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Household Flies: Biology, Behavior, and Control Dr. Richard M. Houseman Department of Entomology University of Missouri.

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Presentation on theme: "Household Flies: Biology, Behavior, and Control Dr. Richard M. Houseman Department of Entomology University of Missouri."— Presentation transcript:

1 Household Flies: Biology, Behavior, and Control Dr. Richard M. Houseman Department of Entomology University of Missouri

2 Flies Order Diptera – Have two wings – 110,000 species worldwide – Aquatic and terrestrial – Medically important Complete Metamorphosis – Egg, maggot, pupa, adult Motivation – Food, light, sex, temperature

3 Fly Development Life Cycle EggLarva Pupa Adult -Feeding -Growing -Feeding? -Mating

4 Fly IPM Inspection Identification Mechanical (exclusion, traps) Cultural (sanitation) Chemical (baits, aerosols)

5 Fly Identification Three groups – Small flies Less than ¼ in length Various breeding sites – Filth flies Infest indoors – Nuisance flies Invade from outdoors

6 Small Flies

7 Fruit Fly Drosophila spp. Several species 1/8 inch long Tan in color Red eyes

8 Fruit fly Drosophila sp.

9 Fruit Fly Life Cycle 7-10 days Eggs laid on fruit – About 500 eggs per female – Hatch after hrs Larvae feed on fermenting sugars – 5-6 days Pupate in drier areas near food

10 Fruit Fly Breeding sites Ripened fruits and vegetables Moist organic matter in cracks, crevices Mops, Drains Garbage Inspection Often multiple breeding sites Adults not always near breeding sites

11 Phorid Fly Megacelia scalaris – 1/10 inch long – Arched thorax – Dark brown – No red eyes Humpbacked fly Phoridae

12 Humpbacked fly Phoridae

13 Phorid Fly Life Cycle days Eggs laid on surface of DOM – 40 eggs over 12 hr period – Hatch after 24 hrs Larvae feed on moist DOM – 9-16 days Pupate in dry areas close to food

14 Phorid Flies Various Breeding Sites Decomposing plants or animals Organically enriched soil under slab Dirty floor drains, disposals, drip pans Trash containers Crevices at base of kitchen equipment Potted plants, terrariums Feces Cadavers

15 Phorid Flies Inspections Need to be very thorough Often multiple breeding sites Masking tape method for drains and slabs

16 Moth Fly Psychoda alternata – 1/8 inch long – Pointed, hairy wings – Long, drooping antennae Moth fly Psychoda sp.

17 Moth Fly Life Cycle 8-24 days Eggs laid on gelatinous lining or moist DOM – eggs per female – Hatch after 48 hrs Larvae feed on algae, bacteria, sludge in gelatinous film – Utilize breathing tube – days Pupate for short period

18 Moth fly Psychoda sp.

19 Moth Fly Breeding sites Gelatinous organic matter Sink/sewer drains, sump pumps Shower pans Porta potties Mops, brooms Crawlspaces Sewers/sewage treatment nearby

20 Moth Fly Inspections Strongly attracted to light Masking tape method for drains Check spider webs in crawlspaces Drill holes in wall behind shower pan (light)

21 Mosquito Culicidae – Thin bodies – Long mouthparts – Scales on wing veins Mosquito Culex sp.

22 Mosquito Life Cycle Eggs laid singly or in rafts – Hundreds of eggs per female – Female generally needs blood to make eggs Larvae live suspended from water surface – Breathe through air tube on rear end – Move about by wiggling – Feed on algae, bacteria, organic debris Pupae breathe through horns on head

23 Mosquito larvae Culicidae

24 Mosquito larvae Culicidae

25 Mosquito Breeding Sites Ponds, lakes, ditches Culverts, manholes Bird baths, gutters Pots, cans, buckets, other containers Old tires Inspections Breeding sites for larvae Vegetation around structure for adults

26 Filth Flies

27 House fly Musca domestica – ¼ inch long – Dull gray – 4 dark stripes on thorax – Sponging mouthparts

28 House fly Musca domestica

29 House Fly Life Cycle 6-10 days Eggs laid on fresh feces or garbage – eggs per female Larvae burrow into food material to feed – 6-8 days – May migrate several hundred feet from feeding site Pupate for short period

30 House fly Musca domestica

31 House fly Breeding sites Wet garbage Manure Rotting grains Inspections Focus outdoors primarily Pet manure areas Trash bins, decaying fruits/vegetables

32 Blow Fly Calliphora Phormia – ¼ inch long – Metallic colors

33 Green bottle fly Calliphora erythrocephala

34 Blow Fly Life Cycle 4-12 days Eggs laid on carcasses, feces, garbage – 180 eggs per time (2400 total) – Hatch after 8 hrs Larvae burrow into food material – Feed for 2-7 days – Crawl short distance from food – Burrow into soil to pupate Pupate for 2-5 days

35 Green bottle fly Calliphora erythrocephala

36 Green bottle fly Calliphora erythrocephala

37 Blow Fly Breeding Sites Dead animals Feces Garbage Inspections Focus outdoors primarily Dead animals, trash, feces Indoors usually result of dead rodent – 180+ flies from a single dead mouse

38 Nuisance Flies

39 Cluster Fly Pollenia rudis – 3/8 inch long – Golden/yellow hairs on the top of the thorax – Buckwheat honey odor

40 Cluster fly Pollenia rudis

41 Cluster Fly Life Cycle days (Four generations) Eggs laid in cracks in soil surface – One egg at a time Larvae locate earthworm – Burrow into worm – Feed for days – Exit earthworm to pupate Pupate for days

42 Cluster Fly Breeding Sites Lawns and pastures Inspections Locate exterior cracks/crevices South/west surfaces best Inspect attics/wall voids

43 Crane Fly Tipulidae – Large flies – Gangly looking – Very long legs – Mosquito-like Crane fly Tipulidae

44 Crane Fly Breeding Sites Damp habitats with abundant vegetation Inspections Usually considered occasional invaders Open doors/windows likely source Pose no threat indoors No treatment recommended

45 Midge Chironomidae – 1/4 inch – Mosquitoe-like – No long mouthparts

46 Midge Life Cycle Larvae live in bottom of still water Breeding sites Pools, puddles, ponds Inspections Strongly attracted to lights Look inside light fixtures, windowsills

47 Fly Control Sanitation – Breeding site elimination Exclusion – Reduce ability to gain entry Baits – Food-based – Sex-based

48 Flies Feeding – Food is the MOST important motivation Odors very attractive Detect over large distances Locate mates at feeding sites FEEDING and BREEDING sites

49 Flies Sanitation critical Regularly empty/wash trash cans Use tightly sealed trash cans Regularly clean drains Regular rotation of fresh fruits/veggies

50 Flies Temperature – Important attractant at short distances – Prefer low 80s Enter from outside during hot days Attracted to warm walls when cold comes – Exclusion critical

51 Flies Light – Many flies are diurnal – UV Usually used to lure into a trap – Not all species attracted equally to UV light Invaders very attracted Infesters not attracted as much – Placement is critical Sex – Males to female pheromones – Used to lure into traps

52 Contact Info: Dr. Richard M. Houseman Department of Entomology 1-87 Agriculture Bldg University of Missouri Columbia, MO

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