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Common Ground Garden Supply and Education Center Graywater for Green Gardens Sherri Osaka, Landscape Architect Sustainable Landscape Designs Sustainable.

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Presentation on theme: "Common Ground Garden Supply and Education Center Graywater for Green Gardens Sherri Osaka, Landscape Architect Sustainable Landscape Designs Sustainable."— Presentation transcript:

1 Common Ground Garden Supply and Education Center Graywater for Green Gardens Sherri Osaka, Landscape Architect Sustainable Landscape Designs Sustainable Landscape Designs www.sustainable-landscape.com 19-April-2014

2 Water Situation in California

3 Periodic Droughts in California 1928-1934 1928-1934 1976-1977 1976-1977 1987-1992 1987-1992 2007-2009 2007-2009 2012-2014 2012-2014

4 Increases in Water Rates San Jose (San Jose Water Company) – 2 tiers San Jose (San Jose Water Company) – 2 tiers –0-13 CCF $2.52/ CCF –13+ CCF $2.77/ CCF –Two tiered rates 1-Jan-2010 Palo Alto – 2 tiers Palo Alto – 2 tiers –0-6 CCF$4.99/ CCF –6+ CCF $7.58/ CCF Los Altos Hills (Purissima Hills District) – 6 tiers Los Altos Hills (Purissima Hills District) – 6 tiers –0-10 CCF - $2.70/ CCF –Over 200 CCF - $9.95/ CCF

5 Reservoirs – at 33% Capacity Limit Almaden -- 34% Almaden -- 34% Anderson -- 60% Anderson -- 60% Calero -- 42% Calero -- 42% Chesbro 10% Chesbro 10% Coyote – 41% Coyote – 41% Guadalupe -- 0% Guadalupe -- 0% Lexington – 29% Lexington – 29% Stevens Creek – 15% Stevens Creek – 15% Uvas 13% Uvas 13% Vasona – 87% Vasona – 87% Rain falls, but Santa Clara County can't catch it all by Paul Rogers, SJ Mercury, 11-Feb-2010. New study shows massive earthquake could cause Anderson Dam to fail by Paul Rogers, SJ Mercury, 5-Jan-2009 Anderson Reservoir http://3dparks.wr.usgs.gov

6 World-Wide Water Use United Nations estimates that 13 gallons (50 litres) required/person/day United Nations estimates that 13 gallons (50 litres) required/person/day U.S. uses 145 gal./person/day U.S. uses 145 gal./person/day Average US household of 4 uses about 200,000 gallons per year Average US household of 4 uses about 200,000 gallons per year Queensland, Australia – limited users to 35-40 gal./person/day Queensland, Australia – limited users to 35-40 gal./person/day One gallon equals 3.8 litres

7 Energy Used for Water 15-20% of all energy used in California is water related (cleaning, moving, heating) The State Water Project Reservoir high in the Hollywood Hills

8 Sources of Water Conservation (!) Conservation (!) Municipal supply Municipal supply Graywater Graywater Rainwater harvesting Rainwater harvesting Reclaimed (recycled) water Reclaimed (recycled) water

9 Conserve first!

10 CCF = 100 cubic feet 1 CCF = 748 GALLONS OF WATER 1 CF = 7.48 GALLONS

11 Check for leaks Read your water meter One in every 10 homes has a leak that is wasting at least 90 gallons of water per day.

12 Water Use in Bay Area Home 11,000 square foot lot, pool, low water landscape About 120,000 gallons per year About 120,000 gallons per year 90,000 gallons inside house 90,000 gallons inside house 30,000 gallons outside house 30,000 gallons outside house ~ 30-50 percent for outdoor use

13 Water Use in Bay Area Home 11,000 square foot lot, pool, low water landscape About 103,000 gallons per year About 103,000 gallons per year 85,000 gallons inside house 85,000 gallons inside house 18,000 gallons outside house 18,000 gallons outside house < 20 percent for outdoor use

14 Water Requirements High water use High water use –Lawns, birches –16 gallons of water per square foot per season Moderate water Moderate water –Fruit trees, Alum root –8 gallons/sf/season Low water Low water –Sages, buckwheats –4 gallons/sf/season Very low Very low –Manzanitas, some oaks –No water once established Manzanita berries Little Apples

15 Hydrozoning

16 Hand water vs. Spray vs. Drip* Hand watering – 33% less water than average Hand watering – 33% less water than average Spray irrigation – 35% more water Spray irrigation – 35% more water Automatic watering – 47% more water Automatic watering – 47% more water Drip irrigation – 16% more water Drip irrigation – 16% more water Change your controller at least 4 times per year, monthly better Dec – OffMar – 50%June – 100%Sep – 50 % * American Water Works Association Research Foundations study

17 Efficient Irrigation

18 Add Organic Amendments to Soil Adding compost to 8-13% of soil by weight significantly increases moisture holding capacity Adding compost to 8-13% of soil by weight significantly increases moisture holding capacity Decreases the amount of irrigation Decreases the amount of irrigation Guidelines for Landscaping with Compost-Amended Soils City of Redmond, Washington

19 Lawn Rebates Santa Clara Valley Water District, $1/ square foot Santa Clara Valley Water District, $1/ square foot Lawn Be Gone, $0.75/ square foot Lawn Be Gone, $0.75/ square foot Alameda County Water District, $1/ square foot Alameda County Water District, $1/ square foot 19

20 What is graywater?

21 Average Indoor Residential Water Use for 12 North American Cities Adapted from Residential End Uses of Water, by permission. Copyright ©1999, American Water Works Association and Awwa Research Foundation (AwwaRF).

22 What is graywater? Water from sinks, showers, and laundry machine Water from sinks, showers, and laundry machine No water from kitchen sinks or dishwashers (no food particles) No water from kitchen sinks or dishwashers (no food particles) No water from toilets (black water) No water from toilets (black water) No water from laundry if used to clean diapers No water from laundry if used to clean diapers No water containing any harmful chemicals, including bleach No water containing any harmful chemicals, including bleach Water expert Larry Farwell estimates that extensive graywater recycling could save more than 16% of the state's residential water use. April 19, 2009 LA Times article

23 Where can you use graywater in the landscape? On fruit trees and fruiting vines On fruit trees and fruiting vines On above ground vegetables On above ground vegetables On ornamental perennials, shrubs, groundcovers, and lawns On ornamental perennials, shrubs, groundcovers, and lawns Not on root vegetables Not on root vegetables Not on seasonally planted annuals Not on seasonally planted annuals Not in the house (except in Texas) Not in the house (except in Texas)

24 Is Graywater Irrigation safe? 2012 Bay Area Study by Graywater Action* 2012 Bay Area Study by Graywater Action* New $450,000 study: "Long Term Effects of Landscape Irrigation Using Household Graywater** New $450,000 study: "Long Term Effects of Landscape Irrigation Using Household Graywater** 1992 $500,000 study*** of eight households in Los Angeles. Checked monthly showed no harmful organisms in soil 1992 $500,000 study*** of eight households in Los Angeles. Checked monthly showed no harmful organisms in soil * Graywateraction.org Virginia-based Water Environment Research Foundation & Colorado State University ** Virginia-based Water Environment Research Foundation & Colorado State University ***City of Los Angeles, Office of Water Reclamation (CLA,OWR). 1992. Gray water Pilot Project: Mid-Course Report. Los Angeles, CA

25 Graywater Irrigation Advantages Advantages –Reduces amount of water needed –Reduces maintenance for septic systems –Reduces load on municipal sewer and waste water treatment systems –Keeps landscapes alive during drought – mature landscapes valued at $20/ sq. ft. –Little infrastructure as opposed to recycled water

26 Graywater Irrigation Disadvantages Disadvantages –Not for plants that like acidity – unless pH is balanced –Need to be careful what you put down the drainno chlorine, no boron, no salts, no chemicals –Liquid detergents (enzymes) better than powders (salts)

27 History of Gray Water

28 History of Graywater in California 1992 first code included in Appendix F of California Plumbing Code (AB 3518) 1992 first code included in Appendix F of California Plumbing Code (AB 3518) –After drought 1997 second code included in Appendix G (AB 313) 1997 second code included in Appendix G (AB 313)

29 Appendix G: Old California Code Required permit - ~$500 depending on municipality Required permit - ~$500 depending on municipality Patterned after septic systems Patterned after septic systems Costly equipment required: tanks, filters, emitter Costly equipment required: tanks, filters, emitter California Plumbing Code (CPC) Appendix G adoption was OPTIONAL California Plumbing Code (CPC) Appendix G adoption was OPTIONAL

30 New California Code - Chapter 16A Enacted as emergency regulation in August 4, 2009 (during drought!) Enacted as emergency regulation in August 4, 2009 (during drought!) Included in body of California Plumbing code – Chapter 16A -- not optional Included in body of California Plumbing code – Chapter 16A -- not optional May be prohibited only after public hearing and enactment of Ordinance May be prohibited only after public hearing and enactment of Ordinance

31 New Code Specifies Three Types of Systems Non-permitted systems: Non-permitted systems: –Clothes Washer (Laundry to Landscape) Permitted Systems Permitted Systems –Simple Systems < 250 gallons –Complex Systems > 250 gallons

32 Clothes Washer System – Laundry to Landscape (L2L)

33 Clothes Washer System No permit required No permit required Works for slab foundations Works for slab foundations Washer near exterior wall best Washer near exterior wall best Drawing from: Create an Oasis with Greywater by Art Ludwig

34 Code Requirements for Clothes Washer System 1. Notify the enforcing agency, if required 2. Direct graywater either to an irrigation or disposal field, or to the sewer 3. Do NOT connect to potable water or pump or affect other systems (electrical, fire, etc.) 4. Contain the water onsite 5. Direct to an irrigation or disposal field 6. Do not allow water to pond (surface) or runoff 7. Discharge under 2 inches of mulch, rock, or other cover 8. Minimize contact with humans and pets 9. Send water from soiled diapers or other infectious garments to sewer 10. Graywater should not include hazardous chemicals 11. Even if you dont get a permit, you still have to follow these rules 12. Have a maintenance manual

35 More requirements Keep graywater more than three feet away from ground water Keep graywater more than three feet away from ground water 100 feet for lakes and streams 100 feet for lakes and streams 1.5 to 5 from property lines 1.5 to 5 from property lines 2-5 from structures 2-5 from structures See code for more setbacks See code for more setbacks

36 Washers Front loaders new 15-25 gallons per load Whirlpool top loader circa 1994 25 to 44 gallons per load

37 Typical Washer Connection to Sewer

38 This is what it looks like This is what it looks like Photo from Deva Luna, EarthCare Landscaping

39 Stacking washer - inside Air gap at highest point - outside Photos from Deva Luna, EarthCare Landscaping

40 Tighten all connections Photo Deva Luna, EarthCare Landscaping

41 Decide where the 3-way goes Photo Deva Luna, EarthCare Landscaping

42 Use 1 pipe to avoid overtaxing the washer pump Photo Deva Luna, EarthCare Landscaping

43 Cut a hole in the exterior wall Seal it with silicone later Because this is the highest point, put the air gap assembly here.

44 Run a PVC line out of the house This is from the 2 nd story

45 Connect the PVC to 1 black poly tubing Flexible polyethylene irrigation tubing is a better environmental choice.

46 Toxic Materials - PVC Produces hydrogen chloride gas during combustion Produces hydrogen chloride gas during combustion Toxic manufacture and disposal Toxic manufacture and disposal Soft PVC contains phthalates Soft PVC contains phthalates Toxic glues Toxic glues See Bill Moyer report on YouTube, Bluevinyl.org, and Greenpeace See Bill Moyer report on YouTube, Bluevinyl.org, and Greenpeace

47 Alternative to PVC Blu Lock by Hydro-Rain

48 Lets go into the garden…

49 Percolation Test Dig a hole and prefill it if the soil is dry Photos Deva Luna, EarthCare Landscaping

50 Fill your hole with water

51 Measure how fast it drains. This soil drained 2 ½ per hour.


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