Presentation on theme: "Historical Designers The Early Socialites: Elsie de Wolfe"— Presentation transcript:
1Historical Designers The Early Socialites: Elsie de Wolfe Dorothy DraperSyrie MaughamEleanor McMillan BrownSister ParishRuby Ross WoodBilly Baldwin
2Elsie De Wolfe First to create the occupation of interior decorating Considered the first lady of interior decorationMoved away from the Victorian designBorn around 1865 she was a high society stage actress until age 40. Her partner Bessie Marbury encouraged her to start a new career when her stage acting career feel short. She was already known for her set designs and her striking mode of dress so she set out and created a career in interior decorating within her circle of high society friends. She and her partner Bessie were known for throwing some very infamous parties
3Elsie de WolfeElsie’s style offered a breath of fresh air from the victorian period were first popular among her friends but quickly spread to mainstream America thru her newpaper and magazine columns. In addition, in 1913 she publishedThe House in Good Taste. (ghost writer was Ruby Ross Wood) She favored beige colors, light and the use of mirrors.Washington Irving Dining Room (her and Bessie's home)Colony Club Dining Room (a prominent NY social club for women)Both rooms feature a break from the Victorian style of dark wood and ornate carvings.
4Elsie de WolfeWolfe had a lifelong love of France and moved there with Bessie after renovating the Villa Trianon at Versailles.At the age of 60, she actually married sir Charles Mendl for the title while continuing her relationship with Bessie.She died in 1950 and is also credited with blue hair dye, short white gloves, strands of pearls and the creation of “the pink lady” cocktail.
5Villa TrianonVilla Trianon, Elsie’s pride and joy. Her home until her death in 1950.
6Dorothy Draper First successful commercial designer Hotel projects and public spacesTotal design including china, furniture down to the match booksHer ornate style of eye-popping colors and oversize prints, lost popularity in the 1950’sBorn in 1889 – 1969Considered the first commercial designer. Emphasis was hotel and hospitality design.She designed everything from the china, furniture and matchbooks.Her Style: Intense colors (not white), rococo scrollwork, well maintained plants and flowers, dense, heavy textured neutral carpets, black and white doors, large floral prints and fringe.Quote: "If it looks right, it's right.“ She was so successful at promoting her grand style and producing for her commercial clients a healthy profit that her clients dubbed the positive effect "draperizing". .
7Dorothy DraperLobby of the Hampshire House, located at Central Park South. Draper envisioned a mixture of English and Italian baroque. She designed oversized black and white doors and lined the corridors with marble tile. Plaster reliefs carved in the ornate style of Grinling Gibbons decorated the walls. Her signature style of large floral prints in bright colors against striped walls brightened up the rooms.
8Dorothy Draper Metropolitan Museum Café, 1950’s , early 1950’s
9Draper Furniture by Kindel Kindel furniture Co. Dorothy Draper Collection
10Dorothy Draper 1939: Publication Decorating is Fun Nationally syndicated advice column call “Ask Dorothy Draper”Lobby of the Carlyle, circa 1930She appeared in may publications, in fact more than the first Lady, Eleanor Roosevelt. Cover of Time and Life.She sold her business in 1960 and died in 1969.
11Syrie Maugham1879 – 1955 Leading British designer of the 1920’s and 30’s.She designed the first all white room. Used pickled finishes. She became known rooms done in a variety of shades of white.Husband was a well know writer, Somerset MaughamHouse & GardenTHE MOMENT I STEPPED INTO THE BEDROOM, I was in a fairy tale, my task to find and awaken the sleeping beauty. It was a very tall room, made even taller and airier by the large white bed, whose bedposts seemed to reach to the ceiling — it looked as if the bars had been taken off a giant birdcage. The room was almost square and had an open, delicate, almost ephemeral quality, enhanced by the dreamy fragrance of white petunias blooming in profusion in the garden below. Since there was an adjoining dressing room for clothing, the bedroom's only real furniture consisted of a bed, with its white coverlet, a few chairs upholstered in white raw silk and arranged on a sculptured white wool rug, a low upholstered silk stool, and a comfortable large wooden bedside table, stripped and treated with glazed white paint. At the windows hung practically nonexistent curtains of unlined white voile. The color — and the only pattern — was in the wall covering, a contemporary Swedish rough linen just this side of white, crudely stenciled with a scroll design in quite a strong grass green [“Syrie” wallpaper now available from Studio Printworks]. Only white flowers were allowed in the room, but they were, as in all of Syrie Maugham's rooms, extravagantly everywhere. — Billy Baldwin for House & Garden
12Eleanor McMillan Brown Started the first full service design firm in 1924 called McMillan, Inc. in NYC.The company created many great designers like Albert Hadley, David Hicks and Billy BaldwinThe company is still in business today.Born in St. Louis in 1880 died at 101 in 1991Attended the New York School of Fine and Applied Arts – now Parson’s school of design
13Sister Parish First decorator to decorate the Kennedy White House Co-founder of Parrish-Hadley AssocKnown for painted furniture, quilts and a lived-in look.Born in 1910, Died in 1994Used bright colors, fearlesslyLiked painted furniture and a lived in look
14Sister Parish Aviairy theme in her home in Main Bedroom of Sister Parish, where she died
15Sister ParishIf you have a quilt, you owe it to Sister Parish for the look that has trickled down to Ralph Lauren today.
16Sister ParishHired by the Duke and Duchess of York in 1988, the team was later fired due to outrage that they were using American designers. Sister was not sorry to lose the job. The couple she said, "are not aesthetic people. None of them (the royal family) are. That's a Windsor trait."
17Ruby Ross WoodCareer started as a reporter and a writer on interior decoratingWas the ghostwriter or Elsie de Wolfe’s A House in Good Taste.Credited for creating the first department store decorating firm.She was a longtime employer of Billy Baldwin.Born in 1880 in Georgia, she moved to New York to become a reporterShe worked for a magazine call the Delineator to ghostwrite for Elsie de WolfeShe wrote her own book called The Honest HouseWorked for Wanamaker’s dept storeOpened a decorating shop in 1914 called the Modernist StudiosShe published in House and GardenRuby died in 1950
18Billy BaldwinBegan working for Ruby Ross Wood in 1935 and took it over in 1952.First to use brown with panacheKnown for glossy brown wallsborn in born in 1903 died in 1983.Career began in 1935 in New YorkRuby Ross Wood asked him to work for her and he worked for her until she passed away in 1950Most of his clients were celebrities. He favored cotton and his style was very neat, trim, tidy and immaculate. Everything was very tailored, starched and polished. He like symmetry and furniture of the Louis XV and XVI periodsQuote: “stick to the things you love. An honest room is always up to date.”Books: Billy Baldwin Decorates and Billy Baldwin Remembers both out of print. There is Billy Baldwin An Autobiography.
20Billy BaldwinSlipper chairs covered to the floor in a tailored cotton fabric. Baldwin died in 1983 at the age of 80.
2119th and Early 20th Century William Morris Charles Rennie Mackintosh Gustav StickleyFrank Lloyd Wright
22One of the most influential designers of the last 150 years Painter, typography, wallpaper, carpets and stained glassPioneer of the Arts and Crafts MovementMorris was a poet, painter, manufacturer, socialist reformer, architect, sculpture, and printer.Morris has been considered “The greatest English designer of the Nineteenth Century”
23At only 4 yrs old he began developing a passion for anything medieval He is known for stained glass and illuminated manuscripts.
24Kelmscott Press using wood blocks and engravings.
25Wallcoverings in the Arts and Craft Style Wallcoverings in the Arts and Craft Style. Also known for tapestries and fabrics.
26In 1861, William Morris founded Morris & Co In 1861, William Morris founded Morris & Co. to make furniture, in addition to the carvings, fabric, tapestries, stained glass, and wallpaper. His furniture focused on honesty of construction and genuine materials, and rejected modern “machine” made furniture.Morris died in 1986
27Charles Rennie Mackintosh Scottish Architect and designerAttended and designed the Glasgow School of ArtHis work was light, elegant and originalKnown for furniture, particularly those with tall, straight backs.Scottish architect and designer born in 1868.Charles Rennie Mackintosh is most closely associated with the design and manufacture of furniture. His earliest designs show a strong affinity to the arts and crafts movement whilst his final designs are a clear precursor to the art deco movement.
28Dining Room, 78 South Park Avenue Designer: Charles Rennie Mackintosh,1906The dining room of Mackintosh's home as reconstructed at the Hunterian Art Gallery, Glasgow University. According to Moffat and Baxter, like the dining rooms at Windyhill and Hill House, this one is "a dark-coloured room which directed attention to the dinner table. This would have been laid with silver cutlery, sparkling glass, and lit by candles Mackintosh covered the walls with coarse grey-brown wrapping paper and stenciled them with a rose and lattice motif enlved by silver-painted dots" (p. 57). Mackintosh originally designed the famous chairs for Miss Cranston's Argyle Street Tea Rooms.
29Hill House - Mackintosh Guest Bedroom, Hillhouse, HelensboroughDesigner: Charles Rennie Mackintosh,1902-4
30Gustav Stickley (1857-1942) American craftsman and business owner A major force behind the Arts and Crafts Movement in AmericaDesigned furniture that was simple with exposed joinery made from oak.Stressed handmade furniture over machine made.His designs were referred to as Mission or Craftsman( )In 1898, he founded the Gustav Stickley Company in Eastwood, a suburb of Syracuse, New YorkStickley used the name Craftsman for his products—This style came to be known as Mission or Craftsman and is identifiable by such key elements as exposed joinery, solidly constructed oak forms, and strong, clean lines.
31The Craftsman Home Designed for the middle class A lot of wood with built-ins using available materialsForm follows functionLight fixtures and hardware related to overall design.Only a house originating from plans published by Stickley through his magazine The Craftsman can be a true Craftsman Home.He published descriptions and drawings of homes in this magazine beginning in 1901.In the January 1904 issue, he featured the first official Craftsman Home and announced that henceforth the magazine would feature at least one house a month, and subscribers could send away for a set of plans for one house from the series per year, free of charge.Stickley designed at least 241 homes and published over 221 plans
32Frank Lloyd Wright (1867-1959) American Architect Founded Taliesin Fellowship in 1932 (Wisconsin and Arizona)Leader in the style known as Prairie StyleJune 8, 1867-April 9,1959His mother wanted him to be an architect, even before he was born.Married in 1889 to Catherine Lee Tobin and had 6 children.By 1908 he was extremely successful and began to flaunt success and seek relationships with married womenHe left his wife and children to be with a married woman of one of his clients (Mamah Cheney) He later build Taliesin for Mrs. Cheney and himselfTragedy: One of his servants set fire to their home Taliesin One and killed Mrs. Cheney and her two children with a hatchet. Seven people were murdered one at a time. Later rebuilt Taliesin and it later burned.
33Wright Style Created the open floor plan Used corner windows Used natural materials and designed for a feeling of being one with natureUsed low pitch roofs (no attics or basements) with a horizontal feelAlways used a fireplace – heart of the homeDesigned furniture with lots of built-insLoved nature- used various wood tones, stones, and brickIncorporated many windows to bring in natural light First to use corner windowsCreated the Open floor planNo attics or basementsUsed rich fabrics, plants, and large paintings to add colorIncorporated furniture with built-in storageAlways built fireplaces- heart of the home
34Famous Works by WrightRobie House in Chicago, IL 1908 – Prairie Style HouseGuggenheim Museum New York, 1959Falling water is the best-known private home for someone of non-royal blood. It is perched over a waterfall in the Pennsylvania highlands, and rests on rock formations. Reinforced-concrete cantilever slabs project from the rock to carry the house over the stream. The living room has a step that leads directly into the stream, and on the third level terraces open from sleeping quarters, which emphasizes the horizontal nature of the home.
35Johnson Wax Building Lily Pad 9” at base to 18’ at top He designed the furniture and seating (original chairs tipped…were only 3-legged.)
37Modern (International Style) Designers Mies Van der RoheLe CorbusierPhilip JohnsonMarcel BreuerCharles and Ray Eames
38Mies Van der Rohe (1886 – 1969) German Architect Last Director of Bauhaus School of Design in GermanyStarted the movement of the “International Style” (use of glass and steel)Famous quote: “Less is more”Developed the first cantilever chairFamous chair: Barcelona Chair dating to 1929
39Mies Van der Rohe Farnsworth House in the late 1940’s International style use of steel and glass
40Le Corbusier (1887 – 1965) French Architect Worked in the International StyleUsed a lot of concrete, class and steel with lots of open spacesNote the round glasses… Philip Johnson also wore this style
42Le Corbusier Villa Savoye, 1928 - 31, France “Machine for Living” International StyleResidence built on stilt foundations
43Philip Johnson ( )American Architect known for his “International Style”Pupil of Mies Van der RoheBest known for his the Glass HouseJuly 8, 1906– January 25, 2005Known for his round glasses and witty personality.
44The Glass House1949 New Canaan Connecticut His personal home and estate.Johnson died in this house.
45Marcel Breuer (1902 – 1981)Hungarian born architect, furniture designer and teacher.Trained under Walter Gropius, founder of the Bauhaus School of DesignInvented the first tubular steel frame used in furniture.Known for his tubular steel chair, Wassily.Moved to New York during the Nazi reign
47Charles and Ray Eames American architect/furniture designer. Known for tubular steel and molded plywood chair called the “Potato Chip” chair.His furniture is still produced by Herman Miller.Charles1912 – 1988 RayKnown mostly for their furniture design during the 40’s and 50’s.
48Charles and Ray Eames LaChaise 1948 (Vitra now produces) Met in 1940 at Cranbroke school of ArtRay was an early abstract artist. She was a graphic designer (magazine covers to fabric)Married in 1941.Charles and Ray worked in tubular metal, molded plywood and fiberglass.
49Charles and Ray EamesHouse in California (pre-fab…off the shelf approach) wanted to supply veterans with affordable homes after WWII. They also designed toys, film and slide shows.
50Michael Graves Frank Gehry Mario Buatta Leading Firms Current DesignersMichael GravesFrank GehryMario BuattaLeading Firms
51Michael Graves (1934 – Present) American Born ArchitectMost noted works are the Swan and Dolphin Hotels in Walt Disney World, Orlando, FL.Has designed over 200 houseware items for Target and also designs for Kohler
52Michael GravesGraves became paralzed from the waste down in 2003 due to unkown infection. He is still very active . His company has over 100 employees. Says he enjoyes designing a spatuala as much as a large building.
53Frank Gehry (1929 – present) American Architect born in Toronto CanadaDeconstruction styleUses titanium as a building materialBest known structure is the Guggenheim Museum in Bilbao Spain.Know for making furniture out of cardboardFurniture is manufactured by Knoll.
55Mario Buatta (1935 – present) American Interior Designer“Prince of Chintz”He refers to his style as “the undecorated look”English Country lookFamous clients: Barbara Walters, Billy Joel, Mariah Carey, and Malcolm ForbesHighly published in: House and Garden, Architectural Digest, Town and Country, House Beautiful
57Leading Architectural Firms HOKGenslerPerkins and WillRTKL
58HOKHellmuth, Obata + Kassabaum (HOK) one of the worlds largest American architectural/interior design firms. They are best know for their designs of sports stadiums.Founded in 1955, it now employs over 1800 employees in over 25 locations worldwide
59Gensler Assoc.American architectural firms with office in 41 locations across the worldFounded in 1965, they now employ over 3,000Most recognized firm internationally and known as a leader in Green Design.Studio 585 : branding, signage/wayfinding/ web design (total package)
60Perkins and Will Established in 1935 Internationally recognized A leader in Healthcare and Higher EducationDesigned Haworth Showroom in Chicago Merchandise Mart
61RTKL An international firm Specializes in Architecture / Interior DesignUrban PlanningBrandingEnvironmental Graphic DesignSustainable Design