Presentation on theme: "III. The Rebellion Era A. I have no idea what that word means… Rebellion Vocabulary 1. Salutary Neglect – A disinterest in enforcing laws. Englands pre-French."— Presentation transcript:
III. The Rebellion Era A. I have no idea what that word means… Rebellion Vocabulary 1. Salutary Neglect – A disinterest in enforcing laws. Englands pre-French & Indian War policy towards the colonies in which trade laws were weakly enforced in order to keep the colonies on the British side during the war.
2. Proclamation of 1763 - A royal proclamation that became law after the French & Indian War that banned colonial settlement west of the Appalachian Mountains 3. Pontiacs Rebellion – A failed uprising led by the Ottawa chief Pontiac that attempted to stop colonial settlement
a. It became necessary to enforce these trade laws (Navigation Acts) after the war because of the enormous debt the British had from defending the colonies during the war 4. Loyalist - A colonist who remained loyal to the British during the Revolutionary War; also known as a Tory 5. Duty – A tax on imports
6. Civil Disobedience – Breaking the law and accepting the punishment in order to bring public attention to a questionable rule or law 7. Parliament – The lawmaking body in England, similar to Congress in the current United States
8. Patriot -- A colonist who supported independence during the American Revolution 9. Democracy – A government in which power is in the hands of the people either directly or indirectly B. You Started It…Causes of the Revolution 1. King George III was viewed as a tyrant. The revolution was designed to overthrow tyranny and establish a democracy in America. 2. An attempt to return to the policy of salutary neglect. The first fighting was not for independence. *Most popular historical thought.
3. Colonial merchants did not like mercantilism, or British control of colonial trade. 4. Americans did not want to help pay for the costs of the F& I War. 5. Taxation without representation. Colonists wanted a voice in the government that taxed them. 6. Rebellious acts of the colonists, Boston Tea Party and Boston Massacre for example.
7. British underestimated how badly colonists wanted Independence. 8. British reactions to colonists growing demand for independence were too harsh. C.I Dont Want to Fight…Ways the Revolution Could Have Been Avoided 1. Grant colonists representation in Parliament 2. Remove British soldiers from American soil 3. Stop radical colonial activity 4. Respond to colonial petitions 5. Colonists help pay the British war debt 6. Fewer laws and taxes by Parliament 7. Continue salutary neglect 8. Less trade restrictions in colonies which would end smuggling
D. Heck No We Wont Go – Colonial Methods of Protest 1. Boycotts 2. Intimidating government officials 3. Petition the government 4. Rioting 5. Holding rallies 6. Hanging/Burning effigies 7. Letters of protest 8. Organize protest groups (Sons of Liberty) 9. Destroying private property 10. Civil Disobedience
E. New British Laws 1. Sugar Act (1764) – Tax on sugar, wine, and coffee and set a plan to collect taxes on molasses a. Colonists caught smuggling would be tried in naval courts instead of civilian courts
2. Stamp Act (1765) – Required colonists to purchase a stamp in order to buy all newspapers, pamphlets, contracts and all other printed materials a. The first direct tax, a tax not passed on in the price of the good b. Most hated of all the British taxes and colonial boycotts eventually forced its repeal in 1766
3. Declaratory Act (1767) – Passed after the repeal of the Stamp Act a. Stated Parliament had the right to pass laws for the colonies in all cases 4. Townshend Acts (1767) – Named for Charles Townshend, the Chancellor of the Exchequer, as a way to raise money
a. Placed a tax on lead, paper, paint, glass, and tea b. Authorized writs of assistance, search warrants that allowed British officials the right to search anywhere for suspected goods c. As a result, the Sons of Liberty were formed to enforce boycotts and intimidate British officials
F. Boston Massacre (March 5, 1770) 1. British soldiers guarded the Customs House in Boston on Kings Street (now State Street) a. Customs House was a sign of British tyranny since it was the place where the British added taxes to their products 2. By 7:00 an angry mob began to form, led by former slave Crispus Attucks, and began to shout insults and throw snowballs at the soldiers, led by Thomas Preston 3. By 9:00 a few hundred people gathered and as the situation grew worse Attucks yelled, Fire and be damned!
4. Preston yelled in reply, Dont Fire! The officer, only hearing fire, shot his musket killing Attucks instantly a. Five other soldiers then fired into the crowd killing two more instantly and two died the following day 5. A total of eight officers were charged and defended at trial by John Adams a. Six were found not guilty however, two were charged with manslaughter, punished and returned to their regiment
G. Tea…anyone? The Boston Tea Party 1. By 1773, all the Townshend Acts had been repealed except for the tax on tea 2. Because the cost of British tea was so high colonists were buying cheaper smuggled tea 3. Parliament passed the Tea Act (1773) to help the British East India Company, which was about to go bankrupt a. Lowered the cost of British to below the price of smuggled tea b. Would give the British East India Company a monopoly on tea sales in the colonies 4. Three ships, the Dartmouth, Eleanor, and Beaver were to deliver the first shipment of cheap British tea 5. December 16, 1773, about 50 Sons of Liberty members dressed as Mohawk Natives boarded the ships and threw 342 chests of tea into Boston Harbor
H. The British Response – The Coercive (Intolerable) Acts 1. Boston Harbor would be closed until Boston paid for lost tea 2. The Massachusetts charter was canceled. The governor would decide if and when the legislature would meet. 3. Royal officials accused of a crime were sent to Britain for trial where they would face a friendlier judge and jury 4. Quartering Act forced colonists to quarter, house and supply British soldiers 5. Massachusetts would be ruled by a military governor, Thomas Gage
I.What Do We Do Now? The First Continental Congress 1. Passage of Intolerable Acts pushed the colonies to meet at Carpenters Hall in 1774 a. Every colony showed except Georgia 2. Sent a letter of grievances (complaints) to George III 3. Forced a colonial boycott until Intolerable Acts were repealed and formed a Continental Association
J. The Final Break 1. Early April 1775 General Gage learned colonists were keeping guns and ammunition at Concord 2. On April 18, Gage sent 800 soldiers to seize the guns 3. When the Sons of Liberty find out they send Paul Revere and William Dawes to warn the patriots at Concord 4. At dawn British troops arrive at Lexington, between Boston and Concord, where eight minutemen are killed (The shot heard around the world) 5. British continued to Concord where the British were turned back
K. The Second Continental Congress 1. Met at Pennsylvania State House (now Independence Hall) on May 10, 1775 2. Sent King George III one last petition for peace – Olive Branch Petition a. It is denied; the colonists are declared rebels and in a state of rebellion 3. The Second Continental Congress would become the government of the colonies throughout the American Revolution a. George Washington is appointed commander-in-chief of the Continental Army