Presentation on theme: "General Structure of the Turkish Educational System Pre-school education, which is optional (in some cities compulsory-in pilot regions), aims at contributing."— Presentation transcript:
General Structure of the Turkish Educational System Pre-school education, which is optional (in some cities compulsory-in pilot regions), aims at contributing to the physical, mental and emotional development of the children, to help them acquire good habits, and to prepare them for basic education. Pre-school education institutions include independent kindergartens, nursery classes in primary schools and preparation classes.
Elementary (Basic) education provides children with basic knowledge and ensures their physical, mental and moral development in accordance with national objectives. It generally comprises the education of children in the 6-14 year age group. Eight years of basic education is compulsory for all Turkish citizens who have reached the age of six.This level of education is free of charge in public schools. There are also private schools under state control.
Secondary education encompasses two categories of educational institutions, namely general high schools and vocational and technical high schools (lycées) where a minimum of four years of schooling is implemented after basic education. The aims of secondary education are to provide students with a knowledge of general culture, to acquaint them with problems of individual and societal nature and to motivate them to find solutions; to instill in them the strength and knowledge to participate in the economic, social and cultural development of the country and to prepare them, in line with their interests and talents, for institutions of higher learning.
Different kinds of high schools of the Turkish education system include: General High Schools, Public High Schools (Standard Education), Anatolian High Schools, which provide lessons in a selected foreign language (English, German or French. Successful students who are determined by tests during primary education may be enrolled.) Anatolian Fine Arts High Schools Anatolian Religious High Schools (Imam-Hatip) which have the same curriculum as Anatolian High Schools with lessons on religion
Science High Schools focusing on science education; Private High Schools, which are established by private enterprises. Private High schools are referred as colleges (kolej) and they offer at least one foreign language. Vocational High Schools, focus on a certain type of profession (such as Tourism Vocational High Schools, Industrial Vocational High Schools,and Electrical Vocational High Schools) When students complete the 9th grade, they choose one of four tracks: Turkish language– Mathematics, Mathematics–Science, Social Sciences,and Languages.
General high schools are educational institutions that prepare students for institutions of higher learning. They implement a four-year program over and above basic education, and comprises students in the year age group. Vocational and technical high schools provide specialized instruction with the aim of training qualified personnel.The duration of instruction in these schools is also four years.
Higher education: The purpose of higher education is to train manpower within a system of contemporary educational and training principles to meet the needs of the country. It provides high level specialized education in various fields for students who have completed secondary education. The Higher Education Law (Law no. 2547) which went into effect in 1981, covers all higher education institutions and regulates their organization and functions. Universities comprising several units are established by the state and by law as public corporations having autonomy in teaching and research. Furthermore, institutions of higher education, under the supervision and control of the state, can also be established by private foundations in accordance with procedures and principles set forth in the law provided that they are non-profit in nature.
There is a tuition fee for higher education. However, successful students who lack financial means to continue their education are provided with full support by private individuals and organizations, as well as by the state. Today, higher education institutions in Turkey fall into three categories: universities, military and police colleges and academies, and vocational schools affiliated with ministries.
The university is the principal higher education institution. It possesses academic autonomy and a public legal personality. It is responsible for carrying out high level educational activities, scientific research and publications. It is made up of faculties, graduate schools, schools of higher education, conservatories, two-year vocational training schools and centers for applied work and research. A faculty is a higher education unit which is responsible for high level education, as well as for scientific research and publications. Units such as departments, schools of higher education, etc., may be affiliated with a faculty. A graduate school in universities and in faculties is concerned with graduate study, scientific research and applied studies in more than one related subject area.
Non-traditional studies: Distance higher education Distance education is offered at the Open Education Faculty of Anadolu University. Entry is on a competitive basis through the central national university entrance examination (ÖSS). Courses last for two and four years. Other forms of non-formal higher education Non-formal education is offered by a network of training centres supervised by the Ministry of National Education.
ABOUT CREATIVE EDUCATION The Faculty of Art, Design and Architecture comprises five academic departments: Communication and Design Fine Arts Graphic Design Interior Architecture and Environmental Design Urban Design and Landscape Architecture The Fine Arts Department offers a flexible program that unites studio practice and art theory, combining art disciplines such as painting, printmaking, sculpture, installation, and ceramics with courses in theory and criticism. The aim of the curriculum is to equip future artists with a capacity for studio work and an understanding of artistic production as well as the theoretical dimensions of art. The well-equipped etching, lithography, silk screen, ceramics, and sculpture studios offer students excellent opportunities to explore new horizons.
CREATIVITY and PRIMARY SCHOOL CURRICULUM Changing the curriculum to a constructivist way requires to change the approach of the teachers to the science teaching. Teaching strategies of science teachers should be more student- centered which begins with understanding students points of view. Although there are many expectations from the science teachers, changing the students way of understanding science and attitude are the basic expectations of the new science and technology curriculum. The students should make observations, experiments, and research, observing the knowledge by themselves with a manner of creative and critical thinking. They should share the knowledge and apply the science to the real life. The new curriculum also aims to provide students to develop a full range of intellectual capacities. Therefore a major goal of science instruction is to develop students ability to interpret and apply what they have learned.
EXEMPLARY ACTIVITY The students conduct a project-work using the knowledge they have obtained in the explore and explain steps. Within the scope of this project, the students try to plan a house heated by using very little fuel working as an architect, civil engineer, and mechanical engineer. In this respect, they plan the most appropriate house considering which fuel can be appropriate in the heating, annual cost of the fuel, and how the maximum efficiency can be obtained in the heating of the house.
The project of this house is drawn and the explanations related to the house are written in a report attached to the rough draft. In addition, some groups make scale models of the house on a voluntary basis. Students themselves decide on the criteria that will be used in the evaluation of their projects. Within the scope of this project, the evaluation criteria are determined referring to the views of each group.
In this way, the students learn how to watch and evaluate the conducted presentations with a critical eye in light of the pre- determined criteria. At the end of this study, the groups may be given Certificate of Attendance in Devising a House Project to celebrate them for the study they conducted and motivate for the following studies.