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Household Flies: Biology, Behavior, and Control

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Presentation on theme: "Household Flies: Biology, Behavior, and Control"— Presentation transcript:

1 Household Flies: Biology, Behavior, and Control
Dr. Richard M. Houseman Department of Entomology University of Missouri

2 Flies Order Diptera Complete Metamorphosis Motivation Have two wings
110,000 species worldwide Aquatic and terrestrial Medically important Complete Metamorphosis Egg, maggot, pupa, adult Motivation Food, light, sex, temperature

3 Fly Development Life Cycle Egg Larva Pupa Adult Feeding Growing

4 Fly IPM Inspection Identification Mechanical (exclusion, traps)
Cultural (sanitation) Chemical (baits, aerosols)

5 Fly Identification Three groups Small flies Filth flies Nuisance flies
Less than ¼” in length Various breeding sites Filth flies Infest indoors Nuisance flies Invade from outdoors

6 Small Flies

7 Fruit Fly Drosophila spp. Several species 1/8 inch long Tan in color
Red eyes

8 Fruit fly Drosophila sp.

9 Fruit Fly Life Cycle 7-10 days Eggs laid on fruit
About 500 eggs per female Hatch after hrs Larvae feed on fermenting sugars 5-6 days Pupate in drier areas near food

10 Fruit Fly Breeding sites Inspection Ripened fruits and vegetables
Moist organic matter in cracks, crevices Mops, Drains Garbage Inspection Often multiple breeding sites Adults not always near breeding sites

11 Phorid Fly Megacelia scalaris 1/10 inch long Arched thorax Dark brown
No red eyes Humpbacked fly Phoridae

12 Humpbacked fly Phoridae

13 Phorid Fly Life Cycle 14-37 days Eggs laid on surface of DOM
40 eggs over 12 hr period Hatch after 24 hrs Larvae feed on moist DOM 9-16 days Pupate in dry areas close to food

14 Phorid Flies Various Breeding Sites Decomposing plants or animals
Organically enriched soil under slab Dirty floor drains, disposals, drip pans Trash containers Crevices at base of kitchen equipment Potted plants, terrariums Feces Cadavers

15 Phorid Flies Inspections Need to be very thorough
Often multiple breeding sites Masking tape method for drains and slabs

16 Moth Fly Psychoda alternata 1/8 inch long Pointed, hairy wings
Long, drooping antennae Moth fly Psychoda sp.

17 Moth Fly Life Cycle 8-24 days
Eggs laid on gelatinous lining or moist DOM eggs per female Hatch after 48 hrs Larvae feed on algae, bacteria, sludge in gelatinous film Utilize breathing tube 10-15 days Pupate for short period

18 Moth fly Psychoda sp.

19 Moth Fly Breeding sites Gelatinous organic matter
Sink/sewer drains, sump pumps Shower pans Porta potties Mops, brooms Crawlspaces Sewers/sewage treatment nearby

20 Moth Fly Inspections Strongly attracted to light
Masking tape method for drains Check spider webs in crawlspaces Drill holes in wall behind shower pan (light)

21 Mosquito Culicidae Thin bodies Long mouthparts Scales on wing veins
Culex sp.

22 Mosquito Life Cycle Eggs laid singly or in rafts
Hundreds of eggs per female Female generally needs blood to make eggs Larvae live suspended from water surface Breathe through air tube on rear end Move about by wiggling Feed on algae, bacteria, organic debris Pupae breathe through horns on head

23 Mosquito larvae Culicidae

24 Mosquito larvae Culicidae

25 Mosquito Breeding Sites Inspections Ponds, lakes, ditches
Culverts, manholes Bird baths, gutters Pots, cans, buckets, other containers Old tires Inspections Breeding sites for larvae Vegetation around structure for adults

26 Filth Flies

27 House fly Musca domestica ¼ inch long Dull gray
4 dark stripes on thorax Sponging mouthparts

28 House fly Musca domestica

29 House Fly Life Cycle 6-10 days Eggs laid on fresh feces or garbage
eggs per female Larvae burrow into food material to feed 6-8 days May migrate several hundred feet from feeding site Pupate for short period

30 House fly Musca domestica

31 House fly Breeding sites Inspections Wet garbage Manure Rotting grains
Focus outdoors primarily Pet manure areas Trash bins, decaying fruits/vegetables

32 Blow Fly Calliphora Phormia ¼ inch long Metallic colors

33 Green bottle fly Calliphora erythrocephala

34 Blow Fly Life Cycle 4-12 days Eggs laid on carcasses, feces, garbage
180 eggs per time (2400 total) Hatch after 8 hrs Larvae burrow into food material Feed for 2-7 days Crawl short distance from food Burrow into soil to pupate Pupate for 2-5 days

35 Green bottle fly Calliphora erythrocephala

36 Green bottle fly Calliphora erythrocephala

37 Blow Fly Breeding Sites Inspections Dead animals Feces Garbage
Focus outdoors primarily Dead animals, trash, feces Indoors usually result of dead rodent 180+ flies from a single dead mouse

38 Nuisance Flies

39 Cluster Fly Pollenia rudis 3/8 inch long
Golden/yellow hairs on the top of the thorax Buckwheat honey odor

40 Cluster fly Pollenia rudis

41 Cluster Fly Life Cycle 25-36 days (Four generations)
Eggs laid in cracks in soil surface One egg at a time Larvae locate earthworm Burrow into worm Feed for days Exit earthworm to pupate Pupate for days

42 Cluster Fly Breeding Sites Inspections Lawns and pastures
Locate exterior cracks/crevices South/west surfaces best Inspect attics/wall voids

43 Crane Fly Tipulidae Large flies Gangly looking Very long legs
Mosquito-like Crane fly Tipulidae

44 Crane Fly Breeding Sites Inspections
Damp habitats with abundant vegetation Inspections Usually considered occasional invaders Open doors/windows likely source Pose no threat indoors No treatment recommended

45 Midge Chironomidae 1/4 inch Mosquitoe-like No long mouthparts

46 Midge Life Cycle Breeding sites Inspections
Larvae live in bottom of still water Breeding sites Pools, puddles, ponds Inspections Strongly attracted to lights Look inside light fixtures, windowsills

47 Fly Control Sanitation Exclusion Baits Breeding site elimination
Reduce ability to gain entry Baits Food-based Sex-based

48 Flies Feeding Food is the MOST important motivation
Odors very attractive Detect over large distances Locate mates at feeding sites FEEDING and BREEDING sites

49 Flies Sanitation critical Regularly empty/wash trash cans
Use tightly sealed trash cans Regularly clean drains Regular rotation of fresh fruits/veggies

50 Flies Temperature Important attractant at short distances
Prefer low 80’s Enter from outside during hot days Attracted to warm walls when cold comes Exclusion critical

51 Flies Light Sex Many flies are diurnal
UV Usually used to lure into a trap Not all species attracted equally to UV light Invaders very attracted Infesters not attracted as much Placement is critical Sex Males to female pheromones Used to lure into traps

52 Contact Info: Dr. Richard M. Houseman Department of Entomology 1-87 Agriculture Bldg University of Missouri Columbia, MO

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