2Syntagmatic relation is the relationship that linguistic units ( e. g Syntagmatic relation is the relationship that linguistic units ( e.g. words , clauses ) have with other units because they may occur together in a sequence .So ,syntagmatic relations: are relations between words that go together in a syntactic structure. (Cruse , 2006: 163)Are sytagmatic relations important ? What for?Yes , because they lead to create sentences and utterances which are grammatically and semantically accepted. They affect putting meaning together.
3Putting words together There are three possible effects of putting words together in a well – formed construction ,ether the result is:normal as in ‘ John drink the juice .’ Or,There is a semantic clash as in ‘John drank filing cabinet ‘Pleonastic as in ‘ a female aunt’(Cruse ,2003:256)
4Selectional Restrictions Selectional restriction : According to the viewpoint of “ structural semantics” ,it can be defined as the requirement for a ‘ normal ‘ combination. (Cruse ,2006:164)
5Selectional Restriction Selection restrictions and projection rules were formalized by Katz and Fodor in 1936.Projection rules (semantic rules )have two purposes :They distinguish meaningful sentences from meaningless sentences.They assign to every meaningful sentences a formal specification of its meaning or meanings.
6The assumptionIn English and in other natural languages , there are some grammatically well- formed , but semantically ill- formed , sentences .selection Restrictions are the mechanism for handling semantic ill- formedness. These are associated with particular lexemes and are therefore listed in the lexicon .
7Tasks of selection –restrictions They tell us , in effect , which pairs of lexemes can combine with one another meaningfully in various grammatical constriction .( John Lyons , 216)For example , the adjective ‘buxom’ can modified nouns like ‘girl', 'women ‘ , ‘lass’ ,etc., but not boy ,man ,lad,etc.The verb ‘sleep’ can take as its subject nouns such as ‘boy’, ‘girl’ ,’cat’, etc. , but not ‘idea’ , ‘love’ ,etc.(lyons ,1977: )
8Tasks of selection –restrictions If the selection restriction violated , the projection rules will fail to operate. Consequently they will fail to assign to the semantically ill-formed sentences a formal specification of its meaning , thereby marking sentences as meaningless and indicating in what way the sentence is semantically ill –formed.2. Block certain interpretations as semantically anomalouse ,while allowing other interpretations of the same phrases and sentences as semantically acceptable.For example :House wife 1=a women who keeps house .House wife 2 = a pocket sewing kit .If you say ‘good house wife ‘ the meaning will be ambiguous ,but ,if you say ‘buxom house wife’ this means house wife 1 .
9Semantically Combination Identify a selector which imposes semantic conditions (selectional restrictions).Identify a selectee which satisfies or does not satisfy the conditions .In adjective –noun combination ,the adjective is the selectorA\an………….womanIntelligent , tall, kind, pregnant ,lefthanded, all normally combined with women.A pregnant …………It requires a head noun which (a)denotes a mammal ,and (b)it is not specifically marked as ‘’not female’’.(like ‘bull).So , in a modifier- head construction ,the modifier is the selector.In a head complement construction ,such as drink juice , the head is the selector, .i.e. the verb.
10Selectional Restrictions Selectional Restrictions limit the semantic properties of arguments?My toothbrush loves raisins.?pain is red . Can pain be red? NoThe restriction of the predicate red to things satisfied by the predicate concrete is a selectional restriction.(Smith and et al,2007:208)
11The boy ate the sandwich ?The sandwich ate the boy The kind of noun that can be the subject of the verb ate must denotes an entity the is capable of ‘eating ’. The noun sandwich does not have the this property and the noun boy does. (Yule,2006:101)
12Thematic Roles and Selectional Restrictions Selectional restrictions: semantic constraint that a word (lexeme) imposes on the concepts that go with itAgent: volitional causer -- John hit Bill.Experiencer: experiencer of event – Bill got a headache.Force: non-volitional causer – The concrete block struck Bill on the head.Theme/patient: most affected participant – John hit Bill.Instrument: instrument used -- John hit Bill with a batSource: origin of object of transfer event – Bill fled from New York to TimbuktuGoal: destination of object -- Bill led from New York to Timbuktu
13Sentence Relations and Truth Presupposition -definition -historical background - importanceapproachesTypesFailureEntailmentbeliefs
14Sentence Relations and Truth Synonymous:Sentence A is synonymous with B means that A has the same meaning as Bmy brother is a bachelormy brother has never married
152- EntailmentSentence A entails B means that if A then automatically BThe anarchist assassinated the emperorThe emperor is died
163-ContradictionSentence A contradicts B means that A is inconsistent with BMy brother Ahmed has just come from RomeMy brother Ahmed has never been to Rome
174-PresuppositionSentence B presupposes A means that A is part of the assumed background against which A is saidThe Mayor of Erbil is a womenThere is a Mayor of Erbil
185-TautologySentence A is a tautology means that A is automatically true by virtue of its own meaning, but informationally emptyIreland is Ireland
19In Semantics, to understand logic and truth, we should recognize: Truth value -----whether a sentence is being true or falseTruth Condition ----the facts that would have to obtain in reality to make a sentence true or false
20presupposition +<A presupposition is a proposition whose truth is taken for granted by the producer of an utterance and which must be known and taken account of for the utterance to make sense to an interpreter.(Cruse,2006:138)Relation between propositions by which a presupposes b, for a to have a true value , b must be true. (Mathews,2007:317)To presuppose something means to assume it (Saeed,2009:102)
21Watch a video advertisement, do you know what it is advertising?
23Historic background Frege 1892: Referring expressions (names, definite descriptions) carry the presupposition that they do in fact refer.For a sentence to have a truth value, its presupposition must hold.A presupposition of a sentence is also a presupposition of its negation.The term developed in philosophy by P.F.StrawsonThence into linguistics in the late 1960s
24Why does presupposition exist? Because it enables us to communicate succinctly(briefly ).It is much easier to say …John doesn’t write any more…than it is to say …..A person we both know and agree that his name is John, and who knows how to write, and who is able to write poetry, wrote poetry in some past time, and know he does not write poetry
25Presupposition Approach Semantic presupposition (truth relation )Sentences are viewed as external objectsMeaning is seen as an attribute of sentences rather than some thing constructed by the participants.Pragmatic presupposition (transactional view)Sentences are the utterances of individuals engaged in a communication act.Speaker =presupposition is part of the task of packing an utterances .Listener = presupposition is one of the number of inferences that the listener might make on the basis of what the speaker has just said .
26Semantic presupposing Azad brother has just got back from Soran.Azad has a brother .Truth tableP qT TF TT or F T (Saeed,2009:103)
27Pragmatic presupposition Presupposition is one aspect of speakers’ strategy of organizing information for maximum clarity for the listener.Azad has a brother XX has come back from Soran .Which one is foregrounded ?It depends on the e speaker ‘s intention.presuppositions are ubiquitous. (Cruse,2006:139)
28Presupposition failure Using a name or definite description to refer presupposes the existence of the named or the described entity.Russell’ example (1905)a-The king of France is bald.b-There is a king of France.If there is no referent ,no king of France ,what is the statues of a sentence?
29P q T T F T T or F T ?(T v F) F (truth -value gap)
30The king of France is bald is true if and only if Russeler ‘ solution was to analyse definite descriptions as complex expressions.The king of France is bald is true if and only ifa-at least one thing is the kingb- at most one thing is the kingc- whatever is the king is bald.
31There is is less of a problem with the transactional approach There is is less of a problem with the transactional approach . A speaker use of a definite NPs to refer is governed by conventions about the accessibility of the referent to the listener.
32Presupposition triggers Existential presupposition:Entities named by the speaker and assumed to be present- noun phrase.- possessive constructions.-noun phrase :"The Cold War has ended”
33That Tony exists and that he has a car. -possessive constructions :“Tony’s car is new”That Tony exists and that he has a car.
342-Factive presupposition: Identified by the presence of some verbs such as "know“, "realize“,“be glad”, “be sorry”, ‘’be odd’’ etc.She didn’t realize he was ill (+< He was ill)We regret telling him (+< We told him)I wasn’t aware that she was married.(+< She was married)It isn’t odd that he left early (+< He left early)I’m glad that it’s over (+< It’s over)( Griffiths,2006:147)
353- Lexical presupposition: In using one word, the speaker can act as if another meaning will be understood. For instance:Mary stopped running. (+<She used to run.)You are late again. (+< You were late before.)Are you still such a bad driver? (+< You were a bad driver)
364- Structural presupposition: It is the assumption associated with the use of certain structures.- wh-question constructions.When did she travel to the USA? ( +< she travelled)Where did you buy the book? (+< you bought the book)
375- Non- factive presupposition: it is an assumption referred to something that is not true.For example, verbs like "dream", "imagine“ and "pretend" are used with the presupposition that what follows is not true.I dreamed that I was rich. (+< I was not rich)We imagined that we were in London.(+< We were not in London)
386- Counterfactual presupposition: It is the assumption that what is presupposed is not only untrue, but is the opposite of what is true, or contrary to facts.If you were my daughter, I would not allow you to do this.( +< you are not my daughter)If I were rich I would buy a Ferrari.(+< I’m not rich)
39Presuppositions and context Presupposition behavior seems to be sensitive to context .different levels of context can cause fluctuations in the presuppositional behaviour.The context provided by :Background knowledge .Topic of the conversation .Surrounding syntactic structure.S0 we have problems with semantic presupposition which depends on the formal relations between sentences.
40Defensibility : presupposition can be cancelled or suspended. She died before she finish her thesis.She finish her thesis.The presupposition is blocked or cancelled by our general knowledge of the world .The projection problem : complex sentences affect whether presuppositions are interrupted as commitments of the speaker.John will regret doing linguistics .John is doing \will do linguistics.If john does linguistics , he ‘ll regret.
41Presupposition is not the same as entailment Presupposition is not the same as entailment .It fails with the negation of the entailing sentence .Is not the speaker ‘s and hearer’s beliefs.(Cruse ,2002:138)(Palmer,F.,1976:146)E.g., Aa- I saw my father today .b- I saw some one today .Ba- I didn’t see my father today .B- I saw someone today (entailment fails)
42Speakers have presuppositions while sentences have entailments. EXAMPLE:Susan’s sister bought two houses.This sentence presupposes that Susan exists and that she has a sister.This sentence has the entailments thatSusan’s sister bought something; a house, and other similar logical consequences, now she has 2 houses.The entailments are communicated without being said and are not dependent on the speaker’s intention.
431) Presuppositiona. The King of France is bald.b. There is a King of France.c. The King of France is not bald.2)Entailmenta. The President of Polvenia is a bachelor.b. The President of Polvenia is unmarried.c. The President of Polvenia is not a bachelor.
44The speaker will necessarily produce a very large number of background entailments, but the speaker will indicate how these entailments are to be ordered.How?by stressSo ,The hearer will understand which entailment isassumed to be more important for interpreting intended meaning.
45THE FOREGROUND ENTAILMENT BOB ate three sandwiches.Bob ATE three sandwiches.Bob ate THREE sandwiches.Bob ate three SANDWICHES.
46To test presupposition we have two ways: The negationBut It sometime fails as Palmer mentions in his example:John was \was not worried about his wife ‘s infidelity.(+< his wife was unfaithful)(+<she was unfaithful but that he was not worry)(+< he was not worried because was not unfaithful)
48SourcesAronoff ,M .&Rees-Miller , J The Handbook of Linguistics. Blackwell Publishing.Cruse,A.,2006.A Glossary of Semantics and Pragmatics. Edinburgh University Press.Griffiths , P.,2006. An Introduction to English Semantics and Pragmatics. Edinburgh University Press.Lyons ,J Semantics,V.1, Cambridge University PressSaeed,John I.,2009. Semantics . Wiley-Black Well.Smith,M.,and et al.2007.Semantics: a coursebook.Cambridge.Matthews,P.H.,2007.Concise Dictionary of Linguistics Oxford University press.Yule,G.,2006.The Study of Language .Cambridge.