Presentation on theme: "Creation of the United States Unit #3 +"— Presentation transcript:
1 Creation of the United States Unit #3 + SSUSH3: The student will explain the primary causes of the American Revolution.SSUSH4: The student will identify the ideological, military, and diplomatic aspects of the American Revolution.SSUSH5: The student will explain specific events and key ideas that brought about the adoption and implementation of the United States Constitution.
2 European Settlement of North America SSUSH3: Explain the primary causes of the American Revolution.A. Explain how the end of Anglo-French imperial competition as seen in the French and Indian War and the 1763 Treaty of Paris laid the groundwork for the American Revolution.
3 The Road to Revolution The French and Indian War British colonist moving west found themselves fighting French settlers and Native Americans1754, French and Indian War broke outBritain at war with France and its Native American allies (some Native Americans helped the British)After nine years France, Great Britain, Spain signed the Treaty of Paris in 1763France gave up Canada and all land east of the Mississippi RiverSpain ceded Florida to BritishGreat Britain emerged as the one,true colonial power in eastern North America
4 The Road to RevolutionTensions Rise Between Great Britain and the ColoniesColonists lost respect for Britain’s military after the French & Indian WarGreat Britain was in deep debt and wanted colonies to help pay for the expenseOffended colonists with the Proclamation of 1763Forbade colonists from settling west of the Appalachian MountainsIntended to manage the territories and ensure peace with Native Americans
5 The Road to Revolution Acts by Parliament and Colonial Reaction Stamp Act – British gov’t taxed nearly all printed materialColonists responded by forming the Stamp Act CongressJames Otis proclaimed “No taxation without representation!”Colonies had no representation in British ParliamentBoycotted British goodsSons of Liberty and Daughters of Liberty were groups formed to support and enforce the boycottsSons of Liberty used violence to intimidate merchant and royal officials who used the stampsDaughters of Liberty use their skills to make homemade productsGeorgia did not obey the boycott – South Carolina threatened to invade Savannah
6 The Road to Revolution Acts by Parliament and Colonial Reaction England eventually repealed the lawParliament then passed the Declaratory ActThe authority to impose laws on the coloniesCommittees of correspondence were organized by colonists to make sure colonists remained discontented with British ruleDecember 1773, radical colonists dressed as Mohawk Indians threw crates of tea into the Boston Harbor (The Boston Tea Party)Parliament responded by passing the Coercive Acts which the colonists called the Intolerable ActsClosed Boston Harbor and placed a military governor over Mass.
7 The Road to Revolution A Revolution Begins Representatives from every colony except Georgia gathered for the First Continental Congress in September 1774Colonists wrote the king that they had a right to be represented in their gov’tApril 1775, fighting broke out at Lexington and Concord between British troops and colonial militiaSecond Continental Congress met to discuss the start of the American RevolutionThomas Paine published Common SenseMade the case for independenceLed to the colonists declaring their independence
8 Review: The Road to Revolution 1. What was significant about the French and Indian War?A. It was the first major war between French settlers and Native Americans.B. It settled the issue of which European nation would dominate eastern North America.C. It left the colonies deeply in debt and begging Great Britain to pass new taxes.D. It was the first war the British ever lost, thereby giving the colonists hope that they could also defeat the king’s army.
9 Review: The Road to Revolution 2. A colonist wanting to settle new land taken from the French after 1763 would have been most upset about which of the following?A. the Proclamation of 1763B. the Stamp ActC. the Boston Tea PartyD. the Intolerable Acts3. Who were the Sons of Liberty and the Daughters of Liberty?4. What was Common Sense and what effect did it have in the colonies?
10 Birth of a NationSSUSH4: The student will identify the ideological, military, and diplomatic aspects of the American Revolution.
11 Ideology of the American Revolution I. EnlightenmentMovement that started in Europe during the late 1600’s that featured philosophers with revolutionary ideas about political thought.1st Philosopher John Locke (England)- believed that people were born with certain natural rights that no government could morally take away.*LIFE, LIBERTY, and PROPERTYHe also believed in the social contract theory: Citizens are born with freedoms and rights. However, citizens give up certain rights and freedoms for public good. Citizens have the right to replace any government that fails to serve for the good of its citizens.
12 Ideology of the American Revolution I. EnlightenmentMovement that started in Europe during the late 1600’s that featured philosophers with revolutionary ideas about political thought.2nd Philosopher Montesquieu (France): believed in separation of power with three “branches” of government each with some degree of power.-Checks and Balances: Each branch has the power to check and balance the power of the other 2 branches.
13 Ideology of the American Revolution II. The Declaration of IndependenceDrafted by the Second Continental Congress and adopted by Congress July 4th 1776.Thomas Jefferson; writer includes key concepts:Egalitarianism- All men are created equalInalienable Rights- Rights men are born with and that no government can take away (Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of happiness)The government derives its power from the people. When the government fails to serve the people, the people have the right to replace it.SOUND FAMILIAR????
14 Ideology of the American Revolution Review Questions1.) The Enlightenment can best be described as what?A. The document declaring US independenceB. A historical period featuring new thoughts on government and politicsC. The movement it became clear that the colonies should declare independenceD. The idea of British philosophers2.) The document formally adopted on July 4, 1776 that made the colonies’ break with Great Britain official is known as what?A. The EnlightenmentB. Inalienable RightsC. The Declaration of IndependenceThe Social Contract Theory3.) What are “natural rights” and the “Social contract theory” according to John Locke?4.) What role did Thomas Jefferson play in the Declaration of Independence and in what ways did the Enlightenment influence him?
15 The War for Independence No Option but Victory!.....WHY???Motivation of fighting for their homeland and the right to govern themselves!Many colonist fought side by side with the British during the French and Indian War and were familiar with their military tactics.Colonial leaders knew that if they did not win they would be hung for treason.
16 The War for Independence The First Years of the War-The Revolutionary War had begun long before the signing of the Declaration of Independence with the battle Lexington and Concord.-Battle of Bunker Hill: Very bloody battle where the British won, but suffered many more casualties than the Americans.
17 The War for Independence II. George WashingtonVirginian wealthy landowner; delegate to the Continental CongressAppointed by the Continental Congress to command the American Army.Had military experience in the French and Indian War.Obtain victory despite challenges facing the American Army including:Fighting one of the most powerful militaries in historyUndisciplined inexperienced militaryShort on volunteers, supplies, and money to pay soldiersThe War for Independence
18 The War for Independence II. George Washington-Crossing of the Delaware River*Washington had been forced to retreat by the British (now in New York) in March 1776.*Christmas Night 1776 Washington led a surprise attack in New Jersey (Trenton) against the Hessians (Germans hired to fight with the British) Followed by another attack in Princeton. Both victories for the Americans!*Washington’s victories in New Jersey greatly lifted American morale and gave people hope that the revolution could be successful!
20 The War for Independence III. The Northern War1777 The Americans won another battle, The Battle of Saratoga!....Which convinced the French to forge an alliance that was crucial to American Victory.Valley Forge (Pennsylvania): Harsh winter where many Continental soldiers died or were too sick to fight because of lack of supplies and warm clothing. The Continental Army used their time there to train.
22 The War for Independence IV: The Southern War1778 The British focused their attention to the South where many Tories/ Loyalists (people loyal to Britain) lived - opposite of a Patriot (people who supported the cause of the colonist)General Lord Cornwallis: commander of the British Army
23 The War for Independence V: The French AllianceThe colonists relied heavily on their alliance with the French because they had no navy, barely an army, and very little money for supplies and weapons.America sent ambassador Benjamin Franklin to France to negotiate an alliance.After the American victory at Saratoga, the French agreed to supply their navy, money, & troops.Marquis de Lafayette: Talented French soldier who was given his own command after winning the confidence of George Washington.
24 The War for Independence VI: Victory at Yorktown (1781)General Lord Cornwallis was trapped in Virginia awaiting supplies from Great Britain after exhausting victory in North Carolina.Washington marched south to pin him between the Continental Army and the Atlantic Ocean.The French Navy provided a blockade that prevented British ships from coming to Cornwallis’ rescue.Cornwallis surrendered and the battle of Yorktown ended the war.After 2 years of negotiating the Treaty of Paris (1783) was signed in which Great Britain officially recognized the independence of the United States.
25 The War for Independence Review Questions1.) Who was the Virginian chosen to command the American Continental Army during the Revolutionary War?A. George WashingtonB. Lord CornwallisC. Benjamin FranklinD. Marquis de Lafayette2.) Which of the following battles involved a daring late night crossing of the Delaware River that resulted in a much needed victory for the Continental Army and gave the Americans hope that the war could be won?-A. Saratoga-B. Valley Forge-C. Yorktown-D. Trenton3.) Describe George Washington as a military leader and discuss some of the challenges he faced when building the Continental Army.4.) In what ways did the French contribute to the revolution’s success?
26 Establishing a Government SSUSH5: Explain specific events and key ideas that brought about the adoption and implementation of the United States Constitution.
27 Establishing a Government I. Articles of ConfederationFollowing the adoption of the Declaration of Independence, the newly independent states were cautious about giving too much authority to a central government.They preferred a confederation where each state would maintain its sovereignty while loosely being unified as a nation.
28 Establishing a Government I. Articles of ConfederationToo weak:Congress needed 9 out of 13 states to pass laws. (Each state had different interests)Congress could not levy taxes; the federal government had to ask states for money. Therefore not much money to maintain a government, or an army for defense.
29 How are the powers granted by the Articles of Confederation limited by the powers withheld by the Articles? a. Congress’s ability to regulate trade helped raise supplies for the army. b. Congress’s ability to sign treaties resulted in increased tax dollars. c. Congress’s ability to collect tariffs supported the ability to declare war. d. Congress’s inability to raise money through taxes hindered its ability to pay for the army and fight wars.
30 Establishing a Government I. Articles of ConfederationToo weak:Once other countries realized how weak America’s government was, Great Britain refused to withdraw troops from the Ohio Valley despite the Treaty of ParisSpain closed its port at New Orleans, cutting off Mississippi River.Unable to raise an army, the United States could do nothing.
31 Establishing a Government I. Articles of ConfederationToo weak:Shay’s Rebellion (2nd rebellion we talked about):Revolutionary war veteranAfter the war, the United States experienced an economic crisis.Because of falling farm prices many farmers were unable to repay outstanding loans. Plus, Massachusetts raised taxes to pay war debts.Daniel Shay led a number of farmers in rebellion; The state of Massachusetts had to deal with the rebellion since the national government was too weak to do so.Significance: The event made it evident that a stronger central government was needed to deal with the nation’s problems.Establishing a Government
32 The United States Constitution In 1787 delegates met in Philadelphia to revise the Articles of Confederation, but ended up replacing it all together with the United States Constitution.#1 Issue: Debate over Representation in government.
33 United States Constitution Issue: Representation Virginia PlanJames Madison3 branches of government2 House Legislature with representation from each state based on populationNew Jersey Plan3 branches of governmentOne house legislature with each state getting only one representative
34 United States Constitution Issue: Representation Result: The Great CompromiseRoger Sherman; Connecticut2 House Legislature (Bicameral)House of Representatives; lower house (Representation based on population)Senate; upper house (Each state gets two representatives despite population)
35 United States Constitution Issue: Representation Problem: Because representation in government was vital to each state, Southern States thought that they should be able to count their slaves in their population to give them an advantage over Northern states.Problem: Northerners knew that Southerners thought of their slaves as property not people who should be counted in the population. Northerners knew that if the South was able to count their slaves, the South could swing legislation in their favor.
36 United States Constitution Issue: Representation Three-Fifths Compromise:A slave would be counted as “three-fifths of a person”
37 United States Constitution Slave Trade CompromiseUnder this agreement, Northerners and delegates from the Upper South (Maryland and Virginia) who opposed the slave trade agreed to allow it to continue for 27 years, after which time Congress could impose regulations.*Important to the South who felt like their economy could not survive without slavery.*Slave trade ended in 1808; slavery 1865
38 United States Constitution Limited Government and Separation of Powers:Limited Government: Principle that even governments must obey a set of laws and respect the rights of citizens.Separation of Powers: Division of power between the legislative branch, executive branch, and judicial branch.Checks and Balances: Allows each branch to check the power of the other two.
39 The United States Constitution Ratification Problem: Some states refused to ratify the Constitution because they felt like it did not protect citizen’s personal liberties.Needed 9 out of 13 states to ratify
40 The United States Constitution Ratification Federalist:Strong National government with a President.Alexander Hamilton and James Madison (Father of the Constitution)“loose interpretation” of the ConstitutionAnti-FederalistFelt that the national government should not hold that much power.The constitution should protect the rights of peopleThomas Jefferson, Samuel Adams, Thomas Paine“strict interpretation” of the constitution
41 The United States Constitution Ratification Federalist Papers*Written by federalist Hamilton and Madison*Written to persuade New York’s legislature and others who opposed it, to ratify the Constitution.*Constitution was ratified, but not before the Bill of Rights was added to please the Anti-Federalist.
42 The United States Constitution The Bill of Rights Bill of Rights: First 10 amendments of the Constitution added to protect civil liberties.
43 The United States Constitution The Bill of Rights 1st: Personal Freedoms (Speech, Press, Petition, Religion, Assembly)2nd: Right to bear Arms3rd: No quartering of soldiers4th: No illegal searches and seizures5th: Due Process, no “double jeopardy”, no self incrimination6th: Right to a public, speedy trial7th: Right to a trial by jury in civil cases over money8th: no cruel and unusual punishment9th: Rights of the people10th: Rights reserved to the states
44 United States Constitution Review 1.) The Articles of Confederation proved to be an ineffective body of laws for what reason?A. The US had not yet declared independence at the time they were ratifiedB. The Articles gave too much power to the central government, causing many colonists to rebelC. The Articles did not give enough power to the federal government for it to lead effectivelyD. None of the states would agree to ratify the Articles of Confederation2.) Which of the following problems did the Great Compromise solve?A. slavery in the US following the revolutionB. How many representatives each state would have in the federal legislative branchC. Debate over when the slave trade would endD. What rights would be protected under the Constitution
45 United States Constitution Review 3.) Describe the difference between Federalists and Anti-federalists. What were their differing views on the Constitution?4.) What is the Bill of Rights and for what reason is it included in our Constitution?
46 The First PresidentsThe Electoral College elected George Washington the first president of the United States in 1789 and 1792.The capital of the United States was New York (Then Philadelphia, later Washington, D.C.)
47 The First Presidents George Washington chooses his cabinet Cabinet: body of department heads who serve as the president’s key advisors in specific areas)Thomas Jefferson= Secretary of StateAlexander Hamilton=Secretary of Treasury
48 The First PresidentsWhen Washington gained office the nation was in debt from the war and the value of currency was low.Hamilton’s Economic Plan:Federal Government take over states war debts.Tax on whiskey to raise revenueTariffs (tax on imports)Establish a national bankProblem: Establishing a national bank was not listed as a governmental power in the Constitution.
49 The First Presidents Hamilton Loose Interpretation Believed that the Constitution’s “necessary and proper” clause gave the government the right to charter a bank.JeffersonStrict InterpretationBelieved the federal government needed to restrict itself to powers listed in the Constitution
50 The First Presidents Opposition to Hamilton’s Plan Many Southerners also opposed Hamilton’s plan because they were against tariffs that would lessen competition from foreign countries.Many saw Hamilton’s plan as evidence that the federal government intended to support the business interests of a wealthy few over the needs of farmers who made up the bulk of the nation’s population.
51 The First Presidents Consequence: WHISKEY REBELLION (3rd one): The whiskey tax was very unpopular among farmers in the western regions of Penn., Maryland, Virginia, and North Carolina.Pennsylvania farmers refused to pay the tax and resorted to violence.The rebellion was put down by George WashingtonSignificance:Event showed the new government had the power to enforce laws now.More farmers turned to Jefferson as a defender of state rights
52 The First PresidentsEuropean powerhouses England and France were at war again!Proclamation of Neutrality: Washington recognized that becoming allies with any country and helping them fight would only hurt the new nation more, so he declared neutrality.
53 The First Presidents Rise of Political Parties: George Washington’s Farewell Address:United States should always remain neutral and avoid alliances.A good government should be based on religion and morality.Warned that political parties would cause people to work for their special interest rather than the public good.
54 The First Presidents Rise of Political Parties FederalistHamilton, Madison, John AdamsRatification of the ConstitutionStrong national governmentLarge landowners, merchants, businessMost New Englanders were FederalistJeffersonian RepublicanThomas JeffersonStrong state government and weaker national governmentOriginally opposed the constitutionFavored the interest of small farmers and debtorsMost southerners were Republicans
55 John Adams Washington retired after two terms as president Vice President John Adams became the second president of the United States.Federalist often at odds with Thomas JeffersonAngered French government with Jay’s TreatySent diplomats Charles Pinckney, Elbridge Gerry, John Marshall to France to smooth things over
56 John AdamsThree diplomats were not officially received by the French governmentThey were unofficially offered a bribe and the promise of a loan to have access to French leadersXYZ Affair infuriated US representatives who rejected the bribeUS broke off relations with FranceUS began building up its military force (neutrality was no longer an option)Reestablished diplomatic relations with the Convention of 1800
57 John Adams FEDERALIST AND REPUBLICAN HOSTILITIES Federalists in Congress under Adams passed several laws that angered Jeffersonian RepublicansNaturalization Act required foreign immigrants to live in US for 14 yrs. to become US citizensAlien Act allowed the government to arrest, detain or remove untrustworthy foreignersSedition Act severely limited free speech and expressionFederalists used the Alien and Sedition Acts to silence critics (usually Republicans)Most immigrants were Republicans
58 John Adams FEDERALIST AND REPUBLICAN HOSTILITIES Jefferson and others saw these acts as abuses of powerJefferson and Madison (former Federalist) responded to the Alien and Sedition Acts with the Virginia and Kentucky ResolutionsA state could ignore a law it believed was unconstitutional called the doctrine of nullificationStates’ rights vs. federal authority would play a role in events leading to the Civil War
59 The Election of 1800 Battle between the Federalists and Republicans John Adams vs. Thomas JeffersonAdams accused of wanting to be kingJefferson accused of being an anarchist (against government)Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr (Republicans) tied with 73 electoral votesElection had to be decided by House of Rep.Hamilton, who disagreed with Jefferson but hated Burr, convinced the House to give election to Jefferson (Corrupt Bargain)Burr would later kill Hamilton in a duel
60 Review Questions1. Who were the first and second presidents of the United States?A. George Washington and Thomas JeffersonB. George Washington and Alexander HamiltonC. George Washington and John AdamsD. John Adams and Thomas Jefferson
61 Review Questions2. Which of the following best describes a Federalist?A. someone who favors farmers over businessmenB. someone who believes in a strong government that helps US businessesC. someone who opposes tariffs that might hurt small landownersD. someone who supports Thomas Jefferson over John Adams
62 Review Questions3. What was the purpose of Hamilton’s economic plan and why did some oppose it?4. What challenges did George Washington face when he became president?5. What were some of the differences between Federalists and Jeffersonian Republicans? What were some of the events that made relations between these two parties grow bitter during Pres. Adams’ administration?