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By word and deed, God makes himself known to us. Divine Revelation is the story of Gods saving acts in human history. Salvation history is the story of.

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Presentation on theme: "By word and deed, God makes himself known to us. Divine Revelation is the story of Gods saving acts in human history. Salvation history is the story of."— Presentation transcript:

1 By word and deed, God makes himself known to us. Divine Revelation is the story of Gods saving acts in human history. Salvation history is the story of Gods saving love for his people. From the time of our creation, God has shown us his goodness and love for us. Ultimate Revelation is Jesus


3 Abraham Name was Abram Semitic nomad from near east Wife-Sarai God asks Abram to leave home and move Promises to make a great nation of him Abram moves with Lot (nephew) to Canaan Abram and Sarai had no children – Children were seen as a blessing God reassured they would but Sarai is old Hagar (servant of Sarai) bears a child with Abram Ismael God speaks to Abram and Sarai-COVENANT – Changes names to Abraham and Sarah – Promises Abraham he will be the Father of Nations – Promises Sarah a son

4 Isaac Wife is Rebekah Have 2 sons: Esau and Jacob Jacob steals the blessing of Isaac thus becoming the next patriarch

5 Jacob Marries Leah and Rachel Has 12 sons God speaks in dreams – Renew the covenant – Changes his name to Israel Israelites

6 Jacobs sons Favorite son is Joseph Joseph can interpret dreams His brothers are jealous Sell him as a slave He rises in power to become the 2 nd in command to Pharaoh Brothers go to Egypt for food Joseph tests and forgives them Jacob moves to Egypt Israelites are now in Egypt where Pharaoh eventually enslaves them

7 Patriarchs continued Old testament patriarchs Apostles and Church Fathers Mistakes can be transformed Embodiment of beauty and darkness of humanity

8 EXODUS The Story of Moses

9 Exodus Epic journey Recalls the enslavement of Israelites Answers the ultimate question: Who is God? 4 Themes – Liberation – Law – Covenant – Presence

10 Exodus beginnings Pharaoh sees the number of Israelites increasing as a threat Orders enslavementharsh and inhumane Orders death of male Israelite babies Moses- Drawn from the water Raised by Pharaohs daughter as Egyptian prince But Moses is Israelite by birth

11 Moses –Early Adult Moses sees an Egyptian strike a slave Moses strikes and kills the slave and hides the body Flees for Midian Marries Zipporah (daughter of Revel)

12 Call of Moses God calls from a burning bush he has heard the cries of Israelites--Theophany Identifies self as I am who am Moses resists 5 times Aaron assists Moses Moses and Aaron go to pharaoh Let my people go Pharaoh is angry and orders harsher treatment

13 Plagues Moses confronts Pharaoh again Turns his staff to a snake Pharaoh will not give in Plague begin – 10 – 1 st water to blood – Last death of first born

14 Plagues Show the power of god Each plague was connected with Egyptian gods Yahweh is only god Water to blood-Boils Frogs-Hail Gnats-Locust Flies-Darkness Pestilence-Death

15 Passover 1 year old lamb (passover/Pascal lamb) Blood on doorposts and lintel Roasted lamb + unleavened bread + bitter herbs Angel of death passed over Israelites Commanded to celebrate Passover every year as a reminder Jesus was celebrating Passover at Last Supper Israel is saved from death Jesus sacrifices and saves us from eternal death Old Pascal lamb New Pascal lamb We celebrate each week with Eucharist

16 10 th Plague Each house of Israel is marked Pharaoh is grief-stricken Relents and lets Israelites go Changes his mind and pursues Israelites after he lets them go Moses stretches out his hand at the Red Sea for Israelites to cross-water flows back on the Egyptians Story about God keeping promises even if all appears hopeless

17 Into the Desert Took with them only what they could carry Took the bones of Josephto bury in the promised land Led by – Pillar of cloud by day – Pillar of fire by night

18 In the Desert Land of uncertainty Food and water were scarce Natives were unwelcomed Israel forgot Gods liberation and promises Question God and complain Moses calls out God sends manna and water Israel still questions

19 10 commandments Mount Sinai--Decalogue Pivotal scene in Exodus epic Moses goes up the mountain God declares he is their Godone of fidelity, justice and love God reminds Moses of the covenant of Abraham God promises Israel will be Gods special possessiona kingdom of priests, a holy nation Israel must live according to the law Inherit the promised land

20 10 commandments After 3 days Moses is given the 10 commandments 10 norms to summarize the Law of the Torah Commandments – Tell us how to live – Give a framework for a just society – Teach how to live with God – Heart of commandments is reverence (God, self and neighbor) Moses delivers 10 commandments/ Jesus gives a new law with Sermon on the Mount

21 Books of Wisdom – Proverbs – Job – Ecclesiastes (Qoheleth) – Sirach (Ecclesiasticus) – Wisdom of Solomon – Psalms – Song of Songs – Tobit – Baruch – (9 books total)

22 Writing flourished Contains maxims of good vs. evil/ virtues Sages (wise teachers)-adapted, goal was to inspire moral integrity Promote obedience to the divinely established moral order =Happiness God is the source of all wisdom Speaks of wholeness, integrity and sin as disintegration Writing styles-different types of poetry Most are attributed to Solomon (-psalms)

23 Some were in Solomons monarchyscribes in royal court collected and wrote down Most written after the B. exile Intended to instruct the young Taught a virtuous life= success and prosperity / no hint of after life Practical wisdomwise sayings

24 The Story of Job WHY DO GOOD MEN SUFFER? Mentality of the Babylonian exile (reward if good) is being questioned Dilemma is known as problem of evil Reasoned wasnt always true: (good people get sick and are in poverty, and evil people have lots) No belief in after life: (Rewards and punishments were in this life) Poetic virtuous man Loses everythingasks Why? His friends insist Jobs sin was the reasons for his misfortune, that he must pray and repent and all would be well again. Job defends his lifeHe feels the absence of God

25 The Story of Job God is silent through Jobs questions (37 chapters) Satan (adversary) not devil, a heavenly prosecutor whose job is to test the genuineness of human virtue Discourse-- God reminds Job that God is creator and sustains existence. Transformation takes place Job is humbled and awed admits the mystery of life is too big to understand Gods wisdom is far beyond him. Book of Job did not answer why people suffer Establishes that it is not a punishment, it leaves us with a sense of humility: some things we just cannot grasp. We cannot rationalize evil in the world, instead we must trust God is in charge and loves and cares for us. The ultimate message of this book is that even in the darkest moments, God is in charge, loving and caring for us through it all

26 Ecclesiastes (or Qoheleth) Is Life lived in vain? Is there meaning to life? Written by a sage on the time of Greek rule of Jews Questioned no concept of after-life Appears pessimisticWhy? Could have written this way to challenge students nothing makes a differencewe are bornwe die and are forgotten // then Eccl 3 is written there is a time… Conclusion: All things are rewarded for the righteous and punishment for the wicked will be accomplished but in Gods time and we cannot understand it. Trust in God/Enjoy what God gives in life/ Everything has a proper time

27 Wisdom (Wisdom of Solomon) What is our Final Destiny? Author-scholarly Jew in Alexandria, 100BCE - (most recent writings of OT) Written to preserve Jewish faith and heritage Struggled with problem of evil Refused to accept reward for good and punishment for evil in this life (re: he lived in a time where virtuous Jews were tortured and put to death for refusing to give up their faith) Believed the answer was not in this life-death wasnt end Our destiny = life forever with God Greek culture influenced this: Greeks believed in a soul Jews believed the person was whole (inseparable) Beginning of possibility of life beyond death Message: keep faith

28 Psalms B.C.E Attributed to David most likely not David Used in worship Sung Liturgy of the hours Poetry-format Concrete language 150 Very honest and trusting Told of Israels relationship with God About their sorrows and joys Types – Lamentneed help or disconnect with God – Thanksgivingabout Gods amazing actions – PraiseGod is creator

29 Prophets What Is a Prophet? Have a special connection with God and understand his desire; crafted and proclaimed their exhortations to their community Not necessarily someone who could tell the future Image in public dmain

30 Prophets and Gods Covenant At the heart of the message of the biblical prophets is a return to following Gods Covenant. – It was not necessarily a return to the exact same practices of the people as in prior days when they were faithful to the Covenant. – The message included a continued honoring of the principles of the Covenant, which were laws that fostered communal identity and practices that brought about Gods desire for peace; justice; human dignity; respect for creation; love of God, neighbor, and self; liberation from sin and bondage; and much more. – This was to be done in new ways based on the ways the community had grown and matured over time. Image in public domain

31 God creates or enters into a Covenant and it is good. Humanity falls into idolatry, resulting in disease, war, and grief. God sends teachers, kings, prophets, or others who lead the people to repentance. The people return to following the Covenant. Peace and Gods healing return to the people.

32 What Do Prophets Have in Common?

33 Prophetic Literature Each book is story and speeches of prophet for which it is named Major/minor = is determined by length of boo Uses anthologies of sayings/ sermons/ poetry/ and images (of good taste then, might not be now) Prophesy must be taken historically to understand its messages Written before, during and after the Exile We are called to be prophets to one another – challenge and encouragement

34 Isaiah –has a messianic message – predicts the coming of another king to replace this current evil one (Messiah) – A young woman (virgin) will bear a son named Immanuel (God with us) – Called wonderful-counselor, God-Hero, Father-forever and Prince of Peace – He will be the greatest of all kings from the stump of Jesse – He will lead the people to a time of peace symbolized by contented friendship of natural enemies, like wolf and lamb, calf and lion – People are invited to prepare their hearts, where creation can bow to Immanuel The Book of Isaiah

35 Message of Ezekiel – The Nature of God God is glorious and awesome God is Holy God is powerful in every place, not just Jerusalem God is powerful over all nations God is just God guides and directs his people God acts in order that people might know him God cares for his people like a good shepherd God gives new life The Persian Period

36 Israels Restoration The Persian Period

37 The Exile – Endings – The first Temple The Davidic monarch Idolatry – Beginnings – Oral tradition is written down Rabbis (teachers) /Scribes (interpreters) Aramaic –language Second Temple built New zeal from the people greater emphasis on correct forms of worship preservation of Jewish culture surfaced The Persian Period

38 The Babylonians – conquered by the Persians Cyrus the Great – proclamation in Babylon telling all the previously conquered peoples by the Babylonians (including the Jews) to go home to their native lands in 538 B.C. Only 40,000 Jews returned to Jerusalem The Persian Period

39 Babylon – capital city – many amenities – Jews became quite wealthy, especially in banking – did not want to leave Egypt and Persia – doing well for themselves – most of them did not return to Jerusalem Jewish populace – not tied to a geographic place by their faith Synagogues (meeting houses) developed --a place for the Diaspora (dispersed Jews) to gather for worship, prayer, and study of the scriptures Worship became codified (rules) The Persian Period

40 Three major events occurred during this time of restoration – The Temple was rebuilt – The walls around Jerusalem were rebuilt – The Mosaic covenant was renewed with such fervor The Persian Period

41 Nehemiah and Ezra Renewal of Judah – Nehemiah a governor – Ezra a priest They gave a sense of boundaries of Judaism and therefore of the peoples own identity, who they were as Jews In Jerusalem, under the reign of the tolerant Persian empire

42 He loans money and grain to the poor without charge He has the Temple rebuilt, not in its huge luxury during the time of Solomon, but respectable for the people He calls the priests and Levites to serve after its consecration He orders – keep the Sabbath – do no shopping or trade – city gates closed on the Sabbath He wanted the Jews to have a clear identity undivided hearts

43 The Greeks and Maccabean Period The identity of Judaism established with Ezra and Nehemiahs reforms Persians supported Greek ruler Alexander the Great conquered the Persian Empire in 330 B.C. Greek Empire dominated Judea periods of persecution tested the faith of the Jews

44 Greek domination problems – harsh and powerful – torture and death for Jews if practiced their religion – allure of Greek lifestyle and way of thinking (belief that human reason is more important than religious faith, the emphasis on the individual over the community, and an appealing culture of philosophy, drama, literature, science, architecture, and athletic games) Apostate-one who renounces their faith Greek language young people did not learn Hebrew anymore some of the later books of the Bible were originally written in Greek because so many Jews did not understand Hebrew

45 In the Maccabean mind, violent resistance was the only way left to keep their Jewish faith alive under such an oppressive empire By 164 B.C. the Jews take back control of the Jerusalem Temple and push the Greeks out of Judea so that the Hasmoneans can rule as kings for a short while until 63 B.C. when General Pompey of the Roman Empire conquers Judea The Jewish Feast of Hanukkah celebrates the rededication of the Temple after the Greeks had defiled it

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