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Ten Steps to Complex Learning Iwan Wopereis Educational Technology Expertise Centre (OTEC) Open University of the Netherlands (OUNL) Workshop Ten Competence.

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Presentation on theme: "Ten Steps to Complex Learning Iwan Wopereis Educational Technology Expertise Centre (OTEC) Open University of the Netherlands (OUNL) Workshop Ten Competence."— Presentation transcript:

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3 Ten Steps to Complex Learning Iwan Wopereis Educational Technology Expertise Centre (OTEC) Open University of the Netherlands (OUNL) Workshop Ten Competence Winter School 2008 Innsbruck, Austria February 21, 2008

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7 Workshop schedule Introduction: Complex learning and Instructional Design Four-component Instructional Design Group task Coffee break Ten Steps to Complex Learning Group task Discussion

8 Workshop schedule Introduction: Complex learning and Instructional Design Four-component Instructional Design Group tasks Coffee break Ten Steps to Complex Learning Group tasks Discussion

9 But first… a premezzo!

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12 Vladimir Mironov, Nuno Reis, Brian Derby (2006). Bioprinting: a beginning. Tissue Engineering. 12(4),

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15 New York Stock Exchange floor keeps shrinking International Herald Tribune, September 23, 2007

16 Hochberg et al. (2006, July 13). Neuronal ensemble control of prosthetic devices by a human with tetraplegia. Nature. Santhanam et al. (2006, July 13). A high-performance brain-computer interface. Nature.

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18 Focus on complex learning

19 Questions 1.Who of you is involved in instructional design (ID) for complex learning? 2.For those who are: Can you describe the way you design (your ID process)?

20 Instructional (Systems) Design Tripp & Bichelmeyer (1990)

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22 Instructional (Systems) Design (ADDIE) Analysis Design Development Implementation Evaluation

23 ID Scope (4C/ID) Analysis Design Development Implementation Evaluation

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28 Complex learning the integration of knowledge, skills, and attitudes; the coordination of qualitatively different constituent skills; the transfer of what is learned in the school or training setting to daily life and work settings.

29 searching for literature

30 Complex learning: problems Compartmentalization Fragmentation Transfer paradox

31 Compartmentalization The separation of a whole into distinct parts or categories Example: focus on particular domain: Cognitive Affective Psychomotor Example: distinction between models for Declarative learning (conceptional knowledge) Procedural learning (procedural skills)

32 Compartmentalization What kind of surgeon do you prefer? Knows a lot about the human body but has ten thumbs Has excellent technical skills but looks down on his patients Is friendly but his professional knowledge is outdated None of the above

33 Compartmentalization Integration

34 Fragmentation Process of breaking something into small, incomplete or isolated parts Example: Atomistic models Analyze learning domain in small pieces Teach piece-by-piece

35 Fragmentation Coordination Holistic models Analyze learning domain in coherence; relations between pieces Teach from simple to more complex wholes Focus on coordination of pieces

36 Example Bachelor Psychology OUNL Phase 1: Research question Phase 2: Data collection Phase 4: Conclusion and discussion Phase 3: Data analysis

37 Transfer paradox

38 Transfer paradox Differentiation E1-E1-E1 / E2-E2-E2 / E3-E3-E3 [blocked order] Students reach the learning objectives fast But low transfer of learning (they cannot diagnose E4) E3-E2-E2 / E1-E3-E3 / E1-E2-E1 [random order] Students take more time to reach the objectives But much higher transfer of learning (able to diagnose E4!) Differentation for complex skills Variability for problem-solving aspects of a complex task Repetition for routine aspects of a complex task

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40 Questions 1.Do you recognize the aforementioned problems (in your work)? 2.Can you give an example?

41 The whole is more than the sum of its parts.

42 Holistic design References: See Reigeluth (1999), Merrill (2002) and Van Merriënboer & Kester (in press) for examples Some examples: Reigeluth (1983; 1999): Elaboration theory Schank (1993/1994): Goal-based scenarios Van Merriënboer (1997; & Kirschner 2007): 4CID/Ten Steps

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44 Questions 1.Instructional Design: where to focus on?

45 Four components (Van Merriënboer, 1997) 1.Learning tasks Backbone of the training program 2.Supportive information 3.Procedural information 4.Part-task practice

46 1. Learning tasks -Based on real-life tasks -Integrative -Aim at transfer of learning (variability)

47 1. Learning tasks (and task classes) Task classes contain equivalent tasks with the same difficulty Higher complexity for each subsequent task class (from easy to difficult)

48 1. Learning tasks (and task classes) Task classes contain equivalent tasks with the same difficulty Higher complexity for each subsequent task class (from easy to difficult) Small buildingsPrivate houses Multi functional structures

49 1. Learning tasks (and task classes) Task classes contain equivalent tasks with the same difficulty Higher complexity for each subsequent task class (from easy to difficult) Small buildingsPrivate houses Multi functional structures AppartmentDetached house Row house

50 1. Learning tasks and task classes Diminishing support and guidance within a task class (scaffolding)

51 1. Learning tasks and task classes Diminishing support and guidance within a task class (scaffolding) Small buildingsPrivate houses Multi functional structures AppartmentDetached house Row house Worked example Completion task Conventional task

52 2. Supportive information Systematic approaches to problem solving (SAPs) Help to develop cognitive strategies Conceptual/structural/causal models Help to develop mental models

53 3. Procedural information For routine aspects of learning tasks Present precisely when necessary (Just-in- time)

54 4. Part-task practice Repetition Procedural info Cognitive context

55 Assignment (1) 1.Study the worked-out example and try to represent the training blueprint in a model Usefor learning tasks Usefor supportive information Usefor procedural information Usefor part-task practice 2.Characterize the three task classes: mark the differences and elaborate on this

56 Assignment (2) 3.Elaborate on the sequencing of learning tasks: how is this concretized in the training blueprint 4.Elaborate on the guidance and support in the training blueprint 5.Elaborate on the variability of practice 6.What is your idea about the training blueprint: robust; deficiencies?

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61 Learning, teaching and media 1. Learning tasks 2. Supportive information 3. Procedural information 4. Part-task practice Schema construction (problem solving, reasoning) Induction Schema automation (routines) Elaboration Knowledge Compilation Strengthening Real / simulated task environments Hyper- & multi- mediasystems EPSS, on-line help systems Drill & practice CBT

62 Learning, teaching and media 1. Learning tasks 2. Supportive information 3. Procedural information 4. Part-task practice Schema construction (problem solving, reasoning) Induction Schema automation (routines) Elaboration Knowledge Compilation Strengthening Real / simulated task environments Hyper- & multi- mediasystems EPSS, on-line help systems Drill & practice CBT

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66 Learning, teaching and media 1. Learning tasks 2. Supportive information 3. Procedural information 4. Part-task practice Schema construction (problem solving, reasoning) Induction Schema automation (routines) Elaboration Knowledge Compilation Strengthening Real / simulated task environments Hyper- & multi- mediasystems EPSS, on-line help systems Drill & practice CBT

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70 Learning, teaching and media 1. Learning tasks 2. Supportive information 3. Procedural information 4. Part-task practice Schema construction (problem solving, reasoning) Induction Schema automation (routines) Elaboration Knowledge Compilation Strengthening Real / simulated task environments Hyper- & multi- mediasystems EPSS, on-line help systems Drill & practice CBT

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72 Learning, teaching and media 1. Learning tasks 2. Supportive information 3. Procedural information 4. Part-task practice Schema construction (problem solving, reasoning) Induction Schema automation (routines) Elaboration Knowledge Compilation Strengthening Real / simulated task environments Hyper- & multi- mediasystems EPSS, on-line help systems Drill & practice CBT

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74 Assignment 1.Lets forget financial constraints; what media would you choose for working out the components of the training blueprint. Focus on the first task class.

75 Coffee break!

76 1. Design learning tasks 2. Sequence task classes 8. Analyze cognitive rules 3. Set performance objectives 4. design supportive information 5. Analyze cognitive strategies 6. Analyze mental models 7. design procedural information 9. Analyze prerequisite knowledge 10. design part-task practice Ten Steps

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