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Creation of the United States Unit #3 +

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1 Creation of the United States Unit #3 +
SSUSH3: The student will explain the primary causes of the American Revolution. SSUSH4: The student will identify the ideological, military, and diplomatic aspects of the American Revolution. SSUSH5: The student will explain specific events and key ideas that brought about the adoption and implementation of the United States Constitution.

2 European Settlement of North America
SSUSH3: Explain the primary causes of the American Revolution. A. Explain how the end of Anglo-French imperial competition as seen in the French and Indian War and the 1763 Treaty of Paris laid the groundwork for the American Revolution.

3 The Road to Revolution The French and Indian War
British colonist moving west found themselves fighting French settlers and Native Americans 1754, French and Indian War broke out Britain at war with France and its Native American allies (some Native Americans helped the British) After nine years France, Great Britain, Spain signed the Treaty of Paris in 1763 France gave up Canada and all land east of the Mississippi River Spain ceded Florida to British Great Britain emerged as the one, true colonial power in eastern North America

4 The Road to Revolution Tensions Rise Between Great Britain and the Colonies Colonists lost respect for Britain’s military after the French & Indian War Great Britain was in deep debt and wanted colonies to help pay for the expense Offended colonists with the Proclamation of 1763 Forbade colonists from settling west of the Appalachian Mountains Intended to manage the territories and ensure peace with Native Americans

5 The Road to Revolution Acts by Parliament and Colonial Reaction
Stamp Act – British gov’t taxed nearly all printed material Colonists responded by forming the Stamp Act Congress James Otis proclaimed “No taxation without representation!” Colonies had no representation in British Parliament Boycotted British goods Sons of Liberty and Daughters of Liberty were groups formed to support and enforce the boycotts Sons of Liberty used violence to intimidate merchant and royal officials who used the stamps Daughters of Liberty use their skills to make homemade products Georgia did not obey the boycott – South Carolina threatened to invade Savannah

6 The Road to Revolution Acts by Parliament and Colonial Reaction
England eventually repealed the law Parliament then passed the Declaratory Act The authority to impose laws on the colonies Committees of correspondence were organized by colonists to make sure colonists remained discontented with British rule December 1773, radical colonists dressed as Mohawk Indians threw crates of tea into the Boston Harbor (The Boston Tea Party) Parliament responded by passing the Coercive Acts which the colonists called the Intolerable Acts Closed Boston Harbor and placed a military governor over Mass.

7 The Road to Revolution A Revolution Begins
Representatives from every colony except Georgia gathered for the First Continental Congress in September 1774 Colonists wrote the king that they had a right to be represented in their gov’t April 1775, fighting broke out at Lexington and Concord between British troops and colonial militia Second Continental Congress met to discuss the start of the American Revolution Thomas Paine published Common Sense Made the case for independence Led to the colonists declaring their independence

8 Review: The Road to Revolution
1. What was significant about the French and Indian War? A. It was the first major war between French settlers and Native Americans. B. It settled the issue of which European nation would dominate eastern North America. C. It left the colonies deeply in debt and begging Great Britain to pass new taxes. D. It was the first war the British ever lost, thereby giving the colonists hope that they could also defeat the king’s army.

9 Review: The Road to Revolution
2. A colonist wanting to settle new land taken from the French after 1763 would have been most upset about which of the following? A. the Proclamation of 1763 B. the Stamp Act C. the Boston Tea Party D. the Intolerable Acts 3. Who were the Sons of Liberty and the Daughters of Liberty? 4. What was Common Sense and what effect did it have in the colonies?

10 Birth of a Nation SSUSH4: The student will identify the ideological, military, and diplomatic aspects of the American Revolution.

11 Ideology of the American Revolution
I. Enlightenment Movement that started in Europe during the late 1600’s that featured philosophers with revolutionary ideas about political thought. 1st Philosopher John Locke (England)- believed that people were born with certain natural rights that no government could morally take away. *LIFE, LIBERTY, and PROPERTY He also believed in the social contract theory: Citizens are born with freedoms and rights. However, citizens give up certain rights and freedoms for public good. Citizens have the right to replace any government that fails to serve for the good of its citizens.

12 Ideology of the American Revolution
I. Enlightenment Movement that started in Europe during the late 1600’s that featured philosophers with revolutionary ideas about political thought. 2nd Philosopher Montesquieu (France): believed in separation of power with three “branches” of government each with some degree of power. -Checks and Balances: Each branch has the power to check and balance the power of the other 2 branches.

13 Ideology of the American Revolution
II. The Declaration of Independence Drafted by the Second Continental Congress and adopted by Congress July 4th 1776. Thomas Jefferson; writer includes key concepts: Egalitarianism- All men are created equal Inalienable Rights- Rights men are born with and that no government can take away (Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of happiness) The government derives its power from the people. When the government fails to serve the people, the people have the right to replace it. SOUND FAMILIAR????

14 Ideology of the American Revolution
Review Questions 1.) The Enlightenment can best be described as what? A. The document declaring US independence B. A historical period featuring new thoughts on government and politics C. The movement it became clear that the colonies should declare independence D. The idea of British philosophers 2.) The document formally adopted on July 4, 1776 that made the colonies’ break with Great Britain official is known as what? A. The Enlightenment B. Inalienable Rights C. The Declaration of Independence The Social Contract Theory 3.) What are “natural rights” and the “Social contract theory” according to John Locke? 4.) What role did Thomas Jefferson play in the Declaration of Independence and in what ways did the Enlightenment influence him?

15 The War for Independence
No Option but Victory!.....WHY??? Motivation of fighting for their homeland and the right to govern themselves! Many colonist fought side by side with the British during the French and Indian War and were familiar with their military tactics. Colonial leaders knew that if they did not win they would be hung for treason.

16 The War for Independence
The First Years of the War -The Revolutionary War had begun long before the signing of the Declaration of Independence with the battle Lexington and Concord. -Battle of Bunker Hill: Very bloody battle where the British won, but suffered many more casualties than the Americans.

17 The War for Independence
II. George Washington Virginian wealthy landowner; delegate to the Continental Congress Appointed by the Continental Congress to command the American Army. Had military experience in the French and Indian War. Obtain victory despite challenges facing the American Army including: Fighting one of the most powerful militaries in history Undisciplined inexperienced military Short on volunteers, supplies, and money to pay soldiers The War for Independence

18 The War for Independence
II. George Washington -Crossing of the Delaware River *Washington had been forced to retreat by the British (now in New York) in March 1776. *Christmas Night 1776 Washington led a surprise attack in New Jersey (Trenton) against the Hessians (Germans hired to fight with the British) Followed by another attack in Princeton. Both victories for the Americans! *Washington’s victories in New Jersey greatly lifted American morale and gave people hope that the revolution could be successful!

19 The War for Independence

20 The War for Independence
III. The Northern War 1777 The Americans won another battle, The Battle of Saratoga!....Which convinced the French to forge an alliance that was crucial to American Victory. Valley Forge (Pennsylvania): Harsh winter where many Continental soldiers died or were too sick to fight because of lack of supplies and warm clothing. The Continental Army used their time there to train.

21 The War for Independence Valley Forge

22 The War for Independence
IV: The Southern War 1778 The British focused their attention to the South where many Tories/ Loyalists (people loyal to Britain) lived - opposite of a Patriot (people who supported the cause of the colonist) General Lord Cornwallis: commander of the British Army

23 The War for Independence
V: The French Alliance The colonists relied heavily on their alliance with the French because they had no navy, barely an army, and very little money for supplies and weapons. America sent ambassador Benjamin Franklin to France to negotiate an alliance. After the American victory at Saratoga, the French agreed to supply their navy, money, & troops. Marquis de Lafayette: Talented French soldier who was given his own command after winning the confidence of George Washington.

24 The War for Independence
VI: Victory at Yorktown (1781) General Lord Cornwallis was trapped in Virginia awaiting supplies from Great Britain after exhausting victory in North Carolina. Washington marched south to pin him between the Continental Army and the Atlantic Ocean. The French Navy provided a blockade that prevented British ships from coming to Cornwallis’ rescue. Cornwallis surrendered and the battle of Yorktown ended the war. After 2 years of negotiating the Treaty of Paris (1783) was signed in which Great Britain officially recognized the independence of the United States.

25 The War for Independence
Review Questions 1.) Who was the Virginian chosen to command the American Continental Army during the Revolutionary War? A. George Washington B. Lord Cornwallis C. Benjamin Franklin D. Marquis de Lafayette 2.) Which of the following battles involved a daring late night crossing of the Delaware River that resulted in a much needed victory for the Continental Army and gave the Americans hope that the war could be won? -A. Saratoga -B. Valley Forge -C. Yorktown -D. Trenton 3.) Describe George Washington as a military leader and discuss some of the challenges he faced when building the Continental Army. 4.) In what ways did the French contribute to the revolution’s success?

26 Establishing a Government
SSUSH5: Explain specific events and key ideas that brought about the adoption and implementation of the United States Constitution.

27 Establishing a Government
I. Articles of Confederation Following the adoption of the Declaration of Independence, the newly independent states were cautious about giving too much authority to a central government. They preferred a confederation where each state would maintain its sovereignty while loosely being unified as a nation.

28 Establishing a Government
I. Articles of Confederation Too weak: Congress needed 9 out of 13 states to pass laws. (Each state had different interests) Congress could not levy taxes; the federal government had to ask states for money. Therefore not much money to maintain a government, or an army for defense.

29 How are the powers granted by the Articles of Confederation limited by the powers withheld by the Articles?       a.   Congress’s ability to regulate trade helped raise supplies for the army.     b.   Congress’s ability to sign treaties resulted in increased tax dollars.     c.   Congress’s ability to collect tariffs supported the ability to declare war.     d.   Congress’s inability to raise money through taxes hindered its ability to pay for the army and fight wars.

30 Establishing a Government
I. Articles of Confederation Too weak: Once other countries realized how weak America’s government was, Great Britain refused to withdraw troops from the Ohio Valley despite the Treaty of Paris Spain closed its port at New Orleans, cutting off Mississippi River. Unable to raise an army, the United States could do nothing.

31 Establishing a Government
I. Articles of Confederation Too weak: Shay’s Rebellion (2nd rebellion we talked about): Revolutionary war veteran After the war, the United States experienced an economic crisis. Because of falling farm prices many farmers were unable to repay outstanding loans. Plus, Massachusetts raised taxes to pay war debts. Daniel Shay led a number of farmers in rebellion; The state of Massachusetts had to deal with the rebellion since the national government was too weak to do so. Significance: The event made it evident that a stronger central government was needed to deal with the nation’s problems. Establishing a Government

32 The United States Constitution
In 1787 delegates met in Philadelphia to revise the Articles of Confederation, but ended up replacing it all together with the United States Constitution. #1 Issue: Debate over Representation in government.

33 United States Constitution Issue: Representation
Virginia Plan James Madison 3 branches of government 2 House Legislature with representation from each state based on population New Jersey Plan 3 branches of government One house legislature with each state getting only one representative

34 United States Constitution Issue: Representation
Result: The Great Compromise Roger Sherman; Connecticut 2 House Legislature (Bicameral) House of Representatives; lower house (Representation based on population) Senate; upper house (Each state gets two representatives despite population)

35 United States Constitution Issue: Representation
Problem: Because representation in government was vital to each state, Southern States thought that they should be able to count their slaves in their population to give them an advantage over Northern states. Problem: Northerners knew that Southerners thought of their slaves as property not people who should be counted in the population. Northerners knew that if the South was able to count their slaves, the South could swing legislation in their favor.

36 United States Constitution Issue: Representation
Three-Fifths Compromise: A slave would be counted as “three-fifths of a person”

37 United States Constitution
Slave Trade Compromise Under this agreement, Northerners and delegates from the Upper South (Maryland and Virginia) who opposed the slave trade agreed to allow it to continue for 27 years, after which time Congress could impose regulations. *Important to the South who felt like their economy could not survive without slavery. *Slave trade ended in 1808; slavery 1865

38 United States Constitution
Limited Government and Separation of Powers: Limited Government: Principle that even governments must obey a set of laws and respect the rights of citizens. Separation of Powers: Division of power between the legislative branch, executive branch, and judicial branch. Checks and Balances: Allows each branch to check the power of the other two.

39 The United States Constitution Ratification
Problem: Some states refused to ratify the Constitution because they felt like it did not protect citizen’s personal liberties. Needed 9 out of 13 states to ratify

40 The United States Constitution Ratification
Federalist: Strong National government with a President. Alexander Hamilton and James Madison (Father of the Constitution) “loose interpretation” of the Constitution Anti-Federalist Felt that the national government should not hold that much power. The constitution should protect the rights of people Thomas Jefferson, Samuel Adams, Thomas Paine “strict interpretation” of the constitution

41 The United States Constitution Ratification
Federalist Papers *Written by federalist Hamilton and Madison *Written to persuade New York’s legislature and others who opposed it, to ratify the Constitution. *Constitution was ratified, but not before the Bill of Rights was added to please the Anti-Federalist.

42 The United States Constitution The Bill of Rights
Bill of Rights: First 10 amendments of the Constitution added to protect civil liberties.

43 The United States Constitution The Bill of Rights
1st: Personal Freedoms (Speech, Press, Petition, Religion, Assembly) 2nd: Right to bear Arms 3rd: No quartering of soldiers 4th: No illegal searches and seizures 5th: Due Process, no “double jeopardy”, no self incrimination 6th: Right to a public, speedy trial 7th: Right to a trial by jury in civil cases over money 8th: no cruel and unusual punishment 9th: Rights of the people 10th: Rights reserved to the states

44 United States Constitution Review
1.) The Articles of Confederation proved to be an ineffective body of laws for what reason? A. The US had not yet declared independence at the time they were ratified B. The Articles gave too much power to the central government, causing many colonists to rebel C. The Articles did not give enough power to the federal government for it to lead effectively D. None of the states would agree to ratify the Articles of Confederation 2.) Which of the following problems did the Great Compromise solve? A. slavery in the US following the revolution B. How many representatives each state would have in the federal legislative branch C. Debate over when the slave trade would end D. What rights would be protected under the Constitution

45 United States Constitution Review
3.) Describe the difference between Federalists and Anti-federalists. What were their differing views on the Constitution? 4.) What is the Bill of Rights and for what reason is it included in our Constitution?

46 The First Presidents The Electoral College elected George Washington the first president of the United States in 1789 and 1792. The capital of the United States was New York (Then Philadelphia, later Washington, D.C.)

47 The First Presidents George Washington chooses his cabinet
Cabinet: body of department heads who serve as the president’s key advisors in specific areas) Thomas Jefferson= Secretary of State Alexander Hamilton=Secretary of Treasury

48 The First Presidents When Washington gained office the nation was in debt from the war and the value of currency was low. Hamilton’s Economic Plan: Federal Government take over states war debts. Tax on whiskey to raise revenue Tariffs (tax on imports) Establish a national bank Problem: Establishing a national bank was not listed as a governmental power in the Constitution.

49 The First Presidents Hamilton Loose Interpretation
Believed that the Constitution’s “necessary and proper” clause gave the government the right to charter a bank. Jefferson Strict Interpretation Believed the federal government needed to restrict itself to powers listed in the Constitution

50 The First Presidents Opposition to Hamilton’s Plan
Many Southerners also opposed Hamilton’s plan because they were against tariffs that would lessen competition from foreign countries. Many saw Hamilton’s plan as evidence that the federal government intended to support the business interests of a wealthy few over the needs of farmers who made up the bulk of the nation’s population.

51 The First Presidents Consequence: WHISKEY REBELLION (3rd one):
The whiskey tax was very unpopular among farmers in the western regions of Penn., Maryland, Virginia, and North Carolina. Pennsylvania farmers refused to pay the tax and resorted to violence. The rebellion was put down by George Washington Significance: Event showed the new government had the power to enforce laws now. More farmers turned to Jefferson as a defender of state rights

52 The First Presidents European powerhouses England and France were at war again! Proclamation of Neutrality: Washington recognized that becoming allies with any country and helping them fight would only hurt the new nation more, so he declared neutrality.

53 The First Presidents Rise of Political Parties:
George Washington’s Farewell Address: United States should always remain neutral and avoid alliances. A good government should be based on religion and morality. Warned that political parties would cause people to work for their special interest rather than the public good.

54 The First Presidents Rise of Political Parties
Federalist Hamilton, Madison, John Adams Ratification of the Constitution Strong national government Large landowners, merchants, business Most New Englanders were Federalist Jeffersonian Republican Thomas Jefferson Strong state government and weaker national government Originally opposed the constitution Favored the interest of small farmers and debtors Most southerners were Republicans

55 John Adams Washington retired after two terms as president
Vice President John Adams became the second president of the United States. Federalist often at odds with Thomas Jefferson Angered French government with Jay’s Treaty Sent diplomats Charles Pinckney, Elbridge Gerry, John Marshall to France to smooth things over

56 John Adams Three diplomats were not officially received by the French government They were unofficially offered a bribe and the promise of a loan to have access to French leaders XYZ Affair infuriated US representatives who rejected the bribe US broke off relations with France US began building up its military force (neutrality was no longer an option) Reestablished diplomatic relations with the Convention of 1800

Federalists in Congress under Adams passed several laws that angered Jeffersonian Republicans Naturalization Act required foreign immigrants to live in US for 14 yrs. to become US citizens Alien Act allowed the government to arrest, detain or remove untrustworthy foreigners Sedition Act severely limited free speech and expression Federalists used the Alien and Sedition Acts to silence critics (usually Republicans) Most immigrants were Republicans

Jefferson and others saw these acts as abuses of power Jefferson and Madison (former Federalist) responded to the Alien and Sedition Acts with the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions A state could ignore a law it believed was unconstitutional called the doctrine of nullification States’ rights vs. federal authority would play a role in events leading to the Civil War

59 The Election of 1800 Battle between the Federalists and Republicans
John Adams vs. Thomas Jefferson Adams accused of wanting to be king Jefferson accused of being an anarchist (against government) Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr (Republicans) tied with 73 electoral votes Election had to be decided by House of Rep. Hamilton, who disagreed with Jefferson but hated Burr, convinced the House to give election to Jefferson (Corrupt Bargain) Burr would later kill Hamilton in a duel

60 Review Questions 1. Who were the first and second presidents of the United States? A. George Washington and Thomas Jefferson B. George Washington and Alexander Hamilton C. George Washington and John Adams D. John Adams and Thomas Jefferson

61 Review Questions 2. Which of the following best describes a Federalist? A. someone who favors farmers over businessmen B. someone who believes in a strong government that helps US businesses C. someone who opposes tariffs that might hurt small landowners D. someone who supports Thomas Jefferson over John Adams

62 Review Questions 3. What was the purpose of Hamilton’s economic plan and why did some oppose it? 4. What challenges did George Washington face when he became president? 5. What were some of the differences between Federalists and Jeffersonian Republicans? What were some of the events that made relations between these two parties grow bitter during Pres. Adams’ administration?

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