that African Americans were inferior to white people. These Free Soilers had no desire to provide African Americans with equal political, economic, and social rights. 4

5 Population of California 14,000 in 1848 100,000 in 1850 250,000 in 1852. These increases are by immigration alone, for hardly anyone is being born there In 1850 just 8% of the population is female. In the mining towns that figure falls to 2%. Forty-niners do not arrive with women. Why do these male/female statistics matter? Applies for statehood as a FREE state (15 v. 15) in 1850 and Southerners panic 5

6 Virginia-born, slave holding Louisianan as president Cabinet and Supreme Court majority Outnumbered in the House but equal in the Senate (California as a free state, though?) Cotton fields expanding Cotton profitability rising 6

7 Losing potential slave territory while losing numbers in the Sen. and the H. of R. Wilmot Proviso (Mex. Cession, remember?) and/or Tallmadge Amendment (that was the gradual abolition in Missouri, remember?) set precedents for the rest of the U.S.A. Abolition in the District of Columbia? Free Soilers in Congress What about Constitutional guarantees? The Underground Railroad (maybe 1000 runaways per year) (page 422) 7

8 Clay (73), Webster (68) and Calhoun (68) battle it out Peaceable secession? Why, what would be the result? Where is the line to be drawn? What States are to be seceded? What is to remain American? What am I to be? An American no longer? Am I to become a sectional man, a local man, a separatist, with no country in common with the gentlemen who sit around me here, or who fill the other house of Congress? Heaven forbid! Where is the flag of the republic to remain? Where is the eagle still to tower? or is he to cower, and shrink, and fall to the ground? Why, Sir, our ancestors, our fathers and our grandfathers, those of them that are yet living amongst us with prolonged lives, would rebuke and reproach us; and our children and our grandchildren would cry out shame upon us, if we of this generation should dishonor these ensigns of the power of the government and the harmony of that Union which is every day felt among us with so much joy and gratitude. -Daniel Webster (Seventh of March Speech) 8

9 To the North California admitted as a FREE state Abolition of the slave trade (but NOT slavery) in the District of Columbia To the South New Mexico and Utah open to popular sovereignty A more stringent fugitive slave law (aiding escaped slaves could lead to fines and jail) We went to bed one night old-fashioned, conservative, Compromise Union Whigs and waked up stark mad abolitionists! 9

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11 Democrats Franklin Pierce (a doughface or a Northerner with Southern sympathies) Whigs Winfield Scott (Old Fuss and Feathers) Northern Whigs hated the partys platform (support for the fugitive slave law and Compromise of 1850) but supported Scott Southern Whigs supported the partys platform but hated Scott 11

12 The End of the Whig Party: It splits on slavery (Conscience Whigs in the N. versus Cotton Whigs in the S.) 12

13 The Clayton-Bulwer Treaty in Central America Commodore Matthew Perry and Japan Cuba Polk tried to buy it for $100,000,000.00 Ostend Manifesto Offer $120,000,000 If rejected, we will just take the island since the Spanish presence jeopardizes American interests Gadsden Purchase (1853) for a southern transcontinental railroad to California … maybe (lets take a look at the previous slide)previous 13

14 How about a NORTHERN route for the transcontinental rr…maybe from Chicago? Heavy investments in Chicago real estate and railway stock The Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854) Nebraska split into two Apply the democratic concept of popular sovereignty (whats due west of KS? Of NE?) And the Missouri Compromise? Gives birth to the Republican Party A coalition of the foes of the Kansas-Nebraska Act 14

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16 A house divided against itself cannot stand. I believe this government cannot endure permanently half slave and half free. -Abraham Lincoln 1858 16

17 So youre the little woman who wrote the book that made this great war -A. Lincoln to Stowe in 1862 Fiction Tom and Eliza vs. Simon Legree Read worldwide What support could the South expect now? 17

18 A white Southerner from North Carolina No moral judgments No crusade against the peculiar institution Condemned a labor system that limited opportunities of poor non-slave holding, Southern whites, retarded their economic progress and kept them in poverty and backwardness 18

19 Democrats (Popular Sovereignty) James Buchanan Republicans John C. Fremont A coalition of conscience Whigs, Free Soilers and northern Democrats Know Nothings (Nat. Union) Millard Fillmore Nativists = Anti-foreign (Americans Must Rule America!) 19

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21 Free Soilers, Northern abolitionists and the New Eng. Emigrant Aid Society faced off against pro- slave forces also streaming into the state Divided Democrats Douglas in Cong. (supporting true popular sovereignty) vs. Buchanan in the W.H. (supporting the hated Lecompton Constitution which supported slavery in Kansas) John Brown and the Pottawatomie Massacre 5 proslavery sympathizers murdered and dismembered 21

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23 Dred Scott (a slave) sued for his freedom following years spent in a free Illinois and Wisconsin #1 Scott would not be granted his freedom #2 Scott was a black slave and therefore not a citizen (the citizenship of the Souths ¼ million free blacks is now in question) so he had no right to sue #3 Slaves = property, therefore Congress had no power (never did) to ban slavery from the territories regardless of what the territorial legislatures might want What about popular sovereignty? Missouri Compromise? 23

24 "...... We think they [people of African ancestry] are... not included, and were not intended to be included, under the word "citizens" in the Constitution, and can therefore claim none of the rights and privileges which that instrument provides for and secures to citizens of the United States...." Chief Justice Roger B. Taney, speaking for the majority (1857) 24

25 In the North: Grain growers hard hit In the South Steady and favorable cotton prices (does the South really need the North afterall?) Demands for free homesteads Great idea for Northerners (but not all) What about Southerners? Homestead Act (25 cents/acre) Angers Eastern industrialists Angers slaveholders Vetoed by Buchanan A low Southern backed tariff led manufacturers to seek more protection Republicans have their issues: farms for the farmless, protection for the unprotected 25

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27 Abraham Lincoln presents Stephen Douglas with this dilemma… What if the people of a territory vote slavery down? The Supreme Court (Dred Scott) said they cant You (Kansas-Nebraska Act) said they could…pop. sov. Stephen Douglas and the Freeport Doctrine If slavery were voted down, it would stay down If the laws were passed to protect slavery, the people would have to enforce them, and they wouldnt if they disapproved of slavery Winning Illinois hurts Douglas in his quest for the presidency 27

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29 29 The Saint, whose fate yet hangs in suspense, but whose martyrdom, if it shall be perfected, will make the gallows as glorious as the cross -Emerson

30 Stephen Douglas – popular with northern Democrats John Breckenridge was favored by southern Democrats John Bell forms a compromise position known as the Constitutional Union Party Abraham Lincoln Non-extension of slavery (Free Soilers are happy) Protective tariffs (N. manufacturers are happy) Federal funding of internal improvements (Westerners are happy) Free homesteads (farmers are happy) 30

31 It is a surprising fact that Lincoln, often rated among the greatest presidents, ranks near the bottom in percentage of popular votes. In all the eleven states that seceded, he received only a scattering of votes (only about 1.5% in Virginia) 31

32 CANDIDATEPOPULAR VOTE % OF POPULAR VOTE ELECTORAL VOTE J. BELL592,90612.61%39 J. BRECKENRIDGE846,35618.20%72 S. DOUGLAS1,382,71329.40%12 A.LINCOLN1,865,59339.79%180 32

33 The vote by county for Lincoln was virtually all cast in the North. The northern Democrat, Douglas, was also nearly shut out in the South, which divided its votes between Breckinridge and Bell. 33 Copyright (c) Houghton Mifflin Company. All Rights Reserved.

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36 This shows the opposition of the anti-planter, anti-slavery mountain whites in the Appalachian region. There was also considerable resistance to secession in Texas. 36 State Secession S. CarolinaDecember 20, 1860 MississippiJanuary 9, 1861 FloridaJanuary 10, 1861 AlabamaJanuary 11, 1861 GeorgiaJanuary 19, 1861 LouisianaJanuary 26, 1861 TexasFebruary 1, 1861 VirginiaApril 17, 1861 ArkansasMay 6, 1861 N. CarolinaMay 20, 1861 TennesseeJune 8, 1861

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38 This northern cartoon expressed the sentiment of many people north of the Mason- Dixon line that secession was a self-defeating move, doomed to failure. 38 Chicago Historical Society

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