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It & They Unit 1: Lesson 6. Abbreviations In this slide presentation, you will notice the following abbreviations. These are their meanings: ?undefined.

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Presentation on theme: "It & They Unit 1: Lesson 6. Abbreviations In this slide presentation, you will notice the following abbreviations. These are their meanings: ?undefined."— Presentation transcript:

1 It & They Unit 1: Lesson 6

2 Abbreviations In this slide presentation, you will notice the following abbreviations. These are their meanings: ?undefined – unknown gender/number ssingular (counting only 1 in number) plplural (more than 1) ffeminine mmasculine

3 It There are 3 ways to say it in French. They are:ce, il, and elle

4 Ce - usage We have already seen one version of the word it in French: ce We learned that the French word ce has 5 meanings in English: it, this, that, these, and those. THIS word for it is used to help identify an object and is gender-less. Remember that every noun has a given gender, but until we IDENTIFY that noun, we do not yet know its gender. Ce, therefore, means it for an object that is being identified, before its gender has been determined.

5 Ce – example 1 It is a monkey. (identifying what the object is) Cest un singe.ce = it (?) est = is (s) un = a/an/1 (m,s) singe = monkey (m,s)

6 Ce – example 2 It is a mouse. (identifying what the object is) Cest une souris. ce = it (?) est = is (s) une = a/an/1 (f,s) souris = mouse (f,s)

7 Ce – example 3 It is a brown monkey. (identifying what the object is and describing it in one sentence) Cest un singe brun. ce = it (?) est = is (s) un = a/an/1 (m,s) singe = monkey (m,s) brun = brown (m,s)

8 Ce – example 4 It is a gray mouse. (identifying what the object is and describing it in one sentence) Cest une souris grise. ce = it (?) est = is (s) une = a/an/1 (f,s) souris = mouse (f,s) grise = gray (f,s)

9 Il - Usage Il : He The word il in French literally means he, but it has a second meaning: it – when referring to a noun that is masculine, singular. After we have identified a noun as being masculine, it has gender and is no longer genderless and we can therefore no longer refer to it as ce. We know it is masculine and must now refer to it as he or il.

10 Il – example The monkey, it is brown. (noun already identified) Le singe, il est brun.le – the (m,s) singe – monkey (m,s) il – he / it (m,s) est – is brun – brown (m,s)

11 Elle - Usage Elle: She The word elle in French literally means she, but it has a second meaning: it – when referring to a noun that is feminine, singular. After we have identified a noun as being feminine, it has gender and is no longer genderless and we can therefore no longer refer to it as ce. We know it is masculine and must now refer to it as she or elle.

12 Elle – example The mouse, it is gray. (noun already identified) La souris, elle est grise.la – the (f,s) souris – mouse (f,s) elle – she / it (f,s) est – is grise – gray (f,s)

13 it Summary: ceused to help identify a noun before the nouns gender has been established ilmasculine singular noun ellefeminine singular noun

14 They We have already seen that ce has 5 meanings in English: it, that, this, these, and those. It does NOT mean they. Ce is used to identify something that has not yet been defined or given gender or number. There are only 2 ways to say they in French: ils & elles

15 Ils Ils : They The word ils in French means they when referring to a group of masculine, plural objects/things/people/places/ideas. Because French is a masculine dominate language, this masculine form of they is also used to refer to a group of plural nouns of mixed gender – both masculine and feminine objects. If there is even ONE noun that is Masculine, the group is considered masculine and is referred to as ils.

16 Ils – example 1 The monkeys, they are brown. (nouns already identified) Les singes, ils sont bruns.les – the (pl) singes – monkeys (m,pl) ils – they (m,pl) sont – are (pl) bruns – brown (m,pl)

17 Ils – example 2 The monkeys and the mice, they are brown. (nouns already identified) Les singes et les souris, ils sont bruns. les – the (pl)ils – they* (m,pl) singes – monkeys (m,pl)sont – are (pl) souris – mice (f,pl)bruns – brown (m,pl) *ils – they (m,pl) : if there is even 1 masculine noun, the entire group is masculine – so if they refers to monkeys (m) and mice (f) together as one group, then the masculine gender of the monkeys becomes dominant and the entire group becomes masculine and we have to use ils for they

18 Elles Elles: They The word elles in French means they when referring to a group of feminine, plural objects/things/people/places/ideas.

19 Elles – example The mice, they are gray. (nouns already identified) Les souris, elles sont grises. les – the (pl) souris – mice (f,pl) elles – they (f,pl) sont – are (pl) grises – gray (f,pl)


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