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AME 4163 University of Oklahoma Understanding Customer Requirements Principles of Design Zahed Siddique Assistant Professor School of Aerospace and Mechanical.

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Presentation on theme: "AME 4163 University of Oklahoma Understanding Customer Requirements Principles of Design Zahed Siddique Assistant Professor School of Aerospace and Mechanical."— Presentation transcript:

1 AME 4163 University of Oklahoma Understanding Customer Requirements Principles of Design Zahed Siddique Assistant Professor School of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering University Of Oklahoma

2 AME 4163 University of Oklahoma Need to focus Moving in the wrong direction at a fast pace is still moving in the wrong direction. Wrong Right

3 AME 4163 University of Oklahoma Information on QFD…. Developed in Japan in the mid 1970s Introduced in USA in the late 1980s Toyota was able to reduce 60% of cost to bring a new car model to market Toyota decreased 1/3 of its development time Used in cross functional teams Companies feel it increased customer satisfaction

4 AME 4163 University of Oklahoma Why….? Product should be designed to reflect customers desires and tastes. House of Quality is a kind of a conceptual map that provides the means for interfunctional planning and communications To understand what customers mean by quality and how to achieve it from an engineering perspective. HQ is a tool to focus the product development process

5 AME 4163 University of Oklahoma QFD Target

6 AME 4163 University of Oklahoma Important points Should be employed at the beginning of every project (original or redesign) Customer requirements should be translated into measurable design targets It can be applied to the entire problem or any subproblem First worry about what needs to be designed then how It takes time to complete

7 AME 4163 University of Oklahoma Components of House of Quality Customer Evaluation Units Targets This Product Targets Who Whats Who vs. Whats Hows vs Hows Hows Whats vs Hows Now Now vs What How Muches Hows vs How Muches

8 AME 4163 University of Oklahoma Extensions to House of Quality Customer Evaluation Technical Difficulty Units Targets Weighted Importance Importance % This Product Useful Data Target Ratio of Improvement

9 AME 4163 University of Oklahoma Step 1: Who are the customers? To Listen to the voice of the customer first need to identify the customer In most cases there are more than one customer consumer regulatory agencies manufacturing marketing/Sales Customers drive the development of the product, not the designer

10 AME 4163 University of Oklahoma Step 2: Determine the customers requirements Need to determine what is to be designed Consumer product works as it should lasts a long time is easy to maintain looks attractive incorporated latest technology has many features List all the demanded qualities at the same level of abstraction

11 AME 4163 University of Oklahoma Step 2: cont... Manufacturing easy to produce uses available resources uses standard components and methods minimum waste Marketing/Sales Meets customer requirements Easy to package, store, and transport is suitable for display

12 AME 4163 University of Oklahoma Kano Model Basic Quality: These requirements are not usually mentioned by customers. These are mentioned only when they are absent from the product. Performance Quality: provides an increase in satisfaction as performance improves Excitement Quality or wow requirements: are often unspoken, possibly because we are seldom asked to express our dreams. Creation of some excitement features in a design differentiates the product from competition.

13 AME 4163 University of Oklahoma Types of customer requirements Functional requirements describe the products desired behavior Human factors Physical requirements Reliability Life-cycle concerns Resource concerns Manufacturing requirements

14 AME 4163 University of Oklahoma How to determine the Whats? Customer survey (have to formulate the questions very carefully) If redesign, observe customers using existing products Combine both or one of the approaches with designer knowledge/experience to determine the customers voice

15 AME 4163 University of Oklahoma Affinity Diagram Provides structure for verbal data by creating natural clusters or groups Ensures that the list of demanded qualities are complete and expressed at the same level of detail

16 AME 4163 University of Oklahoma Constructing Affinity Diagram Set a brainstorming session to list all possible requirements Record each element of the list on small cards Place all cards on a table randomly Silent mode Spend time reading all demanded qualities Start at the same time, once everyone is ready - everyone quickly and without thought find two demanded qualities that have something in common If you find a demanded quality is not where you think it belongs, move it. If it is moved again, make a duplicate and talk about it later. The process continues until all demanded qualities are in a group.

17 AME 4163 University of Oklahoma Constructing Affinity Diagram Discussion Mode Begin discussion after group composition for the demanded qualities becomes stable First review the demanded qualities that seemed to have more than one home Select a descriptive name for the groups. Group names must also be demanded qualities, but at a higher level of abstraction Look at each group and judge if all elements are at the same level of abstraction Check each group by asking If this is the name of the group, what elements should be included but are missing? Next test for missing groups. Check with the types of customer requirements list

18 AME 4163 University of Oklahoma Step 3: Determine Relative Importance of the Requirements: Who vs. What Need to evaluate the importance of each of the customers requirements. Generate weighing factor for each requirement by rank ordering or other methods Customer Evaluation Units Targets This Product Targets Who Whats Who vs. Whats Hows vs Hows Whats vs Hows Now vs What HowMuches Hows vs How Muches

19 AME 4163 University of Oklahoma Rank Ordering Order the identified customer requirements Assign 1 to the requirement with the lowest priority and then increase as the requirements have higher priority. Sum all the numbers The normalized weight Rank/Sum The percent weight is: Rank*100/Sum

20 AME 4163 University of Oklahoma Step 4: Identify and Evaluate the Competition: How satisfied is the customer now? The goal is to determine how the customer perceives the competitions ability to meet each of the requirements it creates an awareness of what already exists it reveals opportunities to improve on what already exists The design: 1. does not meet the requirement at all 2. meets the requirement slightly 3. meets the requirement somewhat 4. meets the requirement mostly 5. fulfills the requirement completely Customer Evaluation Units Targets This Product Targets Who Whats Who vs. Whats Hows vs Hows Whats vs Hows Now vs What HowMuches Hows vs How Muches

21 AME 4163 University of Oklahoma Step 5: Generate Engineering Specifications: How will the customers requirements be met? The goal is to develop a set of engineering specifications from the customers requirements. Restatement of the design problem and customer requirements in terms of parameters that can be measured. Each customer requirement should have at least one engineering parameter. Customer Evaluation Units Targets This Product Targets Who Whats Who vs. Whats Hows vs Hows Whats vs Hows Now vs What HowMuches Hows vs How Muches

22 AME 4163 University of Oklahoma Step 6: Relate Customers requirements to Engineering Specifications: Hows measure Whats? This is the center portion of the house. Each cell represents how an engineering parameter relates to a customers requirements. Customer Evaluation Units Targets This Product Targets Who Whats Who vs. Whats Hows vs Hows Whats vs Hows Now vs What HowMuches Hows vs How Muches 9 = Strong Relationship 3 = Medium Relationship 1 = Weak Relationship Blank = No Relationship at all

23 AME 4163 University of Oklahoma Step 7: Identify Relationships Between Engineering Requirements: How are the Hows Dependent on each other? Engineering specifications maybe dependent on each other. Customer Evaluation Units Targets This Product Targets Who Whats Who vs. Whats Hows vs Hows Whats vs Hows Now vs What HowMuches Hows vs How Muches 9 = Strong Relationship 3 = Medium Relationship 1 = Weak Relationship -1 = Weak Negative Relationship -3 = Medium Negative Relationship -9 = Strong Negative Relationship Blank = No Relationship at all

24 AME 4163 University of Oklahoma Step 8: Set Engineering Targets: How much is good enough? Determine target value for each engineering requirement. Evaluate competition products to engineering requirements Look at set customer targets Use the above two information to set targets Customer Evaluation Units Targets This Product Targets Who Whats Who vs. Whats Hows vs Hows Whats vs Hows Now vs What HowMuches Hows vs How Muches

25 AME 4163 University of Oklahoma Customer Evaluation Technical Difficulty Importance Units Targets Customer Attributes The first step is to list all the demanded qualities at the same level of abstraction Relative Importance Importance for each demanded quality needs to be determined Customer Evaluation Customer Evaluation Record customer performance ratings for your Similar product and competitors products Engineering Characteristics Record Performance measures for each customer demanded quality Engineering Influence Customer Qualities Relationship between demanded customer qualities and Engineering Performance Objective Measures Units Technical benchmarking Relationships Among Engineering Characteristics Identifying performance measure conflicts Targets Setting Technical Targets Determining Important Characteristics Technical Difficulty Importance Technical Difficulty associated with achieving Targets/improvements and importance of technical characteristics

26 AME 4163 University of Oklahoma Components of House of Quality Customer Evaluation Units Targets This Product Targets Who Whats Who vs. Whats Hows vs Hows Whats vs Hows Now vs What HowMuches Hows vs How Muches Weighted Importance Importance % Rank Technical Difficulty Selected Addition to the House of Quality presented in text book

27 AME 4163 University of Oklahoma Creating the Requirement List Contents of Requirement List Specify if the individual items are demands or wishes in the clearest possible terms Tabulate Quantitative and Qualitative aspects Collect further information If possible rank wishes as being of major, medium or minor importance Living document Arrange the requirements in clear order Define the main objective and the main characteristics Split into identifiable groups Enter the Requirement list on standard forms and circulate Examine Objections

28 AME 4163 University of Oklahoma Requirement List

29 AME 4163 University of Oklahoma Name 1 Name 2 Name 3 Requirement List Example Use information from House of Quality as an starting point for creating the requirement list. Need to identify requirements for the product that are basic and necessary but are not specified by the customers.

30 AME 4163 University of Oklahoma Example House of Quality Design a device to toast breads and other similar types of food


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