Presentation on theme: "WHAT COUNTRY EXPERIENCED A TERRORIST ACTIVITY THIS WEEKEND WHEN A SHOPPING MALL IN THEIR CAPITAL WAS ATTACK BY AL QAEDA LINKED ASSAILANTS – KILLING 39,"— Presentation transcript:
WHAT COUNTRY EXPERIENCED A TERRORIST ACTIVITY THIS WEEKEND WHEN A SHOPPING MALL IN THEIR CAPITAL WAS ATTACK BY AL QAEDA LINKED ASSAILANTS – KILLING 39, INJURING Homework Bell Ringer
MONDAY & TUESDAY – NOTES (HW DUE TUESDAY) WEDNESDAY – SURVEY THURSDAY – QUIZ!!! WRITING WORKSHOP FRIDAY – THEMATIC ESSAY ON NEOLITHIC SCHEDULE FOR WEEK 2 nd elections
Neolithic Period New Stone Age (10,000 – 2, 500 BC)
Climatic Changes – 10,000 marked end of last ice age. glaciers retreated increasing ocean level, flooding land bridges between continents giving rise to deserts, and killing off many of the larger animals (like mammoth) that were staples to early mans diet.
in area known as the Fertile Crescent – a horseshoe area between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers (land eventually known as Mesopotamia between the rivers) Agricultural / Neolithic Revolution began first in the Near East in the 8th millennium BC
Neolithic Revolution: CHANGE – from hunting and gathering to domestication of plants and animals as major way of acquiring food
Domestication of Plants: Neolithic man began to collect wheat – some of the wheat had fat seeds which clung more firmly to stalk. Through selective breeding and hybridization, they began having only fat wheat crops. Why are these fatter seeds better?
Farming developed independently in different areas of the world – some learned the skill from neighbors or as they moved (ex. Europe from Middle East)
Started to invent tools to help build crops – hoe pulled by oxen as early as 4000 BC, even had a device to automatically plant seeds (thought to be a 18th c. AD invention but found much, much earlier in Mesopotamia). Those areas that had large domesticated mammals like oxen and horse would develop richer, more sophisticated civilizations than those that did not … compare Europe today with New Guinea who had no native domesticated beast of burden
Domestication of Animals dogs were used by early cave dwellers to help manage wild herds began penning and tending animals about 7 th millennium BC How do you domesticate animals?
Why are some animals never domesticated? No value to domestication. Carnivores (need to grow other animals just to feed them). Too skittish around humans (grew up around humans and know them as predators).
Origins of Cities Population increases and a more sedentary lifestyle led to the social conditions necessary for the development of cities and civilizations. What defines a civilization? Urban population centers (cities) with over 3000 individuals Craft specialization and social stratification Complex religions and government, writing
Four Early River Civilizations Mesopotamia - Iraq Nile - Egypt Indus River Valley - Pakistan Yellow River (Huang-He) Valley – China
Irrigation River Civilizations did not have enough rainfall to maintain agricultural crops – needed to harness river water. Choose the river area, however, because of the nutrient rich silt. The community needed to organize an irrigation system including a dam to prevent flooding. Regional governments were created to organize these efforts. Policing officials regulated farmers access to water.
What can you tell by looking at this Neolithic Village of Catal Huyuk (Turkey )? Urbanization (building of cities) shared walls used flat roofs fast/cheap expand when needed
Typical Neolithic House. Why can you only see lower 6? What type of traffic can go on these roads?
Irrigation led to more food than individual could use Pottery (using local clays from river) was created. To make the production of pottery speedier, a potters wheel was introduced (3500 BC). Wheel for transportation did not occur for 250 more years.
Craft Specialization The advent of agricultural surplus allowed some individuals (like artisans) to specialize in craft production. Now have people who only make tools, houses, jewelers, etc. Artisans would exchange their crafts for food. This is called a barter economy.
A polytheistic religion (belief in many gods). Mostly nature. – could not explain natural phenomena. Religion was tied to government (theocracy). Priest-kings were established. With government and craft specialization there developed concept of social stratification. Religion & Cult
Writing – As people began to be more sedentary (settled) they began to own things. Competition between individuals led to need to show ownership. Rise of Social Stratification (have/have nots) Writing began as symbols to indicate ownership as well as record how many things a person owned. Numbers and pictographs (drawings of objects) were probably the first writings.
Only priests had the leisure time to collect and learn the various symbols. Created a unique set of symbols that everyone would use. Scribes worked for the priest- king. They would learn craft from priests and would then record taxes, property, treaties, marriage documents, etc. for priest-king.
The Mysteries …. Stonehedge, England phic.com/video/kids/peopl e-places-kids/uk- stonehenge-kidsvin/