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T. Mazeh, Leuven: Extrasolar planets1 The difference from our own Solar system.

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Presentation on theme: "T. Mazeh, Leuven: Extrasolar planets1 The difference from our own Solar system."— Presentation transcript:

1 T. Mazeh, Leuven: Extrasolar planets1 The difference from our own Solar system

2 T. Mazeh, Leuven: Extrasolar planets2 Giant planets far away (>5 AU) Circular orbits Planetary orbits aligned with the Solar spin (Obliquity < 7 deg) In the solar system:

3 T. Mazeh, Leuven: Extrasolar planets3 The main paradigm for planetary formation : Accretion disc

4 T. Mazeh, Leuven: Extrasolar planets4 51 Peg Mayor & Queloz 1995 The new era: Precision ~10 m/s

5 T. Mazeh, Leuven: Extrasolar planets5 Earth Jupiter Neptune RV

6 T. Mazeh, Leuven: Extrasolar planets6 Planets discovered by RV Mass distribution

7 T. Mazeh, Leuven: Extrasolar planets7 Giant planets far away Circular orbits Orbits aligned with Solar spin Planets discovered by RV Period distribution Close-in giant planets

8 T. Mazeh, Leuven: Extrasolar planets8 Migration

9 T. Mazeh, Leuven: Extrasolar planets9 HD80606 (Naef et al. 2001) e=0.93 P=112 days msini=4M Jup

10 T. Mazeh, Leuven: Extrasolar planets10 Giant planets far away Circular orbits Orbits aligned with Solar spin

11 T. Mazeh, Leuven: Extrasolar planets11 Transits The inclination (i) must be very close to 90°

12 T. Mazeh, Leuven: Extrasolar planets12

13 T. Mazeh, Leuven: Extrasolar planets13

14 T. Mazeh, Leuven: Extrasolar planets14 The first known observation of a transit of Venus was made by Jeremiah Horrocks from his home at Carr House in Much Hoole, near Preston in England, on 4 December 1639 (24 November under the Julian calendar then in use in England). His friend, William Crabtree, also observed this transit from Broughton, near Manchester. Jeremiah HorrocksCarr HouseMuch HoolePrestonEnglandJulian calendarWilliam CrabtreeBroughtonManchester Transit of Venus

15 T. Mazeh, Leuven: Extrasolar planets15 HD 209458 Mazeh et al., 2000

16 T. Mazeh, Leuven: Extrasolar planets16 HD 209458 Phase consistent with the radial velocities Charbonneau, Brown, Latham & Mayor 2000 Henry, Marcy, Butler & Vogt 2000 Depth: ~1.5% Duration: ~2.5 hours

17 T. Mazeh, Leuven: Extrasolar planets17 HD209458 Brown, Charbonneau, Gilliland, Noyes & Burrows, 2001, HST photometry

18 T. Mazeh, Leuven: Extrasolar planets18

19 T. Mazeh, Leuven: Extrasolar planets19

20 T. Mazeh, Leuven: Extrasolar planets20 HAT-P-2 May 2007

21 T. Mazeh, Leuven: Extrasolar planets21 Orbit of planet Transiting planets Stellar Spin-Planetary orbit relative inclination (obliquity)

22 T. Mazeh, Leuven: Extrasolar planets22 Orbit of planet Spin-orbit relative inclination Stellar Spin-Planetary orbit relative inclination (obliquity)

23 T. Mazeh, Leuven: Extrasolar planets23 The Rossiter-McLaughlin effect Gaudi & Winn 2007:

24 T. Mazeh, Leuven: Extrasolar planets24

25 T. Mazeh, Leuven: Extrasolar planets25 Obliquity of extrasolar planets Winn, Fabrycky, Albrecht, Johnson, 2010:

26 T. Mazeh, Leuven: Extrasolar planets26 Winn et al. 2009 HAT-P-7

27 T. Mazeh, Leuven: Extrasolar planets27 Giant planets far away Circular orbits Orbits aligned with Solar spin

28 T. Mazeh, Leuven: Extrasolar planets28 Migration Migration ? Highly eccentric orbits & Spin-orbit MISalignment

29 T. Mazeh, Leuven: Extrasolar planets29 Migration ? Highly eccentric orbits & Spin-orbit MISalignment Planet-planet interaction e.g., Juric & Tremaine 2008 Stars around the center of our galaxy Oort cloud

30 T. Mazeh, Leuven: Extrasolar planets30 A French CNES mission with European partners & Brazil 27cm telescope with polar orbit Launched on 12 / 27 / 2006 The CoRoT mission

31 T. Mazeh, Leuven: Extrasolar planets31 First detected by alarm mode 153 transits, all ~ seen when superimposed Short period : P= 0.8536 days >> transit depth : F/F = 0.035%=350 ppm compatible with R pl = 1.8R CoRoT-7b: first super – earth transiting planet d=150pc

32 T. Mazeh, Leuven: Extrasolar planets32 CoRoT-7b Synchronization

33 T. Mazeh, Leuven: Extrasolar planets33 The Kepler mission A NASA mission 95 cm telescope with earth-trailing orbit Launched on 07 / 03 / 2009 ~170,000 stars monitored for (3.5) 7 yrs

34 34T. Mazeh, Leuven: Extrasolar planets

35 35 PeriodMass (days)(Earth mass) 10.34.3b 13.013.5c 22.76.1d 40.08.4e 46.72.3f 118.43g Kepler-11

36

37 T. Mazeh, Leuven: Extrasolar planets37 Observations of Kepler-34 Welsh et al., Nature 481, 475 (26 January 2012) P=27.7958103+/-0.000001 d

38 T. Mazeh, Leuven: Extrasolar planets38 Observations of Kepler-34. Welsh et al., Nature 481, 475 (26 January 2012)

39 T. Mazeh, Leuven: Extrasolar planets39 Observations of Kepler-34. Welsh et al., Nature 481, 475 (26 January 2012) P=27.7958103+/-0.000001 d

40 Circumbinary planet

41 T. Mazeh, Leuven: Extrasolar planets41 Kepler-47

42 T. Mazeh, Leuven: Extrasolar planets42 Kepler-47

43 T. Mazeh, Leuven: Extrasolar planets43 Kepler-47

44 T. Mazeh, Leuven: Extrasolar planets44 Kepler-47

45 T. Mazeh, Leuven: Extrasolar planets45 Giant planets far away Circular orbits Planetary orbits aligned with the Solar spin (Obliquity ~ 7 deg) In the solar system: One central star

46 T. Mazeh, Leuven: Extrasolar planets46 Grether & Lineweaver 2006 The Brown-Dwarf Desert

47 in CoRoT and Kepler Lightcurves Tsevi Mazeh & Simchon Faigler Tel Aviv University BEaming, Ellipsoidal & Reflection effects BEER algorithm to discover short-period binaries

48 T. Mazeh, Leuven: Extrasolar planets48

49 T. Mazeh, Leuven: Extrasolar planets49 Leob & Gaudi 2003

50 T. Mazeh, Leuven: Extrasolar planets50 Beaming effect in binaries

51 T. Mazeh, Leuven: Extrasolar planets51 Heating (and reflection) effect

52 T. Mazeh, Leuven: Extrasolar planets52 Ellipsoidal effect

53 T. Mazeh, Leuven: Extrasolar planets53

54 T. Mazeh, Leuven: Extrasolar planets54

55 T. Mazeh, Leuven: Extrasolar planets55

56 T. Mazeh, Leuven: Extrasolar planets56

57 T. Mazeh, Leuven: Extrasolar planets57 S. Faigler, T. Mazeh, S. Quinn, D. Latham, L. Tal-Or

58 T. Mazeh, Leuven: Extrasolar planets58

59 T. Mazeh, Leuven: Extrasolar planets59

60 T. Mazeh, Leuven: Extrasolar planets60 Grether & Lineweaver 2006 ~150,000 Kepler stars ~150,000 CoRoT stars the desert will become a pool of water, and the dry land springs of water. we will make the Brown dwarf desert a pool of BEER…….. Brown Dwarf Desert

61 T. Mazeh, Leuven: Extrasolar planets61


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