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Miners Ranchers Farmers chapter 7, section 3. Miners.

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Presentation on theme: "Miners Ranchers Farmers chapter 7, section 3. Miners."— Presentation transcript:

1 Miners Ranchers Farmers chapter 7, section 3

2 Miners

3 Gold Miners California gold rush, 1849 (49ers)California gold rush, 1849 (49ers) near Pikes Peak, 1859 (59ers)near Pikes Peak, 1859 (59ers) Comstock LodeComstock Lode –$400 million in gold and silver by 1890 –Responsible for Nevadas statehood

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5 Finding Gold Individual prospectors look for traces of gold in mountain streams (placer mining)Individual prospectors look for traces of gold in mountain streams (placer mining) When found, deep-shaft mining begins.When found, deep-shaft mining begins. –Expensive equipment required –Wealthy investors required

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7 Boom Towns Rich strikes created boom townsRich strikes created boom towns saloons, dance-hall girls, vigilantes Many became ghost towns just a few years later.Many became ghost towns just a few years later. Other towns that served the mines became important commercial centers.Other towns that served the mines became important commercial centers. –San Francisco, Sacramento, Denver

8 Mining Towns Similar to industrial citiesSimilar to industrial cities Workers were also from Europe, Latin America, and China.Workers were also from Europe, Latin America, and China. ½ the population was often foreign born½ the population was often foreign born Greatly increased Western populationGreatly increased Western population

9 Foreign Backlash Resentment among whitesResentment among whites Miners Tax ( $20 / month ) in CAMiners Tax ( $20 / month ) in CA Chinese Exclusion Act ( 1882 )Chinese Exclusion Act ( 1882 ) prohibited further Chinese immigration

10 Ranchers

11 Ranching Civil War – TX is cut off from CSACivil War – TX is cut off from CSA 5 million heads of cattle roam freely TX cattle business – easy to enter FREE CATTLE!TX cattle business – easy to enter FREE CATTLE! Ranchers Kill off the buffaloRanchers Kill off the buffalo

12 Railroads RR starts in Kansas (Cow towns) RR goes to KC, St. Louis, ChicagoRR starts in Kansas (Cow towns) RR goes to KC, St. Louis, Chicago Steers bought for $5 / head and sold for up to $80 / headSteers bought for $5 / head and sold for up to $80 / head Refrigerated railcars made it even cheaper.Refrigerated railcars made it even cheaper.

13 Cattle Drives RR didnt go into TXRR didnt go into TX Cowboys drove cattle to Kansas 1 cowboy per cattle up to 1,500 miles to Kansas $30 per month, paid in 1 lump sum (for quick spending)1 cowboy per cattle up to 1,500 miles to Kansas $30 per month, paid in 1 lump sum (for quick spending)

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19 End of Cattle Drives 1880s overgrazing destroyed the grass1880s overgrazing destroyed the grass blizzard and drought (90% of cattle die) blizzard and drought (90% of cattle die)

20 Farmers

21 Farming Homestead Act of 1862Homestead Act of acres is yours after 5 years 500,000 Homestead families500,000 Homestead families 2.5 million families had to buy land from the RR

22 Housing Made of sod strips of grass with thick roots and earth attachedMade of sod strips of grass with thick roots and earth attached No trees to make houses No trees to make fencesNo trees to make houses No trees to make fences Joseph Glidden invents barbed wire to fence GP land.Joseph Glidden invents barbed wire to fence GP land.

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24 Hard Times Many discover that 160 acres is not enough to survive. 2 of 3 farms fail by 1900Many discover that 160 acres is not enough to survive. 2 of 3 farms fail by 1900

25 The Family Everyone had to work in order to surviveEveryone had to work in order to survive did heavy manual labor –Men did heavy manual labor collected wood & carried water –Children collected wood & carried water did chores around the house, managed the money, raised the children, provided food (crops, butter, chickens, milk) –Women did chores around the house, managed the money, raised the children, provided food (crops, butter, chickens, milk)

26 Bonanza Farms Run like big business High volume Drove down prices Squeezed out the small farmers

27 Dry Farming The only way to farm successfully in the GPThe only way to farm successfully in the GP –Crops that dont require much water –Keeping fields free of weeds –Digging deep furrows to reach the water New plows developed to make several furrows at once.New plows developed to make several furrows at once.

28 Frontier Myths

29 Not as wild as you thought…

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31 The Closing of the Frontier The move westward began in the 1860s In 1890, the Department of the Interior declared the that the frontier was settled. Government begins to reserve land. The West opened and closed in a generation…


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