Presentation on theme: "Saundra Y. McGuire, Ph.D., Director Center for Academic Success"— Presentation transcript:
1 Metacognition and Learning Styles: Tools for Helping Students Achieve Improved Learning Strategies Saundra Y. McGuire, Ph.D., DirectorCenter for Academic SuccessAdj. Professor, Department of ChemistryLouisiana State University
2 The Center for Academic Success National College Learning Center Association Frank L. Christ Outstanding Learning Center Award
3 The Story of Five LSU Students Travis, junior psychology student47, 52, 82, 86Robert, freshman chemistry student42, 100, 100, 100Miriam, freshman calculus student37.5, 83, 93Maryam, freshman art student57, 87Terrence, junior Bio Engineering studentGPA 1.67 cum, 3.54 (F 03), 3.8 (S 04)
4 Fall 2005 Date of Final Exam: December 14, 2005 Meeting with Student No. 1: December 12, 2005Meeting with Student Nos. 2 & 4: December 2, 2005Meeting with Student No. 3: December 8, 2005The final was worth 100 points with a 10 bonus question.
5 Desired outcomesWe will understand why students spend little time studying and do not know how to learnWe will have concrete learning strategies that faculty can teach students to increase learning, and we will be committed to trying some of these strategies in our classesWe will have more resources for our studentsWe will view our students differentlyWe will see positive changes in our students’ performance and self-perceptionWe will spend time reflecting on improving our teaching and our students’ learning
6 Overview Characteristics of today’s learners Types and levels of learningCognitive Science FindingsGeneral Learning StrategiesConcept Mapping ActivityFactors Influencing Student MotivationWrap Up
7 Reflection Questions Which, if either, is more enjoyable? What is the difference, if any, between studying and learning?Which, if either, is more enjoyable?When did you learn the conceptual structure (relationships between basic concepts) of your discipline? When/why/how did you to learn this?
8 Paradigm Shift in Institutional Attitudes About Learning Teacher CenteredInstitutionsVs Learner Centered Institutions
9 The RSCC Mission Statement “Roane State provides a challenging and nurturing learning environment which encourages and inspires students to meet the high expectations and standards needed for responsible citizenship and to embrace the concept of learning as a lifelong endeavor.”“Roane State’s success can only be measured by the success of its students and by maintaining its demonstrated reputation as a center for higher education excellence.”
10 Characteristics of Many of Today’s Students Working more hoursMore ADD/ADHDInterested in obtaining credentialsFeel entitled to an A or B if they consistently attend classFew time management skillsFew learning skills
11 Why don’t students know how to learn or how to study? It wasn’t necessary in high school- 66% of 2003 entering first year students spent less than six hours per week doing homework in 12th grade.- More than 46% of these students said they graduated from high school with an “A” average.Students’ confidence level is high- 70% believe their academic ability is above average or in the highest 10 percent among people their ageHigher Education Research Institute Study
12 Additional ReasonsHigh Stakes Testing in high school forces teachers to “teach to the test”Students think everything they need is on the web and can be looked upTechnological advances make it easier to function with less knowledgeMisconceptions that interfere with learning
13 Student Misconceptions Who would have thought?!?
14 How might the institution exacerbate the problem? Orientation programs that stress fun, recreation, and campus organization involvementHelping students to schedule courses “back to back” with no breaks betweenVery large introductory classesProviding limited or no access to learning strategies information
15 How do some faculty members further add to the problem? By assigning homework and giving tests that require little, if any, higher order thinkingBy assessing learning too infrequentlyBy providing limited feedback to studentsBy putting notes on-line and advising students they don’t need to purchase the textbookBy having little ability to teach students concrete learning strategies
16 Faculty Must Help Students Learn How to Learn! Teach them the difference between learning (meaningful learning) and memorization (rote learning); help them understand the processAssess and provide feedback soon and oftenHelp them determine their learning styleTeach them specific learning strategiesImplement pedagogical strategies that make them use the learning strategies
17 Rote Learning Involves verbatim memorization (which is easily forgotten)Cannot be manipulated or applied to novel situations(e.g. remembering phone numbers, dates, names, etc.)
18 Meaningful LearningLearning that is tied and related to previous knowledge and integrated with previous learningCan be manipulated, applied to novel situations, and used in problem solving tasks(e.g. comparing and contrasting the Arrhenius and B-L definitions of acids and bases.)
19 Bloom’s Taxonomy Evaluation Synthesis Analysis Application This pyramid depicts the different levels of thinking we use when learning. Notice how each level builds on the foundation that precedes it. It is required that we learn the lower levels before we can effectively use the skills above.Bloom’s TaxonomyEvaluationGraduate SchoolMaking decisions and supporting views; requires understanding of values.Combining information to form a unique product; requires creativity and originality.SynthesisIdentifying components; determining arrangement, logic, and semantics.AnalysisUndergraduateUsing information to solve problems; transferring abstract or theoretical ideas to practical situations. Identifying connections and relationships and how they apply.ApplicationRestating in your own words; paraphrasing, summarizing, translating.ComprehensionHigh SchoolMemorizing verbatim information. Being able to remember, but not necessarily fully understanding the material.KnowledgeLouisiana State University Center for Academic Success B-31 Coates Hall
20 Example ~ Bloom’s Levels of Learning ~ Applied to Goldilocks and the Three Bears EvaluationJudge whether Goldilocks was good or bad. Defend your opinion.SynthesisPropose how the story would be different if it were Goldilocks and the Three Fish.AnalysisCompare this story to reality. What events could not really happen.ApplicationDemonstrate what Goldilocks would use if she came to your house.ComprehensionExplain why Goldilocks liked Baby Bear’s chair the best.KnowledgeList the items used by Goldilocks while she was in the Bears’ house.Courtesy of
21 Counting Vowels in 30 seconds How accurate are you?
22 Cognitive Science: The Science of the Mind QuestionsHow do humans process information?How do people increase their knowledge?What factors influence learning?What types of learning facilitate transfer of information learned to new settings?How can we change teaching to improve learning?
23 Keys to Learning Based on Cognitive Science Findings Deep factual and procedural knowledge of a discipline is required to solve complex problemsLearning is a continuous process; repetition is the keyNew knowledge must be tied to existing knowledgeLearning should involve both sides of the brain and several learning styles
24 They think differently about problems Experts vs. NovicesThey think differently about problems
25 Novices vs. Intelligent Novices Intelligent novices learn new domains more quickly than other novicesThe metacognitive skills make the difference
26 What intelligent novices know Learning is different from memorizationSolving problems without looking at the solution is different from using the solution as a modelComprehension of reading material must be tested while the reading is in progressKnowledge is not “handed out” by the instructor; it is constructed by the learner
27 Turn Students into Expert Learners: Metacognition andLearning Styles are the Keys!
28 Metacognition thinking about thinking being consciously aware of yourself as a problem solverPlanning, monitoring, and controlling your mentalprocessing
29 The Study CyclePhase 1: Read or preview chapter(s) to be covered in class… before class.Phase 2: GO TO CLASS! Listen actively, take notes, participate in class.Phase 3: Review and process class notes as soon after class as possible.Phase 4: Implement Intense Study Sessions.Repeat
30 Intense Study Sessions 2-5 minutes: Set Goals20-50 minutes: STUDY with FOCUS and ACTION (Read your text, create flash cards, create maps and/or outlines, work problems -without peeking at the answers, quiz yourself…) Achieve your goal!5 minutes Take a break5 minutes Review what you have just studiedRepeat*Once a week review the entire week’s notes and problems
31 Active Learning Strategies Get InvolvedAsk QuestionsRecite and WriteReviewReflect (megacognate?)
32 Good notes are essential for meaningful learning
33 Cornell Note Taking Format RecallColumn:Notes on Taking Notes, /04/08Uses of notesidentify major pointsidentify minor pointsThere are 4 Kinds of Notes:Running TextFormal OutlineInformal OutlineCornell Note systemReduce ideas and facts to concise summaries and cues for reciting, reviewing and reflecting over here.
34 Getting the Most Out of Homework: Effective Strategy for Problem Solving Start the problems early--the day they are assignedDo not flip back to see example problems; work them yourself!Don’t give up too soon (<15 min.)Don’t spend too much time (>30 min.)
35 Concept maps facilitate development of higher order thinking skills
37 Compare and Contrast Acids Bases How are they similar? How are they different?
38 Create a Chapter Map Title of Chapter Primary Headings Subheadings Have you ever started reading a chapter and found yourself on the same paragraph fifteen minutes later? One of the best ways to combat this problem is to preview the chapter by creating a chapter map. Here is one way to do this:1. It is best to use a large piece of unlined paper (we recommend purchasing some butcher paper from an art or book store) but you can use any paper you have.Print the Chapter Title at the top of the page, then draw a rectangle around the title.Next, look through the chapter and note the number of primary headings. You will write each of these headings in a row across, just below the title, then circle each of them.You will now skim through the chapter once more, this time looking at the number of subheadings. Print these in a row just below the primary headings.Depending on the organization of the chapter, you may continue to add sub-subheadings!This can all be done very quickly. There is no need to spend a lot of time writing details at this point. You may want to fill in details later when you read the chapter, but for now, just preview the chapter with a chapter map. You will find your brain will be ready to comprehend the material now that you have the “big picture”, or an overview of the chapter.SubheadingsSecondary Subheadings
40 Learning Strategies Should be Based on Learning Style
41 Learning StylesInfluence how we take in information from the outside worldInfluence how we process informationInfluence how we interact with othersInfluence our motivation for learning different subjectsInfluence our frustration level with learning tasks
43 Hemispheric Preference Left Brain vs. Right BrainRight Brain: visual, intuitive, holistic, abstract, spatial and main ideas;use charts, maps, time lines, graphs, or visualization as study toolsLeft Brain: verbal, logical, linear, concrete, time oriented, and details;use outlines, lecture notes, or the Cornell note taking format as study toolsSome students will be “balanced”
45 Modality (Sensory Preference) Visual: prefers pictures, symbols, charts, graphs, concept maps, etc.Aural or auditory: prefers hearing lectures, reading notes out loud, etc.Read/write: prefers flashcards, notes, lists, outlines, etc.Kinesthetic: prefers direct experience, mapping, charting, experiments, visualizing action, etc.
46 What’s YOUR Style? Left or right brain dominant? Personality Type Extrovert or Introvert?Sensing or Intuitive?Thinking or Feeling?Judging or Perceiving?Modality (Sensory Preference)?Visual, Aural, Read/Write Kinesthetic
48 Time Management is Life Management Take a few minutes to review what you just learned. What are 3 things you plan to use? Write them, then implement them within the next 24 hours. If you don’t try it soon, you will probably never do it!
49 Big Rocks The question is this: What if we fill it tothe top with small rocks…would it be full?What if we fill it tothe top with sand…would it be full?What if we fill it tothe top with water…would it be full?Is this jar full?The question is this:What is the “moral of the story” when it comes to time management?
50 The “Master To Do List” Weekly Master To Do List Date to be completed: Sunday, Oct. 17thThe “Master To Do List”Master To Do List:Class #1Ch /13Ch /13Ch /15Assignment Due 10/15Ch /19Studio:pp /12Project #13 references 10/14drawings (3) 10/14model 10/16Class #3Ch /13Ch /15Ch /20Class #4Homework 10/14Ch /14Review Ch /15Life:Mom’s Birthday card send 10/15)Monday, Oct. 11Class 1, Ch. 4Review ppHomeworkBuy cardClydeComplete formsPick up materialsLibrary, 3 referencesPay billsThe Master To Do List is a great way to compile EVERYTHING you need to complete for each class you are taking. You might use a large manila file folder to do the following:1.) Write the date one week from today’s date at the top right corner of the file folder.2.) List each of your classes, and below each class, list the things you need to complete that week. (Note: Avoid a line that states: “Read chapters 4-6”. Instead, give each chapter a separate line--it gives you a sense of accomplishment to check-off each chapter as it is completed.)Many people use this instead of, or in combination with, a daily to-do list. It feels good to slowly, but surely, cross off each item on this master to-do list. (By the way... don’t throw these away. You can refer to them as you prepare for major exams.)
51 Weekly Master To Do List Class:aClass:Class:Class:Other:Week of Monday ____________________________to Sunday ____________________________Download this form in the Time Management Online workshop at
52 Time Management Tips from Students Have a vision—Set goalsKnow YOUR unique time management styleStudy when the sun is outAvoid nappingDevelop patterns “This is what I do”Think of yourself as a Professional StudentKill the TV, cell phone, video game…/chat/Facebook…only as a rewardExerciseEat wellDrink waterTake breaksHave fun
53 Motivation“In the academy, the term ‘motivating’ means stimulating interest in a subject and, therefore, the desire to learn it.”(Nilson, 57)
55 Motivation Boosters Partial credit for partially correct answers Letting students use their own problem solving methodFlexible grading scale based on student performanceDemonstrated personal interest in, and belief that EVERY student can succeed!
56 Motivation BustersMultiple choice tests with no opportunity for partial creditRequiring students to use one problem solving methodAbsolute grading scale with no flexibilityAttitude that most students are not prepared to do well, and probably won’t!Assessment that is not closely tied to what students learned
57 Answer the following questions:* In baseball, how many outs are there in an inning? A rancher has 33 head of cattle standing in a field, when suddenly a bolt of lightning kills all but 9 of them. How many head of cattle are left standing?Some months have 31 days, and some months have 30 days. But how many have 28 days? Two U.S. coins are worth a total of $0.30, and one of them is not a nickel. What are the coins?*
58 Strategies that Work Learning Style & Personality Assessments Note taking SystemsConcept MappingThe Study Cycle with Intense Study SessionsTime Management ToolsTest Taking StrategiesMetacognitive Reflections
59 Strategies that have worked at Other Schools Integrating study strategies techniques into class structureTeaching and requiring concept mappingSetting up collaborative working groups in classImplementing Supplemental InstructionOffering Service-Learning courses
60 Chem 1001 Results Spring 2007 Test 1 Test 2 Final Total points Attended SYM Lecture on 3/2 Did not attend 93 153 563 Class average *app. 80 attendees out of 200 students because session was on a Friday afternoon. Exam 1 was Wednesday, March 7.
61 Reflection Question a) the student b) the instructor Who is primarily responsible for student learning?a) the studentb) the instructorc) the institution
62 Our students can significantly increase their learning! We must teach them the learning process and strategiesWe must use pedagogical strategies that motivate students to learn
63 What Learning Strategy Can You Teach that Might Improve Student Performance in Your Course?
64 Final NotePlease visit the websites at andWe have information and on-line workshops that will introduce you and your students to effective study strategies techniques. Please feel free to contact me at I wish you great success as you help your students SAIL at Roane State Community College!Saundra McGuire
65 ReferencesBruer, John T. , Schools For Thought: A Science of Learning in the Classroom. MIT Press.Bransford, J.D., Brown, A.L., Cocking, R.R. (Eds.), How people learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.Cromley, Jennifer, Learning to Think, Learning to Learn: What the Science of Thinking and Learning Has to Offer Adult Education. Washington, DC: National Institute for Literacy.Halpern, D.F and Hakel, M.D. (Eds.), Applying the Science of Learning to University Teaching and Beyond. New York, NY: John Wiley and Sons, Inc.Kameenui and Carnine, Effective Teaching Strategies That Accommodate Diverse Learners. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill PublishingNilson, Linda, Teaching at It’s Best: A Research-Based Resource for College Instructors. Bolton, MA: Anker Publishing Company.Taylor, S. (1999). Better learning through better thinking: Developing students’ metacognitive abilities. Journal of College Reading and Learning, 30(1), 34ff. Retrieved November 9, 2002, from Expanded Academic Index ASAP.Zull, James (2004). The Art of Changing the Brain. Sterling, VA: Stylus Publishing.