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Total War A.The devotion of all resources to the war effort 1.Recruitment 2.Government control of the economy 3.Rationing 4.Propaganda 5.Women and the.

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Presentation on theme: "Total War A.The devotion of all resources to the war effort 1.Recruitment 2.Government control of the economy 3.Rationing 4.Propaganda 5.Women and the."— Presentation transcript:

1 Total War A.The devotion of all resources to the war effort 1.Recruitment 2.Government control of the economy 3.Rationing 4.Propaganda 5.Women and the War

2 Recruitment A.By 1915, the conflict had spread across boundaries between continents and peoples 1.Shown by the unlikely battle between Turks and Australians on the Turkish cliffs of Gallipoli. a.The Allied force eventually abandoned the assault with 46,000 dead.

3 View the Map Why was this a strategic location for the allies?

4 Recruitment A.Asia: 1.Japan attacked German outposts in China and captured Pacific island colonies B.Africa: 1.England and France attacked German colonies C.In Europe: 1.West African soldiers were shipped in from the colonies; troops and laborers came from India, South Africa, Senegal, Egypt, Algeria, and Indochina to move supplies and fight in the trenches

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6 Recruitment A.Still needed men to enlist 1.Government incentives a.Free education b.Independence c.Payments

7 Government control of the Economy A.Had to keep the men on the front fed, equipped, and ready to continue fighting until the war was won 1.German U-boat attacks prevented supplies from reaching Europe from the Americas and Africa a.Local food and materials were limited 2.Defense of the Realm Act (DORA) in England a.To ensure that shortages never occurred b.The powers introduced by DORA empowered the government to take over land when it felt that it was necessary to do so c.In 1917, the government took over 2.5 million acres of land for farming By the end of the war, Britain had an extra three million acres of farming land 3.All people put to work a.All but eliminated unemployment 4.Factories told what to produce a.Munitions

8 Rationing A.Panic buying in 1914 B.Britain continued to import food during the war 1.The main exporters to Britain were America and Canada a.This meant that merchant ships had to cross the Atlantic Ocean b.Up to 1916, these merchant ships could travel in relative safety 2.In 1917, the Germans introduced unrestricted submarine warfare and merchant ships were sunk with great frequency a.This had a drastic impact on Britain's food supply and with great losses in the Atlantic, food had to be rationed so that no-one starved in Britain C.In April 1916, Britain only had six weeks of wheat left and bread was a staple part of most diets Food prices rose and by October 1916, coal was in such short supply that it was rationed by the number of rooms a family had in its house. a.Other rationed items imported meats, sugar, tea, coffee, tobacco, chocolate and fruit textiles, soap and petrol

9 Rationing

10 Propaganda A.Propaganda was used and the truth suffered 1.ensured that the people only got to know what their governments wanted them to know 2.the lengths to which governments would go to in an effort to blacken the enemys name reached a new level. B.Government controlled the media 1.Newspapers were expected to print what the government wanted the reader to read a.Sample headlines: Allies: ~Belgium childs hands cut off by Germans ~Germans crucify Canadian officer Germans: ~French doctors infect German wells with plague germs ~German prisoners blinded by Allied captors

11 Propaganda B.Government controlled the media 1.In Britain the Defense of the Realm Act listed things that correspondents could write about but more important, could not write about a.the number of British troops and where they were in a particular part of the war front b.Plans for any future action c.movement of ships d.information about munitions 2.British newspapers published casualty figures that were acceptable to the government but less than accurate 3.British success in battles was emphasized as opposed to the minimal gains actually made

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13 Women and War Before the outbreak of World War One in 1914 a woman's role in the workplace was quite restricted The Great War changed the role of women in the workplace

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16 Women and War A.The only woman soldier enlisted in the British Army managed the feat by passing herself off as a man 1.Dorothy Lawrence, a 20-year-old ambitious journalist, joined in 1915 the B.E.F. Tunnelling Company using the alias Denis Smith, aided by some sympathetic men 2.She gave herself in after only 10 days worried about the safety of these men and had to endure an absurd interrogatory, as the authorities assumed she was a 'camp follower', that is to say, a prostitute, a term she misunderstood

17 Women and War B.While she was forced to keep her adventure silent, as the British Army very much feared the ridicule it would plunge them into, another Englishwoman, Flora Sandes published a book on her experiences as a soldier in the Serbian Army in 1916, with a view to raising funds for her brothers in arms. 1.Sandes was initially an ambulance driver on the Eastern Front but managed to enlist with the Serbs, who by 1916 had already promoted her to sergeant-major 2.She stayed on after the war with the Serbian army eventually becoming a major 3.Supposedly, Sandes was accepted by the Serbs as the personification of British war aid

18 Women and War C.The most famous female combatant of the Great War: the Russian Maria Bochkareva. A.A soldier in the Army since 1914, wounded and decorated several times, Bochkareva convinced the revolutionary leader Alexander Kerensky in 1917 that a battalion made exclusively of women would shame men grown diffident about the war into fighting B.She recruited 2,000 women out of which about 250 saw actual combat on the Austrian Front fighting together with units of male soldiers.

19 Women and War D.Mata-Hari 1.Gained a reputation for exotic Oriental dancing rarely seen in Europe 2.The then Margaret Zeller was considered to be beautiful and intelligent a.A fine linguist, she was also a very good conversationalist. 3.Mata-Hari moved to Paris where she earned a good income from her dancing. a.She was still in Paris when the war broke out in In July 1915, while fulfilling a dancing engagement in Spain, British Intelligence learned that she had been in contact with the German Secret Service 5.In early 1916, Mata-Hari was picked up by the police and taken to London for questioning 6.The police records state that she was fully co-operative and surprised by the questions being put her way - about meeting representatives of Germany's Secret Service.

20 Women and War D.Mata-Hari 1.Her defense was she did not know what the soldiers profession was - she had met them purely on a social basis. 2.In a book by Sir Basil Thomson published after the war, he claimed that Mata-Hari said the following to him: a. Very well, then I am going to make a confession to you. I am a spy, but not as you think, for the Germans, but for one of your Allies - the French. 3.Mata-Hari was released as the British had no evidence to keep her 4.Just one month later she was caught in French territory with compromising documents on her 5.In July 1916, Mata-Hari was put on trial in Paris 6.On July 25th, she was sentenced to death for spying against France 7.On October 15th, Mata-Hari was taken to Vincennes to be executed a.Mata-Hari was woken at 5am b.she dressed in a dark dress that was fur trimmed c.When she was taken to where the firing squad had assembled, she waved at them but waved away a priest d.Mata-Hari refused a blindfold and was once again in the process of talking to the firing squad when she was shot dead

21 Women and War E.Edith Cavell 1.head matron of the Berkendael Medical Institute 2.On 4 August the Germans invaded Belgium. 3.the hospital where Edith worked became a Red Cross hospital and wounded soldiers from both sides Belgians, Germans, French, British were cared for 4.There were posters all over Brussels warning that "Any male or female who hides an English or French soldier in his house shall be severely punished." 5.In Edith hospital, wounded Allied soldiers were tended and then helped to escape 6.Edith was warned by friends that she was suspected of hiding soldiers and helping them escape. 7.On 15 August 1915, as was almost inevitable, she was arrested by the German police and charged with assisting the enemy

22 Women and War E.Edith Cavell 1.Thirty-four others were accused of the same crime and were tried as a group. 2.The trial lasted only two days. 3.Each person was accused of aiding the enemy and was told they would be sentenced to death for treason. 4.The final judgment was postponed for three days and during that time desperate attempts were made to save her. 5.On the morning of 12 October Edith Cavell was taken to the Tir National, the Brussels firing range. 6.At 7 a.m. she lay dead in the morning sun.

23 German Miscalculation A.Germany resumed unrestricted submarine warfare in early Notified US of decision Jan 31 2.Sunk several US ships in Feb and Mar B.US declared war on April 6, At the same time Russia was withdrawing from the war, the US was entering C.Germany failed to end war before the US entered it

24 Breaking the Stalemate: American Entry A.In 1914, the American public was firmly opposed to intervening in the war B.Lusitania, 128 US citizens C.Woodrow Wilson was reelected President with the slogan, He Kept Us Out of War D.The Zimmerman telegram Between Feb 14 and Sept 18, 1915, the Germans practiced unrestricted submarine warfare. Any Allied ship in the seas around the British Isles would be sunk without warning.

25 Russia Leaves the War A.social and political unrest, growing war-weary B.The Bolsheviks seized power 1.ended Russias involvement in World War I by signing the treaty of Brest-Litorsk with Germany on March 3, 1918 C.In the midst of World War I, Britain, France, Japan, and the US all sent troops and supplies to aid theWhites in their struggle against the Reds but the Whites were defeated in Bolshevik poster showing the three White generals as vicious dogs under the control of the US, France, and Britain.

26 Overwhelming the Germans A.On July 18, 1918 the Allies began a series of counterattacks designed to take advantage of their new strength and seize the initiative from the Germans B.Nine American divisions participated as part of three French armies (rather than as an independent force) C.The Germans were forced out of their Marne River salient

27 Overwhelming the Germans A.The initiative had now shifted to the Allies B.Ludendorff called August 8, the first day of the next Battle of Amiens, a black day for the German army because it marked a turning point in the conduct of Allied operations and inaugurated the relatively open form of warfare that would characterize the last months of the war C.The Allies were now getting stronger while Germany could only get weaker D.The Kaiser called a conference of his military leaders on August 14 and announced, We have reached the limits of our endurance

28 Overwhelming the Germans A.The rapidly deteriorating German situation surprised the Allies, but they determined to press their gains with two simultaneous attacks that would advance and turn inward like giant pincers

29 St. Mihiel A.The American contribution was the attack of Pershings First Army against the St. Mihiel salient on September 12 B.The fighting included the greatest concentration of aircraft during the war 1.Colonel Billy Mitchell commanded 1,481 Allied planes against only 283 German planes C.First Army met little resistance as the Germans had already begun withdrawing and the salient was captured in two days

30 Meuse-Argonne A.After St. Mihiel, the French and Americans conducted the Meuse-Argonne offensive B.American inexperience showed throughout the offensive and casualties were high, but ultimately the Americans were able to cross the Meuse River before the Germans could reestablish their defense there Meuse River St. Mihiel

31 Breaking the Hindenburg Line A.At the same time, other Allied offensives breached the Hindenburg Line in October and forced the Germans to withdraw B.German morale was at the point of breaking and on September 29, Hindenburg and Ludendorff told the Kaiser that Germany had to request an armistice

32 Surrender A.In the end, the Allies had overwhelmed the Germans with men and equipment 1.Americans and tanks B.Bulgaria surrendered Sept 30, 1918 C.The Ottomans Oct 30 D.Austria-Hungary Nov 4 E.Germany Nov 11 1.Armistice Day was replaced byVeterans Day by Act of Congress on May 24, 1954

33 Paris Peace Conference A.The victorious powers met in Paris in 1919 to determine the postwar settlement B.Representatives from the Central Powers were not invited to attend C.The Russians were not invited to attend D.The French, British, and Americans dominated the conference Georges Clemenceau (France), Lloyd George (Britain), and Woodrow Wilson (US) at Versailles

34 Death and Destruction of War

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38 This cartoon by a British artist appeared in Punch on 19 February The caption read: German Criminal to Allied Police: Here, I say, stop! You're hurting me! ( Aside: If I only whine enough I may be able to wriggle out of this yet.)

39 What is the message of this cartoon?

40 This cartoon by a British artist appeared in Punch on 19 February The caption read: German Criminal to Allied Police: Here, I say, stop! You're hurting me! ( Aside: If I only whine enough I may be able to wriggle out of this yet.) To do this question, you need first to borrow two concepts from English: Denotation (what you see) Connotation (how it affects its audience)

41 This cartoon by a British artist appeared in Punch on 19 February The caption read: German Criminal to Allied Police: Here, I say, stop! You're hurting me! ( Aside: If I only whine enough I may be able to wriggle out of this yet.) The Allied police (France and Britain) are arresting the German criminal. Police are GOOD people who protect us, even if they sometimes have to use force. Denotation Connotation Meaning The Allies are morally IN THE RIGHT in their relations with Germany.

42 This cartoon by a British artist appeared in Punch on 19 February The caption read: German Criminal to Allied Police: Here, I say, stop! You're hurting me! ( Aside: If I only whine enough I may be able to wriggle out of this yet.) The German criminal looks a violent, nasty character; he has done something very bad. Criminals are BAD people who do bad things for which they need punishing. Denotation Connotation Meaning Germany was to blame for all the loss and damage of the War – and should be punished.

43 This cartoon by a British artist appeared in Punch on 19 February The caption read: German Criminal to Allied Police: Here, I say, stop! You're hurting me! ( Aside: If I only whine enough I may be able to wriggle out of this yet.) The German criminal is being tied up with ropes labelled Armistice terms. Criminals need restraining and punishing, or they will carry on with their crimes. Denotation Connotation Meaning The Allies are RIGHT to get tough with the Germans, who are dangerous and evil.

44 This cartoon by a British artist appeared in Punch on 19 February The caption read: German Criminal to Allied Police: Here, I say, stop! You're hurting me! ( Aside: If I only whine enough I may be able to wriggle out of this yet.) The German criminal is complaining – but only to wriggle out of his punishment. His words are as evil as his deeds – they are not true. Denotation Connotation Meaning The Allies can ignore Germany s complaints about the Armistice.

45 Finally, always remember to look at: Origin (who drew it) Date (when it was published) This cartoon by a British artist appeared in Punch on 19 February The caption read: German Criminal to Allied Police: Here, I say, stop! You're hurting me! ( Aside: If I only whine enough I may be able to wriggle out of this yet.)

46 This cartoon by a British artist appeared in Punch on 19 February The caption read: German Criminal to Allied Police: Here, I say, stop! You're hurting me! ( Aside: If I only whine enough I may be able to wriggle out of this yet.) An artist in the magazine Punch. A British comic/political magazine. Origin Details Significance This cartoon shows the British attitude towards the Germans.

47 This cartoon by a British artist appeared in Punch on 19 February The caption read: German Criminal to Allied Police: Here, I say, stop! You're hurting me! ( Aside: If I only whine enough I may be able to wriggle out of this yet.) 3 June After the Conference had started. Date Details Significance This was part of the British public s pressure on Lloyd George to make Germany pay.

48 Treaty of Versailles (1919) A.Woodrow Wilson proposed a generous Fourteen Points designed to focus on international cooperation and peace, but the French especially wanted harsh terms imposed on the Germans 1.Wanted to destroy or permanently weaken Germany as a threat

49 Treaty of Versailles (1919) A.The resulting Treaty of Versailles denied the Germans a navy and air force and limited the size of their army to 100,000 troops 1.Prevented Germany and Austria from entering any sort of political union 2.Required the payment of war reparations B.German protest against the Treaty of Versailles will lead to Hitlers rise to power and World War II

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51 This cartoon appeared in the German magazine Simplissimus on 3 June 1919.

52 What is the message of this cartoon?

53 To do this question, you need first to borrow two concepts from English: Denotation (what you see) Connotation (how it affects its audience) This cartoon appeared in the German magazine Simplissimus on 3 June 1919.

54 A prisoner (representing Germany) faces the guillotine. Used to kill a criminal. Denotation Connotation Meaning The guillotine represents the Treaty of Versailles which will destroy – kill – Germany. This cartoon appeared in the German magazine Simplissimus on 3 June 1919.

55 Characters representing the Big Three. They are conducting the execution. Denotation Connotation Meaning The Big Three are to blame – they are the ones who are destroying – killing – Germany. This cartoon appeared in the German magazine Simplissimus on 3 June 1919.

56 A character representing President Wilson holds out his hands. He seems reasonable/ explaining, but he is still part of the execution squad. Denotation Connotation Meaning Wilson promised his 14 Points, but he has betrayed Germany – he is still part of the plot to destroy Germany. This cartoon appeared in the German magazine Simplissimus on 3 June 1919.

57 A character representing Clemenceau holds the rope which kills the prisoner. Clemenceau was the actualexecutioner. Denotation Connotation Meaning Clemenceau was the source of the hatred of Germany – now he is getting his wish to destroy Germany. This cartoon appeared in the German magazine Simplissimus on 3 June 1919.

58 A stern figure representing Lloyd George holds a rolled paper – the execution warrant. The rolled paper is the Treaty itself. Denotation Connotation Meaning The treaty is not an attempt at a settlement – it is simply a way (the apparently-legal excuse) to destroy Germany. Lloyd George is also responsible. This cartoon appeared in the German magazine Simplissimus on 3 June 1919.

59 The prisoner is bound. This may represent the terms of the Armistice, by which Germany disbanded the army and navy. Denotation Connotation Meaning Germany is powerless to resist – Germany is at the mercy of its enemies. This cartoon appeared in the German magazine Simplissimus on 3 June 1919.

60 The prisoner is semi-naked. This represents weakness, helplessness and humiliation. Denotation Connotation Meaning The Big Three have humiliated the German government and got their way to destroy Germany. It is all terribly unfair. This cartoon appeared in the German magazine Simplissimus on 3 June 1919.

61 Finally, always remember to look at: Origin (who drew it) Date (when it was published) This cartoon appeared in the German magazine Simplissimus on 3 June 1919.

62 An artist in the magazine Simplissimus. A German satirical/political magazine. Origin Details Significance This cartoon shows the bitter, Germans view of the Treaty.

63 This cartoon appeared in the German magazine Simplissimus on 3 June June After the Treaty was presented to the Germans, but before they agreed to sign it. Date Details Significance This was part of the German outcry BEFORE they signed the Treaty – it is part of the German publics attempt to persuade the government NOT to sign.

64 This cartoon by the Australian artist Will Dyson appeared in the Daily Herald on 17 May 1919.

65 What is the message of this cartoon?

66 To do this question, you need first to borrow two concepts from English: Denotation (what you see) Connotation (how it affects its audience) This cartoon by the Australian artist Will Dyson appeared in the Daily Herald on 17 May 1919.

67 Four figures are leaving the building. They represent the Big Four : Lloyd George, Orlando, Clemenceau (the Tiger) and Wilson. Denotation Connotation Meaning The Big Four have made the Treaty and believe that they have finished their work. This cartoon by the Australian artist Will Dyson appeared in the Daily Herald on 17 May 1919.

68 Clemenceau ( the Tiger ) hears a baby weeping; it is labelled 1940 class (= liable for call-up in 1940). The child is weeping because he is going to be cannon-fodder in Denotation Connotation Meaning The Treaty will not bring a lasting peace – there will be another world war in 20 years time. This cartoon by the Australian artist Will Dyson appeared in the Daily Herald on 17 May 1919.

69 The child is naked. Nakedness carries connotations of innocence and helplessness. Denotation Connotation Meaning The war will not be the child s fault, but the fault of the Big Four and the treaty they have made. This cartoon by the Australian artist Will Dyson appeared in the Daily Herald on 17 May 1919.

70 The child has thrown the Peace Treaty on the floor. Throwing something down is an act of anger and despair. Denotation Connotation Meaning The Treaty is useless because it will not do what a treaty is supposed to do – stop another war happening. This cartoon by the Australian artist Will Dyson appeared in the Daily Herald on 17 May 1919.

71 Finally, always remember to look at: Origin (who drew it) Date (when it was published) This cartoon by the Australian artist Will Dyson appeared in the Daily Herald on 17 May 1919.

72 An artist in the Daily Herald. A British popular newspaper selling to the working classes. Origin Details Significance This cartoon suggests that even ordinary British people felt the Treaty was a failure.

73 This cartoon by the Australian artist Will Dyson appeared in the Daily Herald on 17 May May Soon after the Treaty was presented to the Germans, but before they agreed to sign it. Date Details Significance This was BEFORE the Germans signed the Treaty – it is a sign that British people were already starting to doubt that the treaty was fair.


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