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Historical Designers The Early Socialites: Elsie de Wolfe

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1 Historical Designers The Early Socialites: Elsie de Wolfe
Dorothy Draper Syrie Maugham Eleanor McMillan Brown Sister Parish Ruby Ross Wood Billy Baldwin

2 Elsie De Wolfe First to create the occupation of interior decorating
Considered the first lady of interior decoration Moved away from the Victorian design Born around 1865 she was a high society stage actress until age 40. Her partner Bessie Marbury encouraged her to start a new career when her stage acting career feel short. She was already known for her set designs and her striking mode of dress so she set out and created a career in interior decorating within her circle of high society friends. She and her partner Bessie were known for throwing some very infamous parties

3 Elsie de Wolfe Elsie’s style offered a breath of fresh air from the victorian period were first popular among her friends but quickly spread to mainstream America thru her newpaper and magazine columns. In addition, in 1913 she published The House in Good Taste. (ghost writer was Ruby Ross Wood) She favored beige colors, light and the use of mirrors. Washington Irving Dining Room (her and Bessie's home) Colony Club Dining Room (a prominent NY social club for women) Both rooms feature a break from the Victorian style of dark wood and ornate carvings.

4 Elsie de Wolfe Wolfe had a lifelong love of France and moved there with Bessie after renovating the Villa Trianon at Versailles. At the age of 60, she actually married sir Charles Mendl for the title while continuing her relationship with Bessie. She died in 1950 and is also credited with blue hair dye, short white gloves, strands of pearls and the creation of “the pink lady” cocktail.

5 Villa Trianon Villa Trianon, Elsie’s pride and joy. Her home until her death in 1950.

6 Dorothy Draper First successful commercial designer
Hotel projects and public spaces Total design including china, furniture down to the match books Her ornate style of eye-popping colors and oversize prints, lost popularity in the 1950’s Born in 1889 – 1969 Considered the first commercial designer. Emphasis was hotel and hospitality design. She designed everything from the china, furniture and matchbooks. Her Style: Intense colors (not white), rococo scrollwork, well maintained plants and flowers, dense, heavy textured neutral carpets, black and white doors, large floral prints and fringe. Quote: "If it looks right, it's right.“ She was so successful at promoting her grand style and producing for her commercial clients a healthy profit that her clients dubbed the positive effect "draperizing". .

7 Dorothy Draper Lobby of the Hampshire House, located at Central Park South. Draper envisioned a mixture of English and Italian baroque. She designed oversized black and white doors and lined the corridors with marble tile. Plaster reliefs carved in the ornate style of Grinling Gibbons decorated the walls. Her signature style of large floral prints in bright colors against striped walls brightened up the rooms.

8 Dorothy Draper Metropolitan Museum Café, 1950’s
, early 1950’s

9 Draper Furniture by Kindel
Kindel furniture Co. Dorothy Draper Collection

10 Dorothy Draper 1939: Publication Decorating is Fun
Nationally syndicated advice column call “Ask Dorothy Draper” Lobby of the Carlyle, circa 1930 She appeared in may publications, in fact more than the first Lady, Eleanor Roosevelt. Cover of Time and Life. She sold her business in 1960 and died in 1969.

11 Syrie Maugham 1879 – 1955 Leading British designer of the 1920’s and 30’s. She designed the first all white room. Used pickled finishes. She became known rooms done in a variety of shades of white. Husband was a well know writer, Somerset Maugham House & Garden THE MOMENT I STEPPED INTO THE BEDROOM, I was in a fairy tale, my task to find and awaken the sleeping beauty. It was a very tall room, made even taller and airier by the large white bed, whose bedposts seemed to reach to the ceiling — it looked as if the bars had been taken off a giant birdcage. The room was almost square and had an open, delicate, almost ephemeral quality, enhanced by the dreamy fragrance of white petunias blooming in profusion in the garden below. Since there was an adjoining dressing room for clothing, the bedroom's only real furniture consisted of a bed, with its white coverlet, a few chairs upholstered in white raw silk and arranged on a sculptured white wool rug, a low upholstered silk stool, and a comfortable large wooden bedside table, stripped and treated with glazed white paint. At the windows hung practically nonexistent curtains of unlined white voile. The color — and the only pattern — was in the wall covering, a contemporary Swedish rough linen just this side of white, crudely stenciled with a scroll design in quite a strong grass green [“Syrie” wallpaper now available from Studio Printworks]. Only white flowers were allowed in the room, but they were, as in all of Syrie Maugham's rooms, extravagantly everywhere. — Billy Baldwin for House & Garden

12 Eleanor McMillan Brown
Started the first full service design firm in 1924 called McMillan, Inc. in NYC. The company created many great designers like Albert Hadley, David Hicks and Billy Baldwin The company is still in business today. Born in St. Louis in 1880 died at 101 in 1991 Attended the New York School of Fine and Applied Arts – now Parson’s school of design

13 Sister Parish First decorator to decorate the Kennedy White House
Co-founder of Parrish-Hadley Assoc Known for painted furniture, quilts and a lived-in look. Born in 1910, Died in 1994 Used bright colors, fearlessly Liked painted furniture and a lived in look

14 Sister Parish Aviairy theme in her home in Main
Bedroom of Sister Parish, where she died

15 Sister Parish If you have a quilt, you owe it to Sister Parish for the look that has trickled down to Ralph Lauren today.

16 Sister Parish Hired by the Duke and Duchess of York in 1988, the team was later fired due to outrage that they were using American designers. Sister was not sorry to lose the job. The couple she said, "are not aesthetic people. None of them (the royal family) are. That's a Windsor trait."

17 Ruby Ross Wood Career started as a reporter and a writer on interior decorating Was the ghostwriter or Elsie de Wolfe’s A House in Good Taste. Credited for creating the first department store decorating firm. She was a longtime employer of Billy Baldwin. Born in 1880 in Georgia, she moved to New York to become a reporter She worked for a magazine call the Delineator to ghostwrite for Elsie de Wolfe She wrote her own book called The Honest House Worked for Wanamaker’s dept store Opened a decorating shop in 1914 called the Modernist Studios She published in House and Garden Ruby died in 1950

18 Billy Baldwin Began working for Ruby Ross Wood in 1935 and took it over in 1952. First to use brown with panache Known for glossy brown walls born in born in 1903 died in 1983. Career began in 1935 in New York Ruby Ross Wood asked him to work for her and he worked for her until she passed away in 1950 Most of his clients were celebrities. He favored cotton and his style was very neat, trim, tidy and immaculate. Everything was very tailored, starched and polished. He like symmetry and furniture of the Louis XV and XVI periods Quote: “stick to the things you love. An honest room is always up to date.” Books: Billy Baldwin Decorates and Billy Baldwin Remembers both out of print. There is Billy Baldwin An Autobiography.

19 Billy Baldwin Billy’s first New York Apartment

20 Billy Baldwin Slipper chairs covered to the floor in a tailored cotton fabric. Baldwin died in 1983 at the age of 80.

21 19th and Early 20th Century William Morris Charles Rennie Mackintosh
Gustav Stickley Frank Lloyd Wright

22 One of the most influential designers of the last 150 years
Painter, typography, wallpaper, carpets and stained glass Pioneer of the Arts and Crafts Movement Morris was a poet, painter, manufacturer, socialist reformer, architect, sculpture, and printer. Morris has been considered “The greatest English designer of the Nineteenth Century”

23 At only 4 yrs old he began developing a passion for anything medieval
He is known for stained glass and illuminated manuscripts.

24 Kelmscott Press using wood blocks and engravings.

25 Wallcoverings in the Arts and Craft Style
Wallcoverings in the Arts and Craft Style. Also known for tapestries and fabrics.

26 In 1861, William Morris founded Morris & Co
In 1861, William Morris founded Morris & Co. to make furniture, in addition to the carvings, fabric, tapestries, stained glass, and wallpaper. His furniture focused on honesty of construction and genuine materials, and rejected modern “machine” made furniture. Morris died in 1986

27 Charles Rennie Mackintosh
Scottish Architect and designer Attended and designed the Glasgow School of Art His work was light, elegant and original Known for furniture, particularly those with tall, straight backs. Scottish architect and designer born in 1868. Charles Rennie Mackintosh is most closely associated with the design and manufacture of furniture. His earliest designs show a strong affinity to the arts and crafts movement whilst his final designs are a clear precursor to the art deco movement.

28 Dining Room, 78 South Park Avenue
Designer: Charles Rennie Mackintosh, 1906 The dining room of Mackintosh's home as reconstructed at the Hunterian Art Gallery, Glasgow University. According to Moffat and Baxter, like the dining rooms at Windyhill and Hill House, this one is "a dark-coloured room which directed attention to the dinner table. This would have been laid with silver cutlery, sparkling glass, and lit by candles Mackintosh covered the walls with coarse grey-brown wrapping paper and stenciled them with a rose and lattice motif enlved by silver-painted dots" (p. 57). Mackintosh originally designed the famous chairs for Miss Cranston's Argyle Street Tea Rooms.

29 Hill House - Mackintosh
Guest Bedroom, Hillhouse, Helensborough Designer: Charles Rennie Mackintosh, 1902-4

30 Gustav Stickley (1857-1942) American craftsman and business owner
A major force behind the Arts and Crafts Movement in America Designed furniture that was simple with exposed joinery made from oak. Stressed handmade furniture over machine made. His designs were referred to as Mission or Craftsman ( ) In 1898, he founded the Gustav Stickley Company in Eastwood, a suburb of Syracuse, New York Stickley used the name Craftsman for his products— This style came to be known as Mission or Craftsman and is identifiable by such key elements as exposed joinery, solidly constructed oak forms, and strong, clean lines.

31 The Craftsman Home Designed for the middle class
A lot of wood with built-ins using available materials Form follows function Light fixtures and hardware related to overall design. Only a house originating from plans published by Stickley through his magazine The Craftsman can be a true Craftsman Home. He published descriptions and drawings of homes in this magazine beginning in 1901. In the January 1904 issue, he featured the first official Craftsman Home and announced that henceforth the magazine would feature at least one house a month, and subscribers could send away for a set of plans for one house from the series per year, free of charge. Stickley designed at least 241 homes and published over 221 plans

32 Frank Lloyd Wright (1867-1959) American Architect
Founded Taliesin Fellowship in 1932 (Wisconsin and Arizona) Leader in the style known as Prairie Style June 8, 1867-April 9,1959 His mother wanted him to be an architect, even before he was born. Married in 1889 to Catherine Lee Tobin and had 6 children. By 1908 he was extremely successful and began to flaunt success and seek relationships with married women He left his wife and children to be with a married woman of one of his clients (Mamah Cheney) He later build Taliesin for Mrs. Cheney and himself Tragedy: One of his servants set fire to their home Taliesin One and killed Mrs. Cheney and her two children with a hatchet. Seven people were murdered one at a time. Later rebuilt Taliesin and it later burned.

33 Wright Style Created the open floor plan Used corner windows
Used natural materials and designed for a feeling of being one with nature Used low pitch roofs (no attics or basements) with a horizontal feel Always used a fireplace – heart of the home Designed furniture with lots of built-ins Loved nature- used various wood tones, stones, and brick Incorporated many windows to bring in natural light First to use corner windows Created the Open floor plan No attics or basements Used rich fabrics, plants, and large paintings to add color Incorporated furniture with built-in storage Always built fireplaces- heart of the home

34 Famous Works by Wright Robie House in Chicago, IL 1908 – Prairie Style House Guggenheim Museum New York, 1959 Falling water is the best-known private home for someone of non-royal blood. It is perched over a waterfall in the Pennsylvania highlands, and rests on rock formations. Reinforced-concrete cantilever slabs project from the rock to carry the house over the stream. The living room has a step that leads directly into the stream, and on the third level terraces open from sleeping quarters, which emphasizes the horizontal nature of the home.

35 Johnson Wax Building Lily Pad 9” at base to 18’ at top
He designed the furniture and seating (original chairs tipped…were only 3-legged.)

36 Wright Furniture and Interiors

37 Modern (International Style) Designers
Mies Van der Rohe Le Corbusier Philip Johnson Marcel Breuer Charles and Ray Eames

38 Mies Van der Rohe (1886 – 1969) German Architect
Last Director of Bauhaus School of Design in Germany Started the movement of the “International Style” (use of glass and steel) Famous quote: “Less is more” Developed the first cantilever chair Famous chair: Barcelona Chair dating to 1929

39 Mies Van der Rohe Farnsworth House in the late 1940’s
International style use of steel and glass

40 Le Corbusier (1887 – 1965) French Architect
Worked in the International Style Used a lot of concrete, class and steel with lots of open spaces Note the round glasses… Philip Johnson also wore this style

41 Le Corbusier Furniture
Chaise Lounge, 1927 Grande Comfort, 1929 Basculant Chair, 1929

42 Le Corbusier Villa Savoye, 1928 - 31, France “Machine for Living”
International Style Residence built on stilt foundations

43 Philip Johnson ( ) American Architect known for his “International Style” Pupil of Mies Van der Rohe Best known for his the Glass House July 8, 1906– January 25, 2005 Known for his round glasses and witty personality.

44 The Glass House 1949 New Canaan Connecticut His personal home and estate. Johnson died in this house.

45 Marcel Breuer (1902 – 1981) Hungarian born architect, furniture designer and teacher. Trained under Walter Gropius, founder of the Bauhaus School of Design Invented the first tubular steel frame used in furniture. Known for his tubular steel chair, Wassily. Moved to New York during the Nazi reign

46 Marcel Breuer Wassily Chair, 1925 Cantilever Chair, 1928

47 Charles and Ray Eames American architect/furniture designer.
Known for tubular steel and molded plywood chair called the “Potato Chip” chair. His furniture is still produced by Herman Miller. Charles 1912 – 1988 Ray Known mostly for their furniture design during the 40’s and 50’s.

48 Charles and Ray Eames LaChaise 1948 (Vitra now produces)
Met in 1940 at Cranbroke school of Art Ray was an early abstract artist. She was a graphic designer (magazine covers to fabric) Married in 1941.Charles and Ray worked in tubular metal, molded plywood and fiberglass.

49 Charles and Ray Eames House in California (pre-fab…off the shelf approach) wanted to supply veterans with affordable homes after WWII. They also designed toys, film and slide shows.

50 Michael Graves Frank Gehry Mario Buatta Leading Firms
Current Designers Michael Graves Frank Gehry Mario Buatta Leading Firms

51 Michael Graves (1934 – Present)
American Born Architect Most noted works are the Swan and Dolphin Hotels in Walt Disney World, Orlando, FL. Has designed over 200 houseware items for Target and also designs for Kohler

52 Michael Graves Graves became paralzed from the waste down in 2003 due to unkown infection. He is still very active . His company has over 100 employees. Says he enjoyes designing a spatuala as much as a large building.

53 Frank Gehry (1929 – present)
American Architect born in Toronto Canada Deconstruction style Uses titanium as a building material Best known structure is the Guggenheim Museum in Bilbao Spain. Know for making furniture out of cardboard Furniture is manufactured by Knoll.

54 Frank Gehry Power Play chair Wiggle Chair

55 Mario Buatta (1935 – present)
American Interior Designer “Prince of Chintz” He refers to his style as “the undecorated look” English Country look Famous clients: Barbara Walters, Billy Joel, Mariah Carey, and Malcolm Forbes Highly published in: House and Garden, Architectural Digest, Town and Country, House Beautiful

56 Mario Buatta

57 Leading Architectural Firms
HOK Gensler Perkins and Will RTKL

58 HOK Hellmuth, Obata + Kassabaum (HOK) one of the worlds largest American architectural/interior design firms. They are best know for their designs of sports stadiums. Founded in 1955, it now employs over 1800 employees in over 25 locations worldwide

59 Gensler Assoc. American architectural firms with office in 41 locations across the world Founded in 1965, they now employ over 3,000 Most recognized firm internationally and known as a leader in Green Design. Studio 585 : branding, signage/wayfinding/ web design (total package)

60 Perkins and Will Established in 1935 Internationally recognized
A leader in Healthcare and Higher Education Designed Haworth Showroom in Chicago Merchandise Mart

61 RTKL An international firm Specializes in
Architecture / Interior Design Urban Planning Branding Environmental Graphic Design Sustainable Design

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